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Cognitive impairment in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166407/executive-function-assessment-in-new-zealand-2-year-olds-born-at-risk-of-neonatal-hypoglycemia
#1
Judith M Ansell, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
A growing number of babies are born with perinatal risk factors that may impair later development. These children are often assessed at 2 years to help predict outcome and direct support services. Executive function is an important predictor of academic achievement and behavior, but there are limited assessments of executive function in 2-year-olds and few have been tested in at-risk populations. Therefore, we developed a battery of four age-appropriate tasks to assess executive function in 2-year-olds. At 24 months' corrected age 368 children completed tasks assessing attention, inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165104/simple-reaction-time-and-obesity-in-children-whether-there-is-a-relationship
#2
Akbar Moradi, Samad Esmaeilzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Reaction time (RT) testing is one of the oldest diagnostic methods used in modern psychology, and is known as simple and sensitive cognitive test. It has been recently reported that RT is related to obesity in young, adult and elderly individuals. However, most of the studies included small sample of participants, used just body mass index (BMI) as body obesity index, and did not consider some potential confounders such as age, socioeconomic status and physical activity in their studies...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162287/sustained-attention-in-school-age-children-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-influence-of-episodes-of-overtreatment-in-the-first-three-years-of-life
#3
L García Morales, M D Rodríguez Arnao, A Rodríguez Sánchez, E Dulín Íñiguez, M A Álvarez González
INTRODUCTION: Children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are at risk of developing mild cognitive impairment despite normal overall intellectual performance. These deficits may be caused by disease-related and treatment-related factors. This study explores the impact of abnormal thyroid function during the first 3 years of life on attention performance at school age. METHODS: We included 49 children diagnosed with CH and receiving treatment for the condition: 14 boys (mean age 9...
November 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162179/variation-in-dna-methylation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-predicts-children-s-resilience-to-prenatal-stress
#4
Izabela Milaniak, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker, Caroline L Relton, Tom R Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Sara R Jaffee
Emerging research in epigenetics has shown that there is variability in how environmental exposures "get under the skin" through mechanisms like DNA methylation to influence gene expression that may lead to differential adaptations to stress. This is the first study to examine prospectively the relationship between DNA methylation at birth and resilience to prenatal environmental stressors in several domains (conduct, hyperactivity, emotional problems, and global symptomatology) in middle childhood. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously associated with impairments in social-cognitive processes that may underlie a wide range of childhood psychopathology...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160409/association-between-postural-balance-and-anthropometric-indexes-in-elementary-schoolchildren
#5
Simone Lara, Susane Graup, Rodrigo de Souza Balk, Lilian Pinto Teixeira, Ariane Dias Farias, Giselle Baioco Alves, Verônica Benachio Leiria
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between postural balance and anthropometric indicators in elementary school students. METHODS: This cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study included children enrolled in the first year of elementary school, of both sexes, in the age group of 6 to 7 years. Children with any physical or cognitive impairment, children who did not participate in all stages of the study evaluation, or those who failed to perform postural balance assessments were excluded...
November 13, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159812/the-i-in-autism-severity-and-social-functioning-in-autism-are-related-to-self-processing
#6
Karri Gillespie-Smith, Carrie Ballantyne, Holly P Branigan, David J Turk, Sheila J Cunningham
It is well established that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired understanding of others and deficits within social functioning. However, it is still unknown whether self-processing is related to these impairments and to what extent self impacts social functioning and communication. Using an ownership paradigm, we show that children with ASD and chronological- and verbal-age-matched typically developing (TD) children do show the self-referential effect in memory. In addition, the self-bias was dependent on symptom severity and socio-communicative ability...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157025/non-pharmacological-rehabilitation-interventions-for-concussion-in-children-a-scoping-review
#7
Danielle M Dobney, Matthew B Miller, Emily Tufts
PURPOSE: To summarise the extent, nature, and quality of current scholarly literature related to non-pharmacological, rehabilitation interventions following concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury in children. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted from 1987 to 24 October 2017. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) full text, peer reviewed, and written in English, (2) original research, (3) diagnosed concussion or mild traumatic brain injury, (4) described the evaluation of an intervention, (5) the outcome was a concussion impairment, and (6) the mean/median age was under 19...
November 20, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155855/iron-status-and-anaemia-in-sri-lankan-secondary-school-children-a-cross-sectional-survey
#8
Angela Allen, Stephen Allen, Rexan Rodrigo, Lakshman Perera, Wei Shao, Chao Li, Duolao Wang, Nancy Olivieri, David J Weatherall, Anuja Premawardhena
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency, the most common micronutrient disorder and cause of anaemia globally, impairs growth, cognition, behaviour and resistance to infection. METHODS/RESULTS: As part of a national survey of inherited haemoglobin variants in 7526 students from 72 secondary schools purposefully selected from the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, we studied 5912 students with a normal haemoglobin genotype. Median age was 16.0 (IQR 15.0-17.0) years and 3189 (53.9%) students were males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155369/virtual-rehabilitation-with-children-challenges-for-clinical-adoption-from-the-field
#9
Stephanie Glegg
Virtual, augmented, and mixed reality environments are increasingly being developed and used to address functional rehabilitation goals related to physical, cognitive, social, and psychological impairments. For example, a child with an acquired brain injury may participate in virtual rehabilitation to address impairments in balance, attention, turn taking, and engagement in therapy. The trend toward virtual rehabilitation first gained momentum with the adoption of commercial off-the-shelf active video gaming consoles (e...
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154509/technology-assisted-rehabilitation-interventions-following-pediatric-brain-injury
#10
Shari L Wade, Megan E Narad, Emily L Shultz, Brad G Kurowski, Aimee E Miley, Jessica M Aguilar, Anna-Lynne R Adlam
INTRODUCTION: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), children experience a variety of physical, motor, speech, and cognitive deficits that can have a long-term detrimental impact. The emergence and popularity of new technologies has led to research into the development of various apps, gaming systems, websites, and robotics that might be applied to rehabilitation. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the current literature technologically-assisted interventions for the rehabilitation of motor, neurocognitive, behavioral, and family impairments following pediatric TBI...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152165/specificity-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind-performance-in-relation-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Steve Lukito, Catherine R G Jones, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous findings in children with ASD have suggested that these symptoms are associated with an impairment in executive function (EF) abilities. However, studies rarely considered this association within a single framework that controls for other related factors such as Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and ASD symptoms. Methods: We used structural equation modeling to explore the relations among EF, ToM, and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, using data from a population-based sample of 100 adolescents with ASD and full-scale IQ ≥ 50 (the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152038/associations-between-interoceptive-cognition-and-age-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-typical-development
#12
Lisa E Mash, Kimberly B Schauder, Channing Cochran, Sohee Park, Carissa J Cascio
Interoceptive awareness is linked to emotional and social cognition, which are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is unknown how this ability is associated with age in either typical or atypical development. We used a standard test of interoceptive accuracy (IA) to investigate these questions in children and adults with and without ASD. Perceived number of heartbeats over 4 time intervals was compared with actual heart rate to determine IA. Effects of group, age, IQ, heart rate, and mental counting ability on accuracy were assessed using multiple regression...
2017: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology: JCEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#13
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150311/functional-connectivity-of-the-vigilant-attention-network-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Florian D Zepf, Sarah Bubenzer-Busch, Kevin C Runions, Pradeep Rao, Janice W Y Wong, Simone Mahfouda, Hugo A E Morandini, Richard M Stewart, Julia K Moore, Caroline S Biskup, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Robert Langner
The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. We therefore investigated ADHD-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity within a meta-analytically defined brain network of 14 distinct regions subserving VA (comprising 91 connections in total), as well as the association of connectivity with markers of behavioural dysfunction in 17 children (age range: 9-14 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 age-matched neurotypical controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146572/cognitive-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-following-birth-before-26-weeks-of-gestation-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Louise Linsell, Samantha Johnson, Dieter Wolke, Helen O'Reilly, Joan K Morris, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Neil Marlow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the trajectory of cognitive test scores from infancy to adulthood in individuals born extremely preterm compared with term-born individuals. DESIGN: A prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: 276 maternity units in the UK and Ireland. PATIENTS: 315 surviving infants born less than 26 completed weeks of gestation recruited at birth in 1995 and 160 term-born classroom controls recruited at age 6...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145913/goal-setting-deficits-at-13-years-in-very-preterm-born-children
#16
Kristina M Haebich, Catherine Willmott, Rachel Ellis, Alice C Burnett, Shannon E Scratch, Leona Pascoe, Megan M Spencer-Smith, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Terrie E Inder, Lex W Doyle, Deanne K Thompson, Peter J Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Preterm children demonstrate deficits in executive functions including inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility; however, their goal setting abilities (planning, organization, strategic reasoning) remain unclear. This study compared goal setting abilities between very preterm (VP: <30 weeks/<1250 grams) and term born controls during late childhood. Additionally, early risk factors (neonatal brain abnormalities, medical complications, and sex) were examined in relationship to goal setting outcomes within the VP group...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145212/does-anaemia-have-major-public-health-importance-in-children-aged-6-59-months-in-the-duggina-fanigo-district-of-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia
#17
Yohannes Samuel Tiku, Tefera Chane Mekonnen, Shimelash Bitew Workie, Endale Amare
BACKGROUND: Globally, a large number of children aged 6-59 months are affected by anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries, more than 40% of children under 5 years are affected by anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earning potential in their adult life. The aim of this research was to assess whether anaemia remained a major public health problem among children aged 6-59 months or not in Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia in 2016...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141245/roscovitine-a-cdk5-inhibitor-alleviates-sevoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-regulation-tau-gsk3%C3%AE-and-erk-ppar%C3%AE-creb-signaling
#19
Jianhui Liu, Junjun Yang, Yinhua Xu, Gang Guo, Li Cai, Heng Wu, Yanhong Zhao, Xiaoqing Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Multiple exposures to anesthesia in children may increase the risk of developing cognitive impairment. Sevoflurane is an anesthetic that is commonly used in children during surgery. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 5 is involved in the regulation of sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction, but the mechanistic details remain unclear. The present study evaluated the mechanism by which CDK5 mediates sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in mice. METHODS: Hippocampal neurons were isolated from postnatal day 0 C57BL/6 mouse pups...
November 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136227/developmental-outcome-of-9-year-old-children-born-after-pgs-follow-up-of-a-randomized-trial
#20
Derk Kuiper, Anne Bennema, Sacha la Bastide-van Gemert, Jorien Seggers, Pamela Schendelaar, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek, Annemieke Hoek, Maas Jan Heineman, Tessa J Roseboom, Joke H Kok, Mijna Hadders-Algra
STUDY QUESTION: Does Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS affect neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not find evidence of adverse consequences of Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS on neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring, although children born after IVF with or without PGS often had a non-optimal neurological condition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Knowledge on long-term sequelae for development and health of children born following PGS is lacking...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
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