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Cognitive impairment in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817216/functional-neuroimaging-after-severe-anoxic-brain-injury-in-children-may-reveal-preserved-yet-covert-cognitive-function
#1
Adrian M Owen
A growing body of evidence has confirmed that, after severe brain injury in adults, motoric and task-dependent factors that are essential for reliable communication, frequently interfere with an accurate assessment of cognitive status. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children who have sustained an anoxic brain injury following a near drowning incident suggests a similar pattern; preserved cognition amidst severe motoric impairment that effectively precludes accurate clinical diagnosis at the bedside...
August 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815619/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-and-adolescents-with-higher-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-social-impairments-and-internalizing-symptoms
#2
Outi Reinvall, Teija Kujala, Arja Voutilainen, Anu-Liisa Moisio, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Marja Laasonen
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was introduced in 1980s in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies indicate that symptoms of SCT are separate from symptoms of ADHD and independently associated with multiple domains of functioning in clinical groups and in typical development. We assessed whether similar pattern would apply to higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with higher functioning ASD (N = 55; 5-15 years) were divided into the ASD+High SCT (n = 17), the ASD+Medium SCT (n = 18) and the ASD+Low SCT (n = 20) groups based on parent-rated daydreaming and slowness on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF)...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#3
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811181/beneficial-effects-of-postnatal-choline-supplementation-on-long-term-neurocognitive-deficit-resulting-from-fetal-neonatal-iron-deficiency
#4
Bruce C Kennedy, Phu V Tran, Maulika Kohli, Jamie J Maertens, Jonathan C Gewirtz, Michael K Georgieff
Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient condition worldwide and can result in cognitive impairment in adulthood despite iron treatment. In rodents, prenatal choline supplementation can diminish long-term hippocampal gene dysregulation and neurocognitive deficits caused by iron deficiency. Since fetal iron status is generally unknown in humans, we determined whether postnatal choline supplementation exerts similar beneficial effects. Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (3-6ppm Fe) from gestational day (G) 3 through postnatal day (P) 7, and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200ppm Fe) thereafter...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809068/false-belief-attribution-in-children-with-williams-syndrome-the-answer-is-in-the-emotion
#5
R Campos, P Martínez-Castilla, M Sotillo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show difficulties in attributing false beliefs, whereas they are better at attributing emotions. This study examines whether being asked about the emotion linked to a false belief, instead of explicitly about the belief, facilitates performance on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. METHOD: Thirty children with WS and 90 typically developing children, who were individually matched on mental age (50-112 months), were administered six explicit (i...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807191/cognitive-and-motor-performance-in-congolese-children-with-konzo-during-4-years-of-follow-up-a-longitudinal-analysis
#6
Michael J Boivin, Daniel Okitundu, Bumoko Makila-Mabe, Marie-Therese Sombo, Dieudonne Mumba, Alla Sikorskii, Banea Mayambu, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
BACKGROUND: Konzo is an irreversible upper-motor neuron disorder affecting children dependent on bitter cassava for food. The neurocognitive ability of children with konzo over time has yet to be fully documented. METHODS: We did a longitudinal study in a konzo outbreak zone continuously affected by konzo since 1990, in the district of Kahemba, southern Bandundu Province, Congo. We enrolled children with a record of neurological diagnosis of konzo in Kahemba town...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800335/an-overview-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-common-neurological-complications-does-aging-pose-a-challenge
#7
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800210/rates-of-early-intervention-services-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-extremely-low-birthweight
#8
Ianthe S Mills, Lex W Doyle, Jeanie Ly Cheong, Gehan Roberts
AIM: To determine the rates of early intervention (EI) service use in extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks' gestation) or extremely low birthweight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants between 1991 and 2013, and identify biological or socio-economic factors associated with receiving EI. METHODS: Participants comprised consecutive EP or ELBW survivors born in 1991-1992, 1997 or 2005 in Victoria, Australia, and randomly selected, matched term-born controls. The main outcome measure was parent-reported EI participation up to 8 years of age...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783802/association-of-neonatal-glycemia-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-4-5-years
#9
Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane M Alsweiler, Nicola S Anstice, Nataliia Burakevych, Arijit Chakraborty, J Geoffrey Chase, Gregory D Gamble, Deborah L Harris, Robert J Jacobs, Yannan Jiang, Nabin Paudel, Ryan J San Diego, Benjamin Thompson, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
Importance: Hypoglycemia is common during neonatal transition and may cause permanent neurological impairment, but optimal intervention thresholds are unknown. Objective: To test the hypothesis that neurodevelopment at 4.5 years is related to the severity and frequency of neonatal hypoglycemia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Children With Hypoglycemia and Their Later Development (CHYLD) Study is a prospective cohort investigation of moderate to late preterm and term infants born at risk of hypoglycemia...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782169/impact-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischaemia-on-oligodendrocyte-survival-maturation-and-myelinating-potential
#10
Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Justyna Janowska, Lukasz Strojek, Joanna Jaworska, Teresa Zalewska, Malgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Joanna Sypecka
Hypoxic-ischaemic episodes experienced at the perinatal period commonly lead to a development of neurological disabilities and cognitive impairments in neonates or later in childhood. Clinical symptoms often are associated with the observed alterations in white matter in the brains of diseased children, suggesting contribution of triggered oligodendrocyte/myelin pathology to the resulting disorders. To date, the processes initiated by perinatal asphyxia remain unclear, hampering the ability to develop preventions...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780508/population-based-study-of-cognitive-outcomes-in-congenital-heart-defects
#11
Johanna Calderon, Marion Willaime, Nathalie Lelong, Damien Bonnet, Lucile Houyel, Morgane Ballon, François Goffinet, Babak Khoshnood
OBJECTIVE: To characterise and compare cognitive outcomes in children with operated (open-heart surgery) and non-operated (catheter-based interventions only or no intervention) congenital heart defects (CHD) and to determine associated risk factors. DESIGN: This prospective population-based study reports outcomes of 3-year-old children with CHD with or without open-heart surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised cognitive scores (mean scores and proportions below normative values) were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776239/burden-of-diarrhea-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#12
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: Diarrheal diseases (DD) are an important cause of disease burden, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact children's potential livelihood through growth faltering, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Disease study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2015. We calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)-the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability-for both sexes and all ages...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771220/who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-a-systematic-review-of-transport-noise-interventions-and-their-impacts-on-health
#13
REVIEW
Alan Lex Brown, Irene van Kamp
This paper describes a systematic review (1980-2014) of evidence on effects of transport noise interventions on human health. The sources are road traffic, railways, and air traffic. Health outcomes include sleep disturbance, annoyance, cognitive impairment of children and cardiovascular diseases. A conceptual framework to classify noise interventions and health effects was developed. Evidence was thinly spread across source types, outcomes, and intervention types. Further, diverse intervention study designs, methods of analyses, exposure levels, and changes in exposure do not allow a meta-analysis of the association between changes in noise level and health outcomes, and risk of bias in most studies was high...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769544/personality-characteristics-and-neurocognitive-functions-in-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yuejing Wu, Sherrie Wang, Yi Huang, Tao Li
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in children and the huge family burdens have caused concern in the academic field as well as society. AIM: To study the personality characteristics and neurocognitive functions in the Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare them with the parents of well-developed children. METHOD: This study recruited 41 Chinese children who met the diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV)...
February 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768738/altered-tactile-sensitivity-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#15
Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Mark Mikkelsen, Mark Tommerdahl, Richard Ae Edden, Stewart H Mostofsky
ADHD is characterized by an inability to concentrate, heightened activity, and hypermotoric behavior, but sensory, e.g. tactile, problems are common. The literature on tactile impairments in ADHD is limited, with most work employing clinical observations or questionnaires. Here, we study tactile processing in children with ADHD, and hypothesize that children with ADHD show reduced performance in tasks closely linked to inhibition. Sixty seven children with ADHD and 62 typically developing children performed a battery of tasks grouped in domains: simple and choice reaction time; static and dynamic detection threshold (probing feed-forward inhibition); amplitude discrimination without adaptation, and with dual, and single-site adaptation (probing lateral inhibition and adaptation); sequential and simultaneous frequency discrimination (previously linked to GABA); and temporal order judgment with and without a synchronous carrier stimulus...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768549/intranasal-insulin-reverts-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-diabetic-mother-offspring
#16
Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Daniel Sanchez-Sotano, Alberto Doblas-Marquez, Carmen Infante-Garcia, Simon Lubian-Lopez, Monica Garcia-Alloza
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects in diabetic mothers offspring (DMO) are a major concern of increasing incidence. Among these, chronic central complications in DMO remain poorly understood, and in extreme cases, diabetes can essentially function as a gestational brain insult. Nevertheless, therapeutic alternatives for DMO are limited. METHODS: Therefore, we have analyzed the central long-term complications in the offspring from CD1 diabetic mothers treated with streptozotozin, as well as the possible reversion of these alterations by insulin administration to neonates...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762662/social-motivation-and-implicit-theory-of-mind-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kimberly Burnside, Kristyn Wright, Diane Poulin-Dubois
According to the social motivation theory of autism, children who develop Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have early deficits in social motivation, which is expressed by decreased attention to social information. These deficits are said to lead to impaired socio-cognitive development, such as theory of mind (ToM). There is little research focused on the relation between social motivation and ToM in this population. The goal of the present study was to investigate the link between one aspect of social motivation, social orienting, and ToM in preschoolers with ASD...
August 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755013/boys-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder-show-impaired-adaptation-during-stress-an-executive-functioning-study
#18
Jantiene Schoorl, Sophie van Rijn, Minet de Wied, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab
Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions...
July 28, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754152/cerebrospinal-fluid-kynurenine-and-kynurenic-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-coma-duration-and-long-term-neurocognitive-impairment-in-ugandan-children-with-cerebral-malaria
#19
Dag Holmberg, Elisabeth Franzén-Röhl, Richard Idro, Robert O Opoka, Paul Bangirana, Carl M Sellgren, Ronny Wickström, Anna Färnert, Lilly Schwieler, Göran Engberg, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: One-fourth of children with cerebral malaria (CM) retain cognitive sequelae up to 2 years after acute disease. The kynurenine pathway of the brain, forming neuroactive metabolites, e.g. the NMDA-receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA), has been implicated in long-term cognitive dysfunction in other CNS infections. In the present study, the association between the kynurenine pathway and neurologic/cognitive complications in children with CM was investigated. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of KYNA and its precursor kynurenine in 69 Ugandan children admitted for CM to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2008 and 2013 were assessed...
July 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752809/psychosocial-development-in-5-year-old-children-with-hearing-loss-using-hearing-aids-or-cochlear-implants
#20
Cara L Wong, Teresa Y C Ching, Linda Cupples, Laura Button, Greg Leigh, Vivienne Marnane, Jessica Whitfield, Miriam Gunnourie, Louise Martin
This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study-a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory ( n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
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