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Cognitive impairment in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427295/development-of-visuo-haptic-transfer-for-object-recognition-in-typical-preschool-and-school-aged-children
#1
Giulia Purpura, Giovanni Cioni, Francesca Tinelli
Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age...
April 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418729/relationship-of-cognitive-functions-and-gross-motor-abilities-in-children-with-spastic-diplegic-cerebral-palsy
#2
Alaa Al-Nemr, Faten Abdelazeim
Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy can be accompanied by a myriad of symptoms affecting other body systems including cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between cognitive functions in the form of selective attention and figural memory domains with standing and walking motor abilities in children with diplegic cerebral palsy. The research design was a correlational study. Tasks assessing cognitive function and gross motor abilities were carried out with a sample of 50 children...
April 18, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415806/lithium-protects-hippocampal-progenitors-cognitive-performance-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-function-after-irradiation-to-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#3
Kai Zhou, Cuicui Xie, Malin Wickström, Amalia M Dolga, Yaodong Zhang, Tao Li, Yiran Xu, Carsten Culmsee, Per Kogner, Changlian Zhu, Klas Blomgren
Cranial radiotherapy in children typically causes delayed and progressive cognitive dysfunction and there is no effective preventive strategy for radiation-induced cognitive impairments. Here we show that lithium treatment reduced irradiation-induced progenitor cell death in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, and subsequently ameliorated irradiation-reduced neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the juvenile rat brain. Irradiation-induced memory impairment, motor hyperactivity and anxiety-like behaviour were normalized by lithium treatment...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411411/maternal-hypothyroxinaemia-in-early-pregnancy-and-problem-behavior-in-5-year-old-offspring
#4
Maurits H W Oostenbroek, Remco H J Kersten, Benjamin Tros, Anton E Kunst, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Martijn J J Finken
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study...
March 25, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#5
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397960/affective-empathy-cognitive-empathy-and-social-attention-in-children-at-high-risk-of-criminal-behaviour
#6
L van Zonneveld, E Platje, L M J de Sonneville, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
BACKGROUND: Empathy deficits are hypothesized to underlie impairments in social interaction exhibited by those who engage in antisocial behaviour. Social attention is an essential precursor to empathy; however, no studies have yet examined social attention in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in those exhibiting antisocial behaviour. METHODS: Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children at high risk of developing criminal behaviour (N = 114, 80.7% boys) and typically developing controls (N = 43, 72...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397306/a-review-of-cognitive-impairments-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-implications-for-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#7
Anastasia Hronis, Lynette Roberts, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of children with intellectual disability (ID) have comorbid affective disorders. These problems are chronic if left untreated and can significantly impact upon future vocational, educational, and social opportunities. Despite this, there is a paucity of research into effective treatments for this population. Notably, one of the most supported of psychological therapies, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), remains largely uninvestigated in children with ID. The current review considers the neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with mild to moderate ID, with a view to informing how CBT might best be adapted for children and adolescents with ID...
April 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394234/s100%C3%AE-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#8
A T Lapa, M Postal, N A Sinicato, B S Bellini, P T Fernandes, R Marini, S Appenzeller
Objective To investigate serologic S100β protein levels in childhood-onset SLE patients (cSLE) and to elucidate their association with disease activity and neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations. Methods We included 71 cSLE patients (67 females; median age 18 years; range 9-37 and 53 (47 females; median age of 20 years; range 6-29) age and sex matched healthy controls. Neurological manifestations were analysed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Cognitive evaluation was performed in all participants using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), according to age, and validated in Portuguese...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394231/long-term-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-children-born-to-prospectively-followed-pregnancies-of-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-or-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#9
C Nalli, A Iodice, L Andreoli, J Galli, A Lojacono, M Motta, E Fazzi, A Tincani
Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta during pregnancy and theoretically reach the fetal brain. Some studies showed an increased number of learning disabilities in these children. Objectives To evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of 40 children (median age 7.4 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS carrying positive IgG aPL during the third trimester of pregnancy...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393676/deficit-in-phonological-processes-a-characteristic-of-the-neuropsychological-profile-of-children-with-nf1
#10
Yves Chaix, Valérie Lauwers-Cancès, Nathalie Faure-Marie, Catherine Gentil, Sandrine Lelong, Elisabeth Schweitzer, Diana Rodriguez, Stéphanie Iannuzzi, Isabelle Kemlin, Nathalie Dorison, François Rivier, Maryline Carniero, Elodie Preclaire, Sébastien Barbarot, Laurence Lion-François, Pierre Castelnau
Learning disabilities are one of the most frequent complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in children. Studies of the effects of the neurocognitive deficit on academic performance are relatively rare, owing to the small size of the populations concerned. However, research is needed to develop effective rehabilitation programs. In the present study, we explored the impact of a possible phonological deficit on the reading abilities of children with NF1. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in France on two groups of 75 children with or without NF1 aged 8-12 years, matched for age, sex, handedness, and reading level...
April 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393063/neuropsychological-and-psychiatric-outcomes-in-dextro-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-across-the-lifespan-a-state-of-the-art-review
#11
REVIEW
Leila Kasmi, Damien Bonnet, Michèle Montreuil, David Kalfa, Nikoletta Geronikola, David C Bellinger, Johanna Calderon
Advances in prenatal diagnosis, perioperative management, and postoperative care have dramatically increased the population of survivors of neonatal and infant heart surgery. The high survival rate of these patients into adulthood has exposed the alarming prevalence of long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric morbidities. Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is one of the most extensively studied cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) with regard to neurodevelopmental outcomes. Landmark studies have described a common neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotype associated with d-TGA...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389676/longitudinal-impacts-of-print-focused-read-alouds-for-children-with-language-impairment
#12
Laura M Justice, Jessica Logan, Joan N Kaderavek
Purpose: Preschoolers with language impairment (LI) are prime candidates for early-literacy interventions, given their susceptibility for future reading difficulties. To date, most studies of early-literacy interventions for this population has assessed short-term impacts, with limited attention to whether initial effects are sustained over time. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal impacts of print-focused read-alouds implemented by early childhood special education teachers for a clinic sample of children with LI...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383972/sustained-attention-in-the-face-of-distractors-a-study-of-children-with-rett-syndrome
#13
Susan A Rose, Sam Wass, Jeffery J Jankowski, Judith F Feldman, Aleksandra Djukic
OBJECTIVE: The object of the present study is to advance our understanding of the cognitive profile of Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. We focus on sustained attention, which plays a critical role in driving cognitive growth, and use an innovative, gaze-based task that minimizes demands on the limited verbal and motor abilities associated with RTT. METHOD: The task required the ability to sustain attention on a visual target (a butterfly) while inhibiting a prepotent response to look to moving distractors (trees and clouds) presented in the peripheral visual field...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383171/psychophysiological-responses-to-emotions-of-others-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-correlates-of-social-functioning
#14
Gemma Zantinge, Sophie van Rijn, Lex Stockmann, Hanna Swaab
Studying cognitive and affective mechanisms of social behavior could lead to identifying early indicators of derailing social behavior in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The present study combined sensitive and objective techniques, such as eyetracking and psychophysiology, to provide insight into early neurodevelopmental mechanisms that are more difficult to uncover when relying on behavioral measures. Social attention towards faces and changes in affective arousal were investigated together in 28 young children with ASD (42-75 months) and 45 nonclinical controls (41-81 months)...
April 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383136/age-related-decline-in-bubr1-impairs-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#15
Zhongxi Yang, Heechul Jun, Chan-Ii Choi, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Ambrosia J Simmons, Seonhee Kim, Jan M van Deursen, Darren J Baker, Mi-Hyeon Jang
Aging causes significant declines in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and leads to cognitive disability. Emerging evidence demonstrates that decline in the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 level occurs with natural aging and induces progeroid features in both mice and children with mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. Whether BubR1 contributes to age-related deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis is yet to be determined. Here we report that BubR1 expression is significantly reduced with natural aging in the mouse brain...
April 6, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382600/treatment-adherence-and-psychological-wellbeing-in-maternal-carers-of-children-with-phenylketonuria-pku
#16
Emma Medford, Dougal Julian Hare, Katie Carpenter, Stewart Rust, Simon Jones, Anja Wittkowski
Phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare metabolic disorder, causes cognitive impairment unless treated with a strict, protein-restricted diet, but few studies have examined the relationship between treatment compliance and parental wellbeing. In the present study, 46 primary caregivers of children with PKU completed measures of psychological distress, parenting stress (related to caring for a child with an illness), resilience, perceived social support and child dependency. Treatment adherence was assessed using the proportion of blood phenylalanine concentrations within target range in the preceding year...
April 6, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381107/impaired-cognitive-performance-in-youth-athletes-exposed-to-repetitive-head-impacts
#17
Inga Katharina Koerte, Elizabeth Nichols, Yorghos Tripodis, Vivian Schultz, Stefan Lehner, Randy Igbinoba, Alice Z Chuang, Michael Mayinger, Eliana Klier, Marc Muehlmann, David Kaufmann, Christian Lepage, Florian Heinen, Gerd Schulte-Koerne, Ross D Zafonte, Martha E Shenton, Anne B Sereno
BACKGROUND: Worldwide more than 22 million children and adolescents are exposed to repetitive head impacts (RHI) in soccer. Evidence indicates cumulative effects on brain structure, but it is not known whether exposure to RHI affects cognitive improvement in adolescents. To determine whether exposure to RHI while heading the ball in soccer affects improvement in cognitive performance in adolescents over time. METHODS: The study group consisted of a convenience sample of 16 male soccer players (mean age 15...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379816/improving-family-medicine-with-thoughtful-research
#18
EDITORIAL
Anne Victoria Neale, Marjorie A Bowman, Dean A Seehusen
This issue is about improving primary health care outcomes, from behavioral health to opioid issues to diagnosing hypertension to providing hope for childhood obesity. It includes hints for integrating behavioral health and care managers into family medicine practices. Opiate prescribing practices vary considerably between Japan and the United States, with helpful insights for our opiate abuse epidemic. Suicidality is high among patients taking opiates. Diagnosing hypertension the recommended way is not easily accomplished...
March 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377889/long-term-cognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-tyrosinemia-type-1-treated-with-nitisinone-and-protein-restricted-diet
#19
María Ignacia García, Alicia de la Parra, Carolina Arias, Miguel Arredondo, Juan Francisco Cabello
INTRODUCTION: Tyrosinemia Type 1 (HT1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydroxylase in the tyrosine pathway. Implementation of nitisinone (NTBC) treatment has dramatically improved survival rate of individuals with HT1, yet recent reports on cognitive impairment in treated patients exist. AIMS: Describe long-term neurocognitive outcome individuals with HT1 treated with nitisinone and protein restricted diet...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377126/vascular-impairment-as-a-pathological-mechanism-underlying-long-lasting-cognitive-dysfunction-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Ichkova Aleksandra, Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Claire Bar, Frederic Villega, Jan Pieter Konsman, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same degree of injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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