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Cognitive impairment in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346765/the-medial-temporal-memory-system-in-down-syndrome-translating-animal-models-of-hippocampal-compromise
#1
Caron A C Clark, Fabian Fernandez, Stella Sakhon, Goffredina Spanò, Jamie O Edgin
Recent studies have highlighted the dentate gyrus as a region of increased vulnerability in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). It is unclear to what extent these findings are reflected in the memory profile of people with the condition. We developed a series of novel tasks to probe distinct medial temporal functions in children and young adults with DS, including object, spatial, and serial order memory. Relative to mental age-matched controls (n = 45), individuals with DS (n = 28) were unimpaired on subtests involving short-term object or configural recall that was divorced from spatial or temporal contexts...
March 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343454/adhd-patients-fail-to-maintain-task-goals-in-face-of-subliminally-and-consciously-induced-cognitive-conflicts
#2
K Gohil, A Bluschke, V Roessner, A-K Stock, C Beste
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have been reported to display deficits in action control processes. While it is known that subliminally and consciously induced conflicts interact and conjointly modulate action control in healthy subjects, this has never been investigated for ADHD. METHOD: We investigated the (potential) interaction of subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts in children with ADHD and matched healthy controls using neuropsychological methods (event-related potentials; ERPs) to identify the involved cognitive sub-processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341559/-moyamoya-disease-associated-with-kidney-angiodysplasia-in-a-child
#3
A Dibi, Z Maana, F Jabourik, A Bentahila
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease is a progressive, chronic occlusive vascular disease of the circle of Willis arteries leading to the development of collateral circulation to compensate the occlusion. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old girl presented an abrupt loss of consciousness and a right-sided motor deficit. Clinical examination found hypertension with 220/120mmHg arterial blood pressure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left hemispheric ischemic lesion...
March 21, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337952/prenatal-maternal-stress-shapes-children-s-theory-of-mind-the-qf2011-queensland-flood-study
#4
G Simcock, S Kildea, G Elgbeili, D P Laplante, V Cobham, S King
Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333849/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-males-with-sex-chromosome-aneuploidy-xxy-klinefelter-syndrome-xyy-and-xxyy
#5
Nicole R Tartaglia, Rebecca Wilson, Judith S Miller, Jessica Rafalko, Lisa Cordeiro, Shanlee Davis, David Hessl, Judith Ross
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental concerns in males with sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) (XXY/Klinefelter syndrome, XYY, XXYY) include symptoms seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as language impairments and social difficulties. We aimed to: (1) evaluate ASD characteristics in research cohorts of SCA males under DSM-IV compared to DSM-5 criteria, and (2) analyze factors associated with ASD diagnoses in SCA. METHODS: Evaluation of participants with XXY/KS (n=20), XYY (n=57) and XXYY (n=21) included medical history, cognitive/adaptive testing, Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and DSM ASD criteria...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327104/characterizing-early-child-growth-patterns-of-height-for-age-in-an-urban-slum-cohort-of-bangladesh-with-functional-principal-component-analysis
#6
Yin Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Feiyang Niu, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326208/a-child-as-a-donor-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-bioethical-justification-a-case-study-on-sickle-cell-disease
#7
Andrea Z Pereira, Ricardo Hellman, Nelson Hamerschlak, Andrea Kondo, Polianna Mara Rodrigues de Souza, Wilson Leite Pedreira, Luiz Fernando Alves Lima Mantovani, Eduardo Juan Troster, Henrique Grunspun, Marco Aurélio Scarpinella Bueno
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important treatment option for children with severe and refractory sickle cell disease (SCD) with debilitating clinical complications. HSCT with cells from the bone marrow of a HLA-identical sibling used in SCD has a low mortality risk, high cure rate, and high event-free survival rate after a median follow-up of 5-6 years. However, matched donors are found in only about 20% of the patients. A boy aged 8 years with SCD had a sister, <2 years old, a fully compatible donor...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325891/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-de-novo-mutation-in-dync1h1-in-epileptic-encephalopathies
#8
Zhongdong Lin, Zhenwei Liu, Xiucui Li, Feng Li, Ying Hu, Bingyu Chen, Zhen Wang, Yong Liu
Epileptic encephalopathies (EE) are a group of severe childhood epilepsy disorders characterized by intractable seizures, cognitive impairment and neurological deficits. Recent whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies have implicated significant contribution of de novo mutations to EE. In this study, we utilized WES for identifying causal de novo mutations in 4 parent-offspring trios affected by West syndrome. As a result, we found two deleterious de novo mutations in DYNC1H1 and RTP1 in two trios. Expression profile analysis showed that DYNC1H1 and RTP1 are expressed in almost all brain regions and developmental stages...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325379/-diagnosis-and-emergency-treatment-of-stroke-in-children
#9
Gaëlle Gousse, Stéphane Chabrier, Manoëlle Kossorotoff
The sudden occurrence of a focal neurological deficit, sometimes transitory and fluctuating, must lead to a suspicion of a stroke, including in a child. The preferred examination is magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiography in an emergency. The sequelae of stroke are common and severe. Urgent diagnosis and adapted care can help to improve morbidity-mortality. Rehabilitation starts early and must systematically screen for cognitive or language impairment. The management of a stroke in a child must be planned for in multi-disciplinary protocols established before the patient's arrival at hospital...
March 2017: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320844/the-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-on-the-dentate-gyrus-and-learning-and-memory-in-children
#10
Jiook Cha, Johanna A Zea-Hernandez, Sanghun Sin, Katharina Graw-Panzer, Keivan Shifteh, Carmen R Isasi, Mark E Wagshul, Eileen E Moran, Jonathan Posner, Molly E Zimmerman, Raanan Arens
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with intermittent hypoxia and sleep loss. In children, impairments of cognitive function are important manifestations, but underlying pathology is unknown. We hypothesized that OSAS would affect the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subdivision essential to neurogenesis and cognition, and that this impact would further affect cognitive function in children. In children with OSAS (n=11) and control subjects (n=12; age and sex-matched), we performed diffusion tensor imaging and structural MRI, polysomnography, and neuropsychological assessments...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318281/facial-emotion-recognition-face-scan-paths-and-face-perception-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#11
Amelia K Lewis, Melanie A Porter, Tracey A Williams, Samantha Bzishvili, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate face scan paths and face perception abilities in children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and how these might relate to emotion recognition abilities in this population. METHOD: The authors investigated facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in 29 children with NF1 compared to 29 chronological age-matched typically developing controls. Correlations between facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in children with NF1 were examined...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302757/alteration-of-monoamine-receptor-activity-and-glucose-metabolism-in-paediatric-patients-with-anticonvulsant-induced-cognitive-impairment
#12
Yuankai Zhu, Jianhua Feng, Jianfeng Ji, Haifeng Hou, Lin Chen, Shuang Wu, Qing Liu, Qiong Yao, Peizhen Du, Kai Zhang, Qing Chen, Zexin Chen, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian
A landmark study from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that the assessment of cognitive difficulties in children with epilepsy is timely and imperative. Anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment could influence the quality of life more than seizure itself in patients. Although monoaminergic system is involved in the regulation of cognitive process, its role in anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment remains unclear. Methods: To explore in vivo monoamine receptor binding activity in patients with anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment, each patient had PET imaging with both monoamine receptor binding agent, (11)C-N-methylspiperone ((11)C-NMSP), and glucose metabolic agent, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300959/fine-motor-skills-and-expressive-language-a-study-with-children-with-congenital-hypotyreoidism
#13
Renata Camargo Frezzato, Denise Castilho Cabrera Santos, Maura Mikie Fukujima Goto, Michelle Prado Cabral do Ouro, Carolina Taddeo Mendes Dos Santos, Vivian Dutra, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro Lima
Purpose: To screen the global development of children with and without congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate the association between fine motor skills and expressive language development in both groups. Methods: This is a prospective study of a cohort of children diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and monitored in a reference service for congenital hypothyroidism of a public hospital and of children without this disorder. The screening was performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in the cognitive, gross and fine motor skills, and receptive and expressive language domains...
March 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296469/praxis-skills-and-executive-function-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#14
Chrystelle Remigereau, Arnaud Roy, Orianne Costini, Sébastien Barbarot, Marie Bru, Didier Le Gall
This study aimed at examining motor and ideomotor praxis skills in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The impact of executive dysfunction, frequently described in children with NF1, on the expression of praxis impairments was also studied. Eighteen children with NF1 were included and matched with 20 control children for age (7-14 years), sex, laterality, and parental education level. Both groups of children underwent an assessment based on cognitive models of apraxia including visuomotor tasks, executive tests, and everyday life questionnaires...
March 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296213/action-semantic-and-syntactic-deficits-in-subjects-at-risk-for-huntington-s-disease
#15
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Eduar Herrera, Mariana Pino, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez
Frontostriatal networks play critical roles in grounding action semantics and syntactic skills. Indeed, their atrophy distinctively disrupts both domains, as observed in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease, even during early disease stages. However, frontostriatal degeneration in these conditions may begin up to 15 years before the onset of clinical symptoms, opening avenues for pre-clinical detection via sensitive tasks. Such a mission is particularly critical in HD, given that patients' children have 50% chances of inheriting the disease...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295228/cognitive-network-reorganization-following-surgical-control-of-seizures-in-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#16
Aaron E L Warren, A Simon Harvey, David F Abbott, Simon J Vogrin, Catherine Bailey, Andrew Davidson, Graeme D Jackson, John S Archer
We previously observed that adults with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) show abnormal functional connectivity among cognitive networks, suggesting that this may contribute to impaired cognition. Herein we report network reorganization following seizure remission in a child with LGS who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after resection of a cortical dysplasia. Concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) was acquired during presurgical fMRI. Presurgical and postsurgical functional connectivity were compared using (1) graph theoretical analyses of small-world network organization and node-wise strength; and (2) seed-based analyses of connectivity within and between five functional networks...
March 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295155/antecedents-and-neuroimaging-patterns-in-cerebral-palsy-with-epilepsy-and-cognitive-impairment-a-population-based-study-in-children-born-at-term
#17
Kristina Ahlin, Bo Jacobsson, Staffan Nilsson, Kate Himmelmann
INTRODUCTION: Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy (CP) and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study of 309 children with CP born at term in 1983-1994. Pre-, intra- and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of CP type and motor severity were analysed in children with CP and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with CP without these accompanying impairments...
March 12, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293314/clinical-spectrum-of-cerebral-palsy-and-associated-disability-in-south-egypt-a-local-survey-study
#18
Osama Abas, Faten Abdelaziem, Ayman Kilany
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor disability in children with a prevalence of 2-10/1,000 live births in the developing areas. AIM: The epidemiology, clinical picture, and associated comorbidities in CP have been extensively studied in high-resource countries, but in low-resource areas, including Africa, those studies are still lacking. METHODS: Cerebral palsy cases were prospectively recruited from every physiotherapy centre in Bani-Mazar city, Egypt, in a cross-sectional study from May 2015 to November 2015...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288532/emotion-recognition-and-social-skills-in-child-and-adolescent-offspring-of-parents-with-schizophrenia
#19
Leslie E Horton, Miranda A Bridgwater, Gretchen L Haas
INTRODUCTION: Emotion recognition, a social cognition domain, is impaired in people with schizophrenia and contributes to social dysfunction. Whether impaired emotion recognition emerges as a manifestation of illness or predates symptoms is unclear. Findings from studies of emotion recognition impairments in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia are mixed and, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the link between emotion recognition and social functioning in that population...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288322/skill-related-physical-fitness-versus-aerobic-fitness-as-a-predictor-of-executive-functioning-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-or-borderline-intellectual-functioning
#20
Esther Hartman, Joanne Smith, Suzanne Houwen, Chris Visscher
Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) or borderline intellectual disabilities (BIF) often demonstrate impairments in executive functioning (EF). Studies in typically developing children show that aerobic fitness (AF) is positively related with EF. Skill-related physical fitness (SF) might, however, be a stronger predictor of EF than AF, as cognitive challenges are inherent in application of these skills. In this study, AF and SF were examined simultaneously in relationship with domains of EF in children with ID or BIF...
March 10, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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