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Cognitive impairment in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#1
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790413/specific-language-impairment-and-reading-disability-categorical-distinction-or-continuum
#2
George C Spanoudis, Timothy C Papadopoulos, Spyroula Spyrou
Specific language impairment (SLI) and reading disability (RD) are familial, moderately heritable comorbid developmental disorders. The key deficit of SLI is oral language, whereas children with RD exhibit impairment in learning to read. The present study examines the possible co-occurrence of RD and SLI and the nature of this co-occurrence at a linguistic and a cognitive level in an orthographically consistent language. Four groups of children participated in the study: an RD group ( n = 10), an SLI group ( n = 13), a possible comorbid group ( n = 9), and a control-no deficit group ( n = 20)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785989/cerebral-visual-impairment-in-children-causes-and-associated-ophthalmological-problems
#3
Niranjan Pehere, Pratik Chougule, Gordon N Dutton
Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Methods: A retrospective review of case records of all children aged <16 years with diagnosis of CVI seen between January 2016 and December 2016 was carried out. Data were collected for their age, gender, cause of CVI, refraction, accommodation, anterior and posterior segment examination findings, and systemic problems...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784250/update-on-pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
A Ruet
Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has distinctive features compared with adult-onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS), and warrants caution despite being a rare form of MS. POMS diagnostic criteria are somewhat different from those used in AOMS, with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis being a key differential diagnosis of MS in children. Other differential diagnoses that have to be ruled out before diagnosing MS include demyelinating syndromes, autoimmune and systemic pathologies, and infectious, genetic, metabolic and neoplastic diseases...
May 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784061/understanding-developmental-language-disorder-the-helsinki-longitudinal-sli-study-helsli-a-study-protocol
#5
Marja Laasonen, Sini Smolander, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Miika Leminen, Hanna-Reetta Lajunen, Kati Heinonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Todd M Bailey, Emmanuel M Pothos, Teija Kujala, Paavo H T Leppänen, Christopher W Bartlett, Ahmed Geneid, Leena Lauronen, Elisabet Service, Sari Kunnari, Eva Arkkila
BACKGROUND: Developmental language disorder (DLD, also called specific language impairment, SLI) is a common developmental disorder comprising the largest disability group in pre-school-aged children. Approximately 7% of the population is expected to have developmental language difficulties. However, the specific etiological factors leading to DLD are not yet known and even the typical linguistic features appear to vary by language. We present here a project that investigates DLD at multiple levels of analysis and aims to make the reliable prediction and early identification of the difficulties possible...
May 21, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781133/inhibition-is-impaired-in-children-with-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-but-not-in-those-with-tics
#6
Christian Mancini, Francesco Cardona, Valentina Baglioni, Sara Panunzi, Patrizia Pantano, Antonio Suppa, Giovanni Mirabella
BACKGROUND: Impaired inhibitory control is thought to be a core deficit in psychiatric disorders where patients exhibit problems with controlling urges. These problems include the urge to perform movements typical of Tourette syndrome and the urge to execute compulsive actions typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the picture emerging from studies that address this issue is controversial. Furthermore, most studies have only focused on reactive control (the ability of subjects to react to a stop signal), but not on proactive control (the ability of patients to shape their response strategies in anticipation of known task demands)...
May 21, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780336/brain-training-in-children-and-adolescents-is-it-scientifically-valid
#7
REVIEW
Teresa Rossignoli-Palomeque, Elena Perez-Hernandez, Javier González-Marqués
Background: Brain training products are becoming increasingly popular for children and adolescents. Despite the marketing aimed at their use in the general population, these products may provide more benefits for specific neurologically impaired populations. A review of Brain Training (BT) products analyzing their efficacy while considering the methodological limitations of supporting research is required for practical applications. Method: searches were made of the PubMed database (until March 2017) for studies including: (1) empirical data on the use of brain training for children or adolescents and any effects on near transfer (NT) and/or far transfer (FT) and/or neuroplasticity, (2) use of brain training for cognitive training purposes, (3) commercially available training applications, (4) computer-based programs for children developed since the 1990s, and (5) relevant printed and peer-reviewed material...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773210/cognitive-and-behavioral-effects-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Sabine Pompéia, Mônica Carolina Miranda
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a common respiratory sleep disorder in children that is believed to adversely affect both quality of life and cognition. The purpose of the present systematic review was to obtain evidence of the impact of OSA on children's cognitive/behavioral abilities from primary studies published in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases from 2002 to 2016. Of the 649 articles found, only 34 met the eligibility criteria: studies that evaluated cognition, behavior, and/or academic achievement of children meeting clinical criteria for OSA to compare their data to those of healthy controls or normative data, provided that the samples did not present conditions that might affect cognition/behavior irrespective of OSA...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772468/understanding-child-protection-decisions-involving-parents-with-mental-illness-and-substance-abuse
#9
Joseph N Roscoe, Bridgette Lery, Jaclyn E Chambers
Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home...
May 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764201/cognitive-predictors-of-sequential-motor-impairments-in-children-with-dyslexia-and-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski, Anne-Marie Bélanger, Olivier Morin-Moncet, Miriam H Beauchamp, Gabriel Leonard
This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751845/beneath-the-floor-re-analysis-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-untreated-hurler-syndrome
#12
Elsa G Shapiro, Chester B Whitley, Julie B Eisengart
BACKGROUND: Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), the severe, neurodegenerative form of type one mucopolysaccharidosis, is associated with rapid neurocognitive decline during toddlerhood and multi-system dysfunction. It is now standardly treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which halts accumulating disease pathology and prevents early death. While norm-based data on developmental functioning in untreated children have previously demonstrated neurocognitive decline, advances in methodology for understanding the cognitive functioning of children with neurodegenerative diseases have highlighted that the previous choice of scores to report results was not ideal...
May 11, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747930/baseline-and-outcome-assessment-in-pediatric-status-epilepticus
#13
REVIEW
Saba Jafarpour, Coral M Stredny, Juan Piantino, Kevin E Chapman
PURPOSE: To summarize different aspects of short and long-term outcomes associated with SE, including mortality, recurrence, subsequent epilepsy, neurocognitive dysfunction, imaging abnormalities, and health-related quality of life. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies that assessed the short-term and long-term outcome of status epilepticus in pediatric population, including mortality, recurrence of seizure and status epilepticus, neurological, cognitive, or behavioral impairment, and health-related quality of life...
April 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745707/proactive-control-as-a-double-edged-sword-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Jeremy Hogeveen, Marie K Krug, Matthew V Elliott, Cameron S Carter, Marjorie Solomon
Proactive control refers to the active representation of contextual information to bias cognitive processing and facilitate goal-directed behavior. Despite research suggesting that proactive control may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the associations between proactive control and clinical symptoms of ASD remain underspecified. Here, we combined a children's version of the AX Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT) with gold standard clinical assessments in children with ASD (N = 34) or typical development (TYP; N = 45)...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742477/cost-benefit-analysis-for-a-lead-wheel-weight-phase-out-in-canada
#15
P M Campbell, E Corneau, D Nishimura, E Teng, D Ekoualla
Lead wheel weights (LWWs) have been banned in Europe, and some US States, but they continue to dominate the market in Canada. Exposure to lead is associated with numerous health impacts and can result in multiple and irreversible health problems which include cognitive impairment when exposure occurs during early development. Such impacts incur high individual and social costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs and public health benefits of a Risk Management Strategy (RMS) that would result from a LWW phase-out in Canada and compare this to a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario...
May 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742462/the-link-between-interoceptive-processing-and-anxiety-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-extending-adult-findings-into-a-developmental-sample
#16
E R Palser, A Fotopoulou, E Pellicano, J M Kilner
Anxiety is a major associated feature of autism spectrum disorders. The incidence of anxiety symptoms in this population has been associated with altered interoceptive processing. Here, we investigated whether recent findings of impaired interoceptive accuracy (quantified using heartbeat detection tasks) and exaggerated interoceptive sensibility (subjective sensitivity to internal sensations on self-report questionnaires) in autistic adults, can be extended into a school-age sample of children and adolescents (n = 75)...
May 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741397/preliminary-normative-data-on-the-borb-for-children-aged-3-8
#17
Ruth Brunsdon, Pamela Joy, Erin Patten, Karen Burton
The Birmingham Object Recognition Battery (BORB) is a theoretically based test battery that is used in adult cognitive neuropsychology in research and for clinical assessment. It allows a detailed analysis of underlying impairments in individuals with brain injury who have visual object recognition difficulties. The BORB's usefulness in pediatrics is supported by numerous research studies. However, there is no published normative data for children, making clinical use of the test difficult. The aim of this brief report is to publish some preliminary normative data in 70 children aged between 3 and 8 years to assist both researchers and clinicians with interpretation of test scores...
May 9, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739443/cognition-and-bimanual-performance-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-protocol-for-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-study
#18
Brian Hoare, Michael Ditchfield, Megan Thorley, Margaret Wallen, Jenny Bracken, Adrienne Harvey, Catherine Elliott, Iona Novak, Ali Crichton
BACKGROUND: Motor outcomes of children with unilateral cerebral palsy are clearly documented and well understood, yet few studies describe the cognitive functioning in this population, and the associations between the two is poorly understood. Using two hands together in daily life involves complex motor and cognitive processes. Impairment in either domain may contribute to difficulties with bimanual performance. Research is yet to derive whether, and how, cognition affects a child's ability to use their two hands to perform bimanual tasks...
May 8, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738570/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-taenia-solium-cysticercosis-in-school-aged-children-a-school-based-study-in-western-sichuan-people-s-republic-of-china
#19
John J Openshaw, Alexis Medina, Stephen A Felt, Tiaoying Li, Zhou Huan, Scott Rozelle, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis affects millions of impoverished people worldwide and can cause neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system which is potentially fatal. Children may represent an especially vulnerable population to neurocysticercosis, due to the risk of cognitive impairment during formative school years. While previous epidemiologic studies have suggested high prevalence in rural China, the prevalence in children as well as risk factors and impact of disease in low-resource areas remain poorly characterized...
May 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736073/a-study-of-neuropsychological-profile-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-children-and-adolescents-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Vasantmeghna S Murthy, Ajita S Nayak, Minal K Joshi, Kaneenica Ninawe
Aims: The aim is to study the neuropsychological and functional profile of children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the association between the neuropsychological status and medical illness variables, treatment variables, and functional status in the cases of the sample and compare with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Forty-two HIV-positive children and adolescents on ART were evaluated and compared with 40 matched controls not known to be HIV-positive...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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