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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719865/antioxidant-effect-of-exercise-exploring-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-complex-i-superassembly
#1
J R Huertas, S Al Fazazi, A Hidalgo-Gutierrez, L C López, R A Casuso
Mitochondrial respiratory complexes become assembled into supercomplexes (SC) under physiological conditions. One of the functional roles of these entities is the limitation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by complex I (CI) of the respiratory chain. We sought to determine whether the systemic antioxidant effect of exercise is mediated by the assembly of mitochondrial CIs into SCs in rats. Male Wistar rats were exercise trained or remained sedentary for ten weeks; then, blood samples were collected, and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated...
July 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718060/innate-immune-responses-and-osteoarthritis
#2
REVIEW
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, Timothy M Griffin, Mary Beth Humphrey
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful joint disease that affects approximately 40% of adults over 70 year. Age is the strongest predictor of OA, while obesity is considered the primary preventable risk factor for OA. Both conditions are associated with abnormal innate immune inflammatory responses that contribute to OA progression and are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified risk factors for OA progression including increased innate immune responses secondary to aging-associated myeloid skewing, obesity-related myeloid activation, and synovial tissue hyperplasia with activated macrophage infiltration...
August 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716327/surgical-management-of-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Ronak A Gor, Sean P Elliott
Surgery for patients with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunction (nLUTD) is indicated when medical therapy fails, to correct conditions affecting patient safety, or when surgery can enhance the quality of life better than nonoperative management. Examples include failure of maximal medical therapy, inability to perform or aversion to clean intermittent catheterization, refractory incontinence, and complications from chronic, indwelling catheters. Adults with nLUTD have competing risk factors, including previous operations, obesity, poor nutritional status, complex living arrangements, impaired dexterity/paralysis, and impaired executive and cognitive function...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716093/c-elegans-sup-46-an-hnrnpm-family-rna-binding-protein-that-prevents-paternally-mediated-epigenetic-sterility
#4
Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus, Arun K Ramani, Wade Dunham, Ji Young Youn, Andrew G Fraser, Anne-Claude Gingras, James W Dennis
BACKGROUND: In addition to DNA, gametes contribute epigenetic information in the form of histones and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic programs often respond to stressful environmental conditions and provide a heritable history of ancestral stress that allows for adaptation and propagation of the species. In the nematode C. elegans, defective epigenetic transmission often manifests as progressive germline mortality. We previously isolated sup-46 in a screen for suppressors of the hexosamine pathway gene mutant, gna-2(qa705)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713772/harnessing-neutrophil-survival-mechanisms-during-chronic-infection-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-novel-therapeutic-targets-to-dampen-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Benoît S Marteyn, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Laurent Meijer, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
More than two decades after cloning the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, the defective gene in cystic fibrosis (CF), we still do not understand how dysfunction of this ion channel causes lung disease and the tremendous neutrophil burden which persists within the airways; nor why chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa develops in CF patients who are thought to be immunocompetent. It appears that the microenvironment within the lung of CF patients provides favorable conditions for both P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711286/novel-therapeutic-targets-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Marjorie Argollo, Gionata Fiorino, Pieter Hindryck, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvio Danese
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), are immune mediated conditions associated with progressive damage of the inflamed gut tissue, and have a considerable impact on the patient's quality of life. The pathogenesis remains uncertain, but it is clear that complex mechanisms associated with host and luminal factors are involved, generating an unbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling. It is well established that the purpose of an adequate and complete control of the intestinal inflammation measured not only by clinical symptoms, but also with more objective data such as fecal biomarkers (calprotectin) and endoscopy...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710890/food-allergy-phenotypes-the-key-to-personalized-therapy
#7
Antoine Deschildre, Stéphanie Lejeune, Mélanie Cap, Sophie Flammarion, Line Jouannic, Flore Amat, Jocelyne Just
Food allergies (FAs) are of increasing public health concern and are characterized by a large spectrum of diseases. Their diversity is well known for immunologic pathways (IgE, non-IgE mediated FAs), and natural history. Many other factors and patient characteristics are involved including type of food, exposure route, allergic comorbidities, gender, racial and ethnic backgrounds, co-factors and health conditions. Food allergen components and sensitization profiles are also involved in FA phenotypes. A new approach to chronic disorders based on the identification of phenotypes through extensive knowledge of all the complex components is also applicable to FAs and could lead towards integrative care management...
July 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709486/diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-current-scenario-from-a-tertiary-neurocare-centre-in-india
#8
Jyothi Embekkat Kaviyil, Raju Ravikumar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a condition that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is difficult to diagnose due to the nonspecificity of the presentations. The study analyzed the different modes of diagnosis available in a developing country set up over a period of five years to understand the diagnostic values of the current conventional and automated methods of diagnosis of TBM among the patients suspected with chronic meningitis. METHODS: A total of 10,281 cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) were collected from suspected chronic meningitis patients, of which 790 samples were from individuals who had clinically suspected TBM...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708677/repeated-critical-illness-and-unplanned-readmissions-within-1-year-to-picus
#9
Jeffrey D Edwards, Adam R Lucas, W John Boscardin, R Adams Dudley
OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence rate of unplanned readmissions to PICUs within 1 year and examine risk factors associated with repeated readmission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Seventy-six North American PICUs that participated in the Virtual Pediatric Systems, LLC (VPS, LLC, Los Angeles, CA). PATIENTS: Ninety-three thousand three hundred seventy-nine PICU patients discharged between 2009 and 2010...
August 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705192/medical-condition-and-care-of-undocumented-migrants-in-ambulatory-clinics-in-tel-aviv-israel-assessing-unmet-needs
#10
Zohar Mor, Yuval Raveh, Ido Lurie, Alex Leventhal, Roni Gamzu, Nadav Davidovitch, Orel Benari, Itamar Grotto
BACKGROUND: Approximately 150,000 undocumented migrants (UM) who are medically uninsured reside in Israel, including ~50,000 originating from the horn of Africa (MHA). Free medical-care is provided by two walk-in clinics in Tel-Aviv. This study aims to compare the medical complaints of UM from different origins, define their community health needs and assess gaps between medical needs and available services. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a random sample of 610 UM aged 18-64 years, who were treated in these community clinics between 2008 and 2011...
July 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701496/the-spectrum-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Andrew R Mayer, Davin K Quinn, Christina L Master
OBJECTIVE: This review provides an in-depth overview of diagnostic schema and risk factors influencing recovery during the acute, subacute (operationally defined as up to 3 months postinjury), and chronic injury phases across the full spectrum of individuals (e.g., athletes to neurosurgery patients) with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Particular emphasis is placed on the complex differential diagnoses for patients with prolonged postconcussive symptoms. METHODS: Select literature review and synthesis...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701291/patterns-of-user-engagement-with-the-mobile-app-manage-my-pain-results-of-a-data-mining-investigation
#12
Quazi Abidur Rahman, Tahir Janmohamed, Meysam Pirbaglou, Paul Ritvo, Jane M Heffernan, Hance Clarke, Joel Katz
BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most prevalent health-related concerns and is among the top 3 most common reasons for seeking medical help. Scientific publications of data collected from pain tracking and monitoring apps are important to help consumers and healthcare professionals select the right app for their use. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this paper were to (1) discover user engagement patterns of the pain management app, Manage My Pain, using data mining methods; and (2) identify the association between several attributes characterizing individual users and their levels of engagement...
July 12, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699505/tackling-chronic-pain-and-inflammation-through-the-purinergic-system
#13
Giulia Magni, Daniele Riccio, Stefania Ceruti
The purinergic system is composed of purine and pyrimidine transmitters, of the enzymes that modulate the interconversion of nucleotides and nucleosides, of the membrane transporters that control their extracellular concentrations, and of the many receptor subtypes that are responsible for their cellular responses. The components of this system are ubiquitously localized in all tissues and organs, and their involvement in several physiological conditions has been clearly demonstrated. Moreover, extracellular purine and pyrimidine concentrations raise several folds under pathological conditions like tissue damage, ischemia, and inflammation, which suggest that this signaling system might contribute both to disease outcome and, possibly, to its tentative resolution...
July 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699060/assessing-the-burden-of-treatment
#14
Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Ana R Quiñones, Victor M Montori
Current healthcare systems and guidelines are not designed to adapt to care for the large and growing number of patients with complex care needs and those with multimorbidity. Minimally disruptive medicine (MDM) is an approach to providing care for complex patients that advances patients' goals in health and life while minimizing the burden of treatment. Measures of treatment burden assess the impact of healthcare workload on patient function and well-being. At least two of these measures are now available for use with patients living with chronic conditions...
July 11, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697045/patient-characteristics-menopause-symptoms-and-care-provided-at-an-interdisciplinary-menopause-clinic-retrospective-chart-review
#15
Beate C Sydora, Nese Yuksel, Nicole L Veltri, Justin Marillier, Christoph P Sydora, Maryna Yaskina, Lori Battochio, Tami M L Shandro, Sue Ross
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe the characteristics, menopause symptoms, and treatment progressions in women cared for at an interdisciplinary menopause clinic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patient charts from women attending a multidisciplinary menopause clinic. Data collected from the charts included patient demographics, menopause symptoms, other concurrent medical conditions, and treatment recommendations. Data were entered into Research Electronic Data Capture database and analyzed descriptively...
July 10, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696497/role-of-ca2-and-ion-channels-in-the-regulation-of-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#16
REVIEW
Miaohong Wang, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Hypoxia is a kind of common pathological condition existing in various diseases such as sleep apnea syndrome, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can precipitate the onset of diseases through inducing cell apoptosis. Ca²⁺ is the ubiquitous message in cell. Given the crucial role of Ca2²⁺ in physiology, intracellular Ca²⁺ overload is a significant regulator of apoptosis. Numerous experiments show that hypoxia may cause changes of multiple cellular Ca²⁺ channels, for instance, Na⁺/ Ca²⁺ Exchanger (NCX), L-type voltage dependent Ca²⁺ channel (L-VDCC), inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and so on, which contribute to intracellular Ca²⁺ overload, thus eventually triggering cell apoptosis...
July 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695302/argatroban-attenuates-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-rats-by-reducing-fibrosis-inflammation-apoptosis-and-protease-activated-receptor-expression
#17
Yogesh Bulani, Shyam Sunder Sharma
PURPOSE: Chronic diabetes is associated with cardiovascular dysfunctions. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the serious cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Despite significant efforts in understanding the pathophysiology of DCM, management of DCM is not adequate due to its complex pathophysiology. Recently, involvement of protease-activated receptors (PARs) has been postulated in cardiovascular diseases. These receptors are activated by thrombin, trypsin, or other serine proteases...
July 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690540/the-role-of-microglia-in-prion-diseases-a-paradigm-of-functional-diversity
#18
REVIEW
Juliane Obst, Emilie Simon, Renzo Mancuso, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Inflammation is a major component of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are the innate immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the healthy brain, microglia contribute to tissue homeostasis and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Under disease conditions, they play a key role in the development and maintenance of the neuroinflammatory response, by showing enhanced proliferation and activation. Prion diseases are progressive chronic neurodegenerative disorders associated with the accumulation of the scrapie prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded conformer of the cellular prion protein PrP(C)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690200/functional-electrospun-fibers-for-the-treatment-of-human-skin-wounds
#19
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Maike Windbergs
Wounds are trauma induced defects of the human skin involving a multitude of endogenous biochemical events and cellular reactions of the immune system. The healing process is extremely complex and affected by the patient́s physiological conditions, potential implications like infectious pathogens and inflammation as well as external factors. Due to increasing incidence of chronic wounds and proceeding resistance of infection pathogens, there is a strong need for effective therapeutic wound care. In this context, electrospun fibers with diameters in the nano- to micrometer range gain increasing interest...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690197/high-fat-diet-induces-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-in-a-fiber-type-dependent-manner-in-rats
#20
Ricardo A Pinho, Diane M Sepa-Kishi, George Bikopoulos, Michelle V Wu, Abinas Uthayakumar, Arta Mohasses, Meghan C Hughes, Christopher G R Perry, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the effects of high-fat (HF) diet on parameters of oxidative stress among muscles with distinct fiber type composition and oxidative capacities. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were fed either a low-fat standard chow (SC) or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis muscles were collected and mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emission, palmitate oxidation, and gene expression and antioxidant system were measured. Chronic HF feeding enhanced fat oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic muscles...
July 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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