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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432095/mushroom-emergence-detected-by-combining-spore-trapping-with-molecular-techniques
#1
Carles Castaño, Jonàs Oliva, Juan Martínez de Aragón, Josu G Alday, Javier Parladé, Joan Pera, José Antonio Bonet
Obtaining reliable and representative mushroom production data requires time-consuming sampling schemes. In this paper, we assessed a simple methodology to detect mushroom emergence by trapping the fungal spores of the fruiting body community in plots where mushroom production was determined weekly. We compared the performance of filter paper traps with that of funnel traps and combined these spore trapping methods with species-specific quantitative real-time PCR and Illumina MiSeq to determine the spore abundance...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431796/lessons-learned-from-twins-in-autoimmune-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Elena Generali, Angela Ceribelli, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Carlo Selmi
Autoimmunity and chronic inflammation recognize numerous shared factors and, as a result, the resulting diseases frequently coexist in the same patients or respond to the same treatments. Among the convenient truths of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, there is now agreement that these are complex conditions in which the individual genetic predisposition provides a rate of heritability. The concordance rates in monozygotic and dizygotic twins allows to estimate the weight of the environment in determining disease susceptibility, despite recent data supporting that only a minority of immune markers depend on hereditary factors...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431579/protocole-of-a-controlled-before-after-evaluation-of-a-national-health-information-technology-based-program-to-improve-healthcare-coordination-and-access-to-information
#3
Florence Saillour-Glénisson, Sylvie Duhamel, Emmanuelle Fourneyron, Laetitia Huiart, Jean Philippe Joseph, Emmanuel Langlois, Stephane Pincemail, Viviane Ramel, Thomas Renaud, Tamara Roberts, Matthieu Sibé, Frantz Thiessard, Jerome Wittwer, Louis Rachid Salmi
BACKGROUND: Improvement of coordination of all health and social care actors in the patient pathways is an important issue in many countries. Health Information (HI) technology has been considered as a potentially effective answer to this issue. The French Health Ministry first funded the development of five TSN ("Territoire de Soins Numérique"/Digital health territories) projects, aiming at improving healthcare coordination and access to information for healthcare providers, patients and the population, and at improving healthcare professionals work organization...
April 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431310/characterization-of-bacterial-communities-of-donkey-milk-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#4
Maria de Los Dolores Soto Del Rio, Alessandra Dalmasso, Tiziana Civera, Maria Teresa Bottero
The interest in donkey milk (DM) is growing because of its functional properties and nutritional value, especially for children with allergies and food intolerances. However, most of the available reports of DM microbiota are based on culture-dependent methods to investigate food safety issues and the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to determine the composition of DM bacterial communities using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach. Bulk milk samples from Italian donkey dairy farms from two consecutive years were analysed using the MiSeq Illumina platform...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431230/structural-basis-for-guide-rna-processing-and-seed-dependent-dna-targeting-by-crispr-cas12a
#5
Daan C Swarts, John van der Oost, Martin Jinek
The CRISPR-associated protein Cas12a (Cpf1), which has been repurposed for genome editing, possesses two distinct nuclease activities: endoribonuclease activity for processing its own guide RNAs and RNA-guided DNase activity for target DNA cleavage. To elucidate the molecular basis of both activities, we determined crystal structures of Francisella novicida Cas12a bound to guide RNA and in complex with an R-loop formed by a non-cleavable guide RNA precursor and a full-length target DNA. Corroborated by biochemical experiments, these structures reveal the mechanisms of guide RNA processing and pre-ordering of the seed sequence in the guide RNA that primes Cas12a for target DNA binding...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430191/activating-lattice-oxygen-redox-reactions-in-metal-oxides-to-catalyse-oxygen-evolution
#6
Alexis Grimaud, Oscar Diaz-Morales, Binghong Han, Wesley T Hong, Yueh-Lin Lee, Livia Giordano, Kelsey A Stoerzinger, Marc T M Koper, Yang Shao-Horn
Understanding how materials that catalyse the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) function is essential for the development of efficient energy-storage technologies. The traditional understanding of the OER mechanism on metal oxides involves four concerted proton-electron transfer steps on metal-ion centres at their surface and product oxygen molecules derived from water. Here, using in situ (18)O isotope labelling mass spectrometry, we provide direct experimental evidence that the O2 generated during the OER on some highly active oxides can come from lattice oxygen...
May 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428620/formal-definitions-of-unbounded-evolution-and-innovation-reveal-universal-mechanisms-for-open-ended-evolution-in-dynamical-systems
#7
Alyssa Adams, Hector Zenil, Paul C W Davies, Sara Imari Walker
Open-ended evolution (OEE) is relevant to a variety of biological, artificial and technological systems, but has been challenging to reproduce in silico. Most theoretical efforts focus on key aspects of open-ended evolution as it appears in biology. We recast the problem as a more general one in dynamical systems theory, providing simple criteria for open-ended evolution based on two hallmark features: unbounded evolution and innovation. We define unbounded evolution as patterns that are non-repeating within the expected Poincare recurrence time of an isolated system, and innovation as trajectories not observed in isolated systems...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428206/current-and-emerging-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-the-radiologist-part-2-surveillance-for-treatment-complications-and-disease-progression
#8
REVIEW
C McNamara, G Sugrue, B Murray, P J MacMahon
An understanding of the new generation of MS drugs in conjunction with the key role MR imaging plays in the detection of disease progression, opportunistic infections, and drug-related adverse effects is of vital importance to the neuroradiologist. Part 1 of this review outlined the current treatment options available for MS and examined the mechanisms of action of the various medications. It also covered specific complications associated with each form of therapy. Part 2, in turn deals with the subject of pharmacovigilance and the optimal frequency of MRI monitoring for each individual patient, depending on his or her unique risk profile...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426080/c-reactive-protein-and-interleukin-6-microfluidic-immunoassays-with-on-chip-pre-stored-reagents-and-centrifugo-pneumatic-liquid-control
#9
Y Zhao, G Czilwik, V Klein, K Mitsakakis, R Zengerle, N Paust
We present a fully automated centrifugal microfluidic method for particle based protein immunoassays. Stick-pack technology is employed for pre-storage and release of liquid reagents. Quantitative layout of centrifugo-pneumatic particle handling, including timed valving, switching and pumping is assisted by network simulations. The automation is exclusively controlled by the spinning frequency and does not require any additional means. New centrifugal microfluidic process chains are developed in order to sequentially supply wash buffer based on frequency dependent stick-pack opening and pneumatic pumping to perform two washing steps from one stored wash buffer; pre-store and re-suspend functionalized microparticles on a disk; and switch between the path of the waste fluid and the path of the substrate reaction product with 100% efficiency...
April 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425460/modulation-doping-of-silicon-using-aluminium-induced-acceptor-states-in-silicon-dioxide
#10
Dirk König, Daniel Hiller, Sebastian Gutsch, Margit Zacharias, Sean Smith
All electronic, optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications of silicon depend on controlling majority charge carriers via doping with impurity atoms. Nanoscale silicon is omnipresent in fundamental research (quantum dots, nanowires) but also approached in future technology nodes of the microelectronics industry. In general, silicon nanovolumes, irrespective of their intended purpose, suffer from effects that impede conventional doping due to fundamental physical principles such as out-diffusion, statistics of small numbers, quantum- or dielectric confinement...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425074/lincrna-p21-function-and-mechanism-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Shaoyun Chen, Hairong Liang, Hui Yang, Kairu Zhou, Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Bei Lai, Li Song, Hao Luo, Jianming Peng, Zhidong Liu, Yongmei Xiao, Wen Chen, Huanwen Tang
In view of the rapid development of gene chips and high-throughput sequencing technology, noncoding RNAs (ncRNas) form a high percentage of the mammalian genome. Two major subgroups of ncRNAs that have been identified are the long ncRNAs (lncRNas) and the microRNAs. A number of studies in the past few years have showed crucial functions for lncRNas in cancer. LincRNa-p21 as a p53-dependent transcriptional target gene and a potential diagnostic marker is involved in proliferation, cell cycle, metabolism and reprogramming...
May 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425029/comparison-of-a-novel-formulation-of-abiraterone-acetate-vs-the-originator-formulation-in-healthy-male-subjects-two-randomized-open-label-crossover-studies
#12
Ronald Goldwater, Azra Hussaini, Bill Bosch, Paul Nemeth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Abiraterone acetate is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The originator abiraterone acetate (OAA) formulation is poorly absorbed and exhibits large pharmacokinetic variability in abiraterone exposure. Abiraterone acetate fine particle (AAFP) is a proprietary formulation (using SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™) designed to increase the oral bioavailability of abiraterone acetate. Here, we report on two phase I studies in healthy male subjects aged 18-50 years...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424732/evidence-for-loss-in-identity-de-differentiation-and-trans-differentiation-of-islet-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Chad S Hunter, Roland W Stein
The two main types of diabetes mellitus have distinct etiologies, yet a similar outcome: loss of islet β-cell function that is solely responsible for the secretion of the insulin hormone to reduce elevated plasma glucose toward euglycemic levels. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has traditionally been characterized by autoimmune-mediated β-cell death leading to insulin-dependence, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) has hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and cell death. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, especially during T2D, key components of β-cell failure involves: (1) loss of cell identity, specifically proteins associated with mature cell function (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424529/surface-dependent-scenarios-for-dissolution-driven-motion-of-growing-droplets
#14
Stefano Curiotto, Frédéric Leroy, Fabien Cheynis, Pierre Müller
Nano-droplets on a foreign substrate have received increasing attention because of their technological possible applications, for instance to catalyse the growth of nanowires. In some cases the droplets can move as a result of a reaction with the substrate. In this work we show that the substrate orientation, the surface morphology and the shape of the pits etched in the substrate by the droplets affect the droplet motion, so that a single mechanism (droplet-induced substrate dissolution) may lead to several unexpected droplet dynamics...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423992/secrecy-empowerment-and-protection-positioning-prep-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#15
Eliza Govender, Leila Mansoor, Kate MacQueen, Quarraisha Abdool Karim
The release of World Health Organisation guidelines recommending the prophylactic use of daily Truvada(®) for all populations at high risk of acquiring HIV opens the way for implementation of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The impact of new prevention technologies is, however, dependent on demand creation strategies such as user awareness, acceptability and access, which in turn are influenced by sociocultural and gender norms. This study was conducted in three locations in KwaZulu-Natal, urban, rural and peri-urban, with six participatory workshops...
April 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423419/temperature-dependent-biological-and-demographic-parameters-of-coleomegilla-maculata-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#16
Juan A Morales-Ramos, M Guadalupe Rojas
Knowledge of the most suitable environmental conditions for an organism growth and development is a prerequisite for developing mass rearing technology. The temperature requirements for development and the optimal range of temperatures for growth and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata De Geer were studied. The development time of individual C. maculata larvae was determined at 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36 °C. Development times were converted to development rates and fitted to a nonlinear temperature-dependent model and to the linear day-degree model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422963/a-large-scale-analysis-of-sex-differences-in-facial-expressions
#17
Daniel McDuff, Evan Kodra, Rana El Kaliouby, Marianne LaFrance
There exists a stereotype that women are more expressive than men; however, research has almost exclusively focused on a single facial behavior, smiling. A large-scale study examines whether women are consistently more expressive than men or whether the effects are dependent on the emotion expressed. Studies of gender differences in expressivity have been somewhat restricted to data collected in lab settings or which required labor-intensive manual coding. In the present study, we analyze gender differences in facial behaviors as over 2,000 viewers watch a set of video advertisements in their home environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422488/pressure-driven-isostructural-phase-transition-in-innbo4-in-situ-experimental-and-theoretical-investigations
#18
Alka B Garg, Daniel Errandonea, Catalin Popescu, Domingo Martinez-García, Julio Pellicer-Porres, Placida Rodríguez-Hernández, Alfonso Muñoz, Pablo Botella, Vanesa P Cuenca-Gotor, Juan Angel Sans
The high-pressure behavior of technologically important visible-light photocatalytic semiconductor InNbO4, adopting a monoclinic wolframite-type structure at ambient conditions, was investigated using synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopic measurements, and first-principles calculations. The experimental results indicate the occurrence of a pressure-induced isostructural phase transition in the studied compound beyond 10.8 GPa. The large volume collapse associated with the phase transition and the coexistence of two phases observed over a wide range of pressure shows the nature of transition to be first-order...
April 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422222/electron-transfer-in-silicon-bridged-adjacent-chromophores-the-source-for-blue-green-emission
#19
Malgorzata Bayda, Gonzalo Angulo, Gordon L Hug, Monika Ludwiczak, Jerzy Karolczak, Jacek Koput, Jacek Dobkowski, Bronislaw Marciniak
Si-Bridged chromophores have been proposed as sources for blue-green emission in several technological applications. The origin of this dual emission is to be found in an internal charge transfer reaction. The current work is an attempt to describe the details of these processes in these kinds of substances, and to design a molecular architecture to improve their performance. Nuclear motions essential for intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) can involve processes from twisted internal moieties to dielectric relaxation of the solvent...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422112/accurate-and-effective-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-detection-method-using-gap-filling-ligation-coupled-with-high-resolution-capillary-electrophoresis-based-single-strand-conformation-polymorphism
#20
Woong Choi, Jongseok Lee, Eunjin Cho, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Tuberculosis (TB) has severely threatened public health via emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. For effective TB treatment, rapid, accurate, and multiplex detection of drug resistance is extremely important. However, conventional methods for TB diagnosis are time consuming and have a limited effect on treatment. Nucleic acid-based molecular detection methods have been developed as an effective MDR/XDR-TB diagnosis technology. Among the nucleic acid-based methods, ligation-dependent methods are attractive as MDR/XDR-MTB detection technologies, but multiplex analysis is limited by the detection method...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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