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Asrul Akmal Shafie, Chin Hui Ng, Yui Ping Tan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Insulin analogues have a pharmacokinetic advantage over human insulin and are increasingly used to treat diabetes mellitus. A summary of their cost effectiveness versus other available treatments was required. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to systematically review the published cost-effectiveness studies of insulin analogues for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We searched major databases and health technology assessment agency reports for economic evaluation studies published up until 30 September 2015...
October 17, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Xingqi Chen, Ying Shen, Will Draper, Jason D Buenrostro, Ulrike Litzenburger, Seung Woo Cho, Ansuman T Satpathy, Ava C Carter, Rajarshi P Ghosh, Alexandra East-Seletsky, Jennifer A Doudna, William J Greenleaf, Jan T Liphardt, Howard Y Chang
Spatial organization of the genome plays a central role in gene expression, DNA replication, and repair. But current epigenomic approaches largely map DNA regulatory elements outside of the native context of the nucleus. Here we report assay of transposase-accessible chromatin with visualization (ATAC-see), a transposase-mediated imaging technology that employs direct imaging of the accessible genome in situ, cell sorting, and deep sequencing to reveal the identity of the imaged elements. ATAC-see revealed the cell-type-specific spatial organization of the accessible genome and the coordinated process of neutrophil chromatin extrusion, termed NETosis...
October 17, 2016: Nature Methods
Jullet A Davis
For many service-oriented firms, knowledge is a key commodity, and the process by which knowledge is codified is critical for firm survival. The administrator or top manager acts as the repository and disseminator of organizational knowledge. The purpose of this project is to examine the association between the administrator's educational attainment and innovation in residential care facilities. The study hypothesized that administrator academic education and certification or licensure would be positively associated with facility innovation...
October 4, 2016: Health Care Manager
Nongnuch Artrith, Wutthigrai Sailuam, Sukit Limpijumnong, Alexie M Kolpak
Water electrolysis is a key technology for the replacement of fossil fuels by environmentally friendly alternatives, but state-of-the-art water oxidation catalysts rely on rare elements such as Pt groups and other noble metals. In this article, we employ first-principles calculations to explore the potential of modified barium titanate (BaTiO3), an inexpensive perovskite oxide that can be synthesized from earth-abundant precursors, for the design of efficient water oxidation electrocatalysts. Our calculations identify Fe and Ni doping as a means to improve the electrical conductivity and to reduce the overpotential required for water oxidation over BaTiO3...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Angela N Fioretti, Craig P Schwartz, John Vinson, Dennis Nordlund, David Prendergast, Adele C Tamboli, Christopher M Caskey, Filip Tuomisto, Florence Linez, Steven T Christensen, Eric S Toberer, Stephan Lany, Andriy Zakutayev
Semiconductor materials that can be doped both n-type and p-type are desirable for diode-based applications and transistor technology. Copper nitride (Cu3N) is a metastable semiconductor with a solar-relevant bandgap that has been reported to exhibit bipolar doping behavior. However, deeper understanding and better control of the mechanism behind this behavior in Cu3N is currently lacking in the literature. In this work, we use combinatorial growth with a temperature gradient to demonstrate both conduction types of phase-pure, sputter-deposited Cu3N thin films...
May 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physics
Ting Wang, Siow-Ying Tan, William Mutilangi, Marcal Plans, Luis Rodriguez-Saona
Formulating whey protein beverages at acidic pH provides better clarity but the beverages typically develop an unpleasant and astringent flavor. Our aim was to evaluate the application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in predicting astringency of acidic whey protein beverages. Whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) from different manufacturers were used to formulate beverages at pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.9. Trained panelists using the spectrum method of descriptive analysis tested the beverages providing astringency scores...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Anna Agakova, Frano Vučković, Lucija Klarić, Gordan Lauc, Felix Agakov
Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is the established technology for accurate analysis of IgG Fc N-glycosylation due to its superior sensitivity, resolution, speed, and its capability to provide branch-specific information of glycan species. Correct and cost-efficient preprocessing of chromatographic data is the major prerequisite for subsequent analyses ranging from inference of structural isomers to biomarker discovery and prediction of humoral immune response from characterized changes in glycosylation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kousaku Saotome, Akira Matsushita, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshiaki Kato, Kei Nakai, Koichi Murata, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Akira Matsumura
PURPOSE: A fast spin-echo sequence based on the Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data acquisition and reconstruction method for correcting motion during scans. Previous studies attempted to verify the in vivo capabilities of motion-corrected PROPELLER in real clinical situations. However, such experiments are limited by repeated, stray head motion by research participants during the prescribed and precise head motion protocol of a PROPELLER acquisition...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
M Pereira, J Guerra, J Gonçalves, A Santana, C Nascimento, A G da Costa
Hyperacute rejection (HAR) is a rare event that can be prevented by crossmatch tests that detect anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies against the donor. We present the case of a 43-year-old man who underwent a deceased-donor kidney transplantation with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity and a negative flow cytometry crossmatch. Luminex technology detected anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies (DSA) with a mean fluorescence intensity of 11,000. A single plasmapheresis session was carried out, followed by immunosuppression with immunoglobulin, antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, and methylprednisolone...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Judith E Adams
Maximizing peak bone mass in childhood is relevant to optimizing bone health in later life, so the study of the skeleton in children in health and disease is important. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used clinical tool for the assessment of bone status in children. Technological developments in DXA enable vertebral fracture assessment at much lower ionizing radiation doses than spinal radiographs. Quantitative computed tomography remains predominantly a research tool but has some advantages over DXA in not being size dependent...
July 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Artem K Efremov, Ricksen S Winardhi, Jie Yan
Recent development of single-molecule manipulation technologies has made it possible to exert constant force and torque on individual DNA biopolymers to probe their elastic characteristics and structural stability. It has been previously shown that depending on the nature of applied mechanical constraints, DNA can exist in several forms including B-, L-, and P-DNA. However, there is still a lack of understanding of how structural heterogeneity of DNA, which may naturally arise due to sequence-dependent DNA properties, protein binding, or DNA damage, influences local stability of the above DNA states...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Kai Hou, Huiyi Wang, Yunyin Lin, Shaohua Chen, Shengyuan Yang, Yanhua Cheng, Benjamin S Hsiao, Meifang Zhu
Hydrogel microfibers have been considered as a potential biomaterial to spatiotemporally biomimic 1D native tissues such as nerves and muscles which are always assembled hierarchically and have anisotropic response to external stimuli. To produce facile hydrogel microfibers in a mathematical manner, a novel dynamic-crosslinking-spinning (DCS) method is demonstrated for direct fabrication of size-controllable fibers from poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) oligomer in large scale, without microfluidic template and in a biofriendly environment...
October 14, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Emmanuel C Opara
The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different purposes for which the cell microencapsulation technology can be used. These include immunoisolation of non-autologous cells used for cell therapy; immobilization of cells for localized (targeted) delivery of therapeutic products to ablate, repair, or regenerate tissue; simultaneous delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in cell therapy; spatial compartmentalization of cells in complex tissue engineering; expansion of cells in culture; and production of different probiotics and metabolites for industrial applications...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marco Carlotti, Maarten Degen, Yanxi Zhang, Ryan C Chiechi
Large-area tunneling junctions using eutectic Ga-In (EGaIn) as a top contact have proven to be a robust, reproducible, and technologically relevant platform for molecular electronics. Thus far, the majority of studies have focused on saturated molecules with backbones consisting mainly of alkanes in which the frontier orbitals are either highly localized or energetically inaccessible. We show that self-assembled monolayers of wire-like oligophenyleneethynylenes (OPEs), which are fully conjugated, only exhibit length-dependent tunneling behavior in a low-O2 environment...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Sophie Braga-Lagache, Natasha Buchs, Mircea-Ioan Iacovache, Benoit Zuber, Christopher Benjamin Jackson, Manfred Heller
BACKGROUND: Cells of the vascular system release spherical vesicles, called microparticles, in the size range of 0.1-1μm induced by a variety of stress factors resulting in variable concentrations between health and disease. Furthermore, microparticles have intercellular communication/signaling properties and interfere with inflammation and coagulation pathways. Today's most used analytical technology for mecroparticle characterization, flow cytometry, is lacking sensitivity and specificity, which might have led to the publication of contradicting results in the past...
October 12, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Roman Štukelj, Karin Schara, Apolonija Bedina-Zavec, Vid Šuštar, Manca Pajnič, Ljubiša Pađen, Judita Lea Krek, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Anita Mrvar-Brečko, Rado Janša
During harvesting of nanovesicles (NVs) from blood, blood cells and other particles in blood are exposed to mechanical forces which may cause activation of platelets, changes of membrane properties, cell deformation and shedding of membrane fragments. We report on the effect of shear forces imposed upon blood samples during the harvesting process, on the concentration of membrane nanovesicles in isolates from blood. Mathematical models of blood flow through the needle during sampling with vacutubes and with free flow were constructed, starting from the Navier-Stokes formalism...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Katrin Niegelhell, Michael Suessenbacher, Katrin Jammernegg, Thomas Ganner, Daniel Schwendenwein, Helmut Schwab, Franz Stelzer, Harald Plank, Stefan Spirk
The creation of nano- and micropatterned polymer films is a crucial step for innumerous applications in science and technology. However, there are several problems associated with environmental aspects concerning the polymer synthesis itself, crosslinkers to induce the patterns as well as toxic solvents used for the preparation and even more important development of the films (e.g. chlorobenzene). In this paper, we present a facile method to produce micro- and nanopatterned biopolymer thin films using enzymes as so called biodevelopers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Matthew A Richards, Thomas J Lie, Juan Zhang, Stephen W Ragsdale, John A Leigh, Nathan D Price
: Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis occurs in multiple environments ranging from the intestinal tracts of animals to anaerobic sediments and hot springs. Energy conservation in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was long a mystery; only within the last decade, it was reported that net energy conservation for growth depends on electron bifurcation. In this work we focus on Methanococcus maripaludis, a well-studied hydrogenotrophic marine methanogen. To better understand hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and compare it with methylotrophic methanogenesis that utilizes oxidative phosphorylation rather than electron bifurcation, we have built iMR539, a genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for 539 of the 1722 protein-coding genes of M...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
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