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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923186/influence-of-surface-passivation-of-2-methoxyestradiol-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-on-cellular-interactions-pharmacokinetics-and-tumour-accumulation
#1
Gopikrishna J Pillai, Bindhu Paul-Prasanth, Shantikumar V Nair, Deepthy Menon
In the present work, 2-Methoxyestradiol [2ME2] loaded PLGA nanoparticles [NPs] were stabilized with Casein or poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] and evaluated for its cellular interactions, pharmacokinetics and tumour accumulation. Surface stabilized PLGA nanoparticles prepared through a modified emulsion route possessed similar size, surface charge, drug loading and release characteristics. Particle-cell interactions as well as the anti-angiogenesis activity were similar for both nanoformulations in vitro. However, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tumour accumulation of the drug were substantially improved for the PEGylated nanoformulation...
November 29, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923043/clonal-evolutionary-analysis-during-her2-blockade-in-her2-positive-inflammatory-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-open-label-clinical-trial-of-afatinib-vinorelbine
#2
Gerald Goh, Ramona Schmid, Kelly Guiver, Wichit Arpornwirat, Imjai Chitapanarux, Vinod Ganju, Seock-Ah Im, Sung-Bae Kim, Arunee Dechaphunkul, Jedzada Maneechavakajorn, Neil Spector, Thomas Yau, Mehdi Afrit, Slim Ben Ahmed, Stephen R Johnston, Neil Gibson, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Javier Herrero, Charles Swanton
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923035/biomarkers-in-anal-cancer-from-biological-understanding-to-stratified-treatment
#3
Christopher M Jones, Vicky Goh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Duncan C Gilbert
Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922765/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-agents-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Nikola Mitrev, Rupert W Leong
Anti-TNFα therapy has revolutionised treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, however primary non-response and secondary loss of response are a significant problem. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has recently emerged as a means of optimising use of anti-TNFα agents. Areas covered: TDM of anti-TNFα agents can guide clinical decisions during treatment failure events, prevent treatment failure events, and potentially result in significant healthcare cost saving. TDM for anti-TNFα agent involves measurement of drug levels and anti-drug antibodies, and can be performed reactively or proactively...
December 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922697/regulation-of-pd-l1-expression-in-a-high-grade-invasive-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-microenvironment
#5
Mariko Hirai, Hiroko Kitahara, Yutaka Kobayashi, Koroku Kato, George Bou-Gharios, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashiri
Blockade of the programmed-death 1 receptor (PD-1)/programmed-death ligand (PD-L1) pathway efficiently reduces tumour growth and improves survival. Durable tumour regression with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint has been demonstrated in recent clinical studies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highly immunosuppressive, and PD-L1 expression has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for this phenotype. Despite the fact that anti-PD-1 treatment can produce durable responses, such therapy appears to benefit only a subset of patients...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922686/necrox-5-prevents-breast-cancer-metastasis-by-akt-inhibition-via-reducing-intracellular-calcium-levels
#6
Jin-Hee Park, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Hana Jung, Ki Hyang Kim, Mi Seon Kang, Jun Hyuk Hong, Byeng Chul Yu, Sungjae Park, Su-Kil Seo, Il Whan Choi, Soon Ha Kim, Nari Kim, Jin Han, Sae Gwang Park
A major goal of breast cancer research is to prevent the molecular events that lead to tumour metastasis. It is well-established that both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in cell migration and metastasis. Accordingly, this study examined the molecular mechanisms of the anti-metastatic effects of NecroX-5, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger. NecroX-5 inhibited lung cancer metastasis by ameliorating migration in a mouse model. In human cancer cells, the inhibition of migration by NecroX-5 is cell type-dependent...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922432/mir-21-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-osteosarcoma
#7
Xianfeng Ren, Yuqin Shen, Shuyun Zheng, JianYong Liu, Xin Jiang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: miR-21 has been demonstrated to play an important role in tumour progression. The aim of the present study was to analyse the correlation between miR-21 expression level and clinicopathologic features, as well as to assess the prognostic significance of miR-21 in osteosarcoma. METHODS: Eighty-four pairs of osteosarcoma and corresponding non-cancerous bone tissues were obtained, and miR-21 expression levels were detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922430/downregulation-of-mir-124-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-patients
#8
BoLin Sun, Xiaogang Liu, Yewu Gao, Li Li, ZhenLing Dong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: miRNA-124 (miR-124) expression was known to be downregulated in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Downregulation of miR-124 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with PDAC. Recent studies have shown that circulating miRNAs could be the potential biomarkers for invasive diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The purpose of the current study was to characterise the serum miR-124 levels and assess the clinical significance of serum miR-124 in patients with PDAC...
October 2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922289/assessing-the-risk-of-clinical-and-pathologic-factors-for-relapse-of-borderline-ovarian-tumours
#9
Chung Chang, Jiabin Chen, Wei-An Chen, Szu-Pei Ho, Wen Shiung Liou, An Jen Chiang
The objective of this study was to identify clinical and pathologic factors that are significant to relapse in borderline ovarian tumours (BOT). All patients with BOTs from 1997 to 2012 in our institute were identified. 115 patients were included in the study. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify significant factors. The median age was 42 years (range 14-85 years). The majority of the patients were at FIGO stage I (88.7%), and most of the patients had mucinous histology (66.1%), reflecting the predominant distribution of mucinous BOTs in East Asia...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922275/post-hysterectomy-occurrence-of-endometrial-adenocarcinoma-in-association-with-granulosa-cell-tumour-a-case-report
#10
Incim Bezircioglu, Mehmet Hakan Yetimalar, Irfan Ocal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922077/mast-cell-phenotype-tnf%C3%AE-expression-and-degranulation-status-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
A Shikotra, C M Ohri, R H Green, D A Waller, P Bradding
Mast cell infiltration of tumour islets represents a survival advantage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phenotype and activation status of these mast cells is unknown. We investigated the mast cell phenotype in terms of protease content (tryptase-only [MCT], tryptase + chymase [MCTC]) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) expression, and extent of degranulation, in NSCLC tumour stroma and islets. Surgically resected tumours from 24 patients with extended survival (ES; mean survival 86.5 months) were compared with 25 patients with poor survival (PS; mean survival 8...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922044/from-tumour-heterogeneity-to-advances-in-precision-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Cornelis J A Punt, Miriam Koopman, Louis Vermeulen
In recent years, the high heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) has become evident. Hence, biomarkers need to be developed that enable the stratification of patients with CRC into different prognostic subgroups and in relation to response to therapies, according to the distinctive tumour biology. Currently, only RAS-mutation status is used routinely as a negative predictive marker to avoid treatment with anti-EGFR agents in patients with metastatic CRC, and mismatch-repair status can guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage colon cancer...
December 6, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922042/neuroendocrine-tumours-in-2016-defining-rules-for-increasingly-personalized-treatments
#13
Massimo Falconi, Stefano Partelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922041/paediatric-renal-tumours-perspectives-from-the-siop-rtsg
#14
(no author information available yet)
The >90% rates of overall survival for children with Wilms tumour are remarkable and have been achieved at the same time as reducing treatment for most patients. However, beneath this headline figure, 20% of patients still relapse after first-line therapy and up to 25% of survivors report severe late effects. The aim of the SIOP-RTSG is to improve outcomes and to reduce acute and late treatment toxic effects in all children.
December 6, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922010/mek-inhibitors-block-growth-of-lung-tumours-with-mutations-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated
#15
Michal Smida, Ferran Fece de la Cruz, Claudia Kerzendorfer, Iris Z Uras, Barbara Mair, Abdelghani Mazouzi, Tereza Suchankova, Tomasz Konopka, Amanda M Katz, Keren Paz, Katalin Nagy-Bojarszky, Markus K Muellner, Zsuzsanna Bago-Horvath, Eric B Haura, Joanna I Loizou, Sebastian M B Nijman
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, and effective treatments are urgently needed. Loss-of-function mutations in the DNA damage response kinase ATM are common in lung adenocarcinoma but directly targeting these with drugs remains challenging. Here we report that ATM loss-of-function is synthetic lethal with drugs inhibiting the central growth factor kinases MEK1/2, including the FDA-approved drug trametinib. Lung cancer cells resistant to MEK inhibition become highly sensitive upon loss of ATM both in vitro and in vivo...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921309/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-induced-interleukin-33-expression-in-intestinal-epithelia-contributes-to-mucosal-homeostasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
M Sun, C He, W Wu, G Zhou, F Liu, Y Cong, Z Liu
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), an important barrier to gut microbiota, are subject to low oxygen tension, particularly during intestinal inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is expressed highly in the inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and functions as a key regulator in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how IEC-derived HIF-1α regulates intestinal immune responses in IBD is still not understood completely. We report here that the expression of HIF-1α and IL-33 was increased significantly in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients as well as mice with colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)...
November 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921248/the-molecular-pathogenesis-of-schwannomatosis-a-paradigm-for-the-co-involvement-of-multiple-tumour-suppressor-genes-in-tumorigenesis
#17
REVIEW
Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki, Said Farschtschi, Victor-Felix Mautner, David N Cooper
Schwannomatosis is characterized by the predisposition to develop multiple schwannomas and, less commonly, meningiomas. Despite the clinical overlap with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), schwannomatosis is not caused by germline NF2 gene mutations. Instead, germline mutations of either the SMARCB1 or LZTR1 tumour suppressor genes have been identified in 86% of familial and 40% of sporadic schwannomatosis patients. In contrast to patients with rhabdoid tumours, which are due to complete loss-of-function SMARCB1 mutations, individuals with schwannomatosis harbour predominantly hypomorphic SMARCB1 mutations which give rise to the synthesis of mutant proteins with residual function that do not cause rhabdoid tumours...
December 5, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920899/diagnosing-clean-margins-through-raman-spectroscopy-in-human-and-animal-mammary-tumour-surgery-a-short-review
#18
REVIEW
I A Birtoiu, C Rizea, D Togoe, R M Munteanu, C Micsa, M I Rusu, M Tautan, L Braic, L O Scoicaru, A Parau, N D Becherescu-Barbu, M V Udrea, A Tonetto, R Notonier, C E A Grigorescu
Breast cancer frequency in human and other mammal female populations has worryingly increased lately. The acute necessity for taxonomy of the aetiological factors along with seeking for new diagnostic tools and therapy procedures aimed at reducing mortality have yielded in an intense research effort worldwide. Surgery is a regular method to counteract extensive development of breast cancer and prevent metastases provided that negative surgical margins are achieved. This highly technical challenge requires fast, extremely sensitive and selective discrimination between malignant and benign tissues even down to molecular level...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920822/anti-anaphylactic-effects-of-trichilia-monadelpha-thonn-j-j-de-wilde-extracts-on-rodent-models-of-anaphylaxis
#19
Inemesit Okon Ben, Eric Woode, George Asumeng Koffuor, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah
Effects of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark (PEE and EAE) on compound 48/80-induced systemic and passive anaphylaxis were determined. Survival rate, extravasation, degranulation of mast cells, and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured after pre-treatment with extracts (10-100 mg/kg) and disodium chromoglycate (2.5-250 μg/kg) and induction of anaphylaxis in C57BL/6 mice or Sprague-Dawley rats with compound 48/80. Histopathological assessments were made from skin biopsies of rats...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920630/bilateral-diffuse-pseudoangiomatous-stromal-hyperplasia-pash-causing-gigantomastia-in-a-33-year-old-pregnant-woman-case-report
#20
Natalia Krawczyk, Tanja Fehm, Eugen Ruckhäberle, Svjetlana Mohrmann, Jasmin Riemer, Stefan Braunstein, Jürgen Hoffmann
Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferation of mammary stroma mostly described as an incidental microscopic finding. Clinically, it can manifest as a palpable, well-circumscribed breast mass or in rare cases as a diffuse bilateral process causing massive breast enlargement. The most postulated theory for aetiology of this condition is hormonal stimulation of mammary myofibroblasts, particularly by progesterone. A definite diagnosis of PASH is based on typical pathological findings like stromal hyperplasia and empty slit-like channels positive for myofibroblastic and negative for endothelial markers...
October 2016: Breast Care
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