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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938581/targeting-progastrin-enhances-radiosensitization-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
Aline Kowalski-Chauvel, Valerie Gouaze-Andersson, Alix Vignolle-Vidoni, Caroline Delmas, Christine Toulas, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Catherine Seva
A high percentage of advanced rectal cancers are resistant to radiation. Therefore, increasing the efficacy of radiotherapy by targeting factors involved in radioresistance seems to be an attractive strategy. Here we demonstrated that the pro-hormone progastrin (PG), known to be over-expressed in CRC, and recognized as a pro-oncogenic factor, is a radioresistance factor that can be targeted to sensitize resistant rectal cancers to radiations. First, we observed an increase in PG mRNA expression under irradiation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938574/the-dual-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-gsk2126458-is-effective-for-treating-solid-renal-tumours-in-tsc2-mice-through-suppression-of-cell-proliferation-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#2
Kalin Narov, Jian Yang, Paulina Samsel, Ashley Jones, Julian R Sampson, Ming Hong Shen
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an inherited tumour syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 that lead to aberrant activation of mTOR. Tumour responses in TSC patients to rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR, or its analogs are partial and reversible probably due to feedback activation of Akt. In this study, we examined the efficacy of GSK2126458, an ATP-competitive dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, in comparison to rapamycin for treatment of renal tumours in genetically engineered Tsc2(+/-) mice. We found that both GSK2126458 and rapamycin caused significant reduction in number and size of solid renal tumours...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938137/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-6-11-dihydro-5h-benzo-e-pyrimido-5-4-b-1-4-diazepine-derivatives-as-potential-c-met-inhibitors
#3
Daowei Huang, Lei Huang, Qingwei Zhang, Jianqi Li
Over expression of c-Met tyrosine kinase is known to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis, as well as to cause therapeutic resistance. Herein a series of novel 6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[e]pyrimido[5,4-b][1,4]diazepine derivatives were designed, synthesised and evaluated for their c-Met kinase inhibition. Compounds 17e, 17f, 18a, and 18b were further examined for their anti-proliferative activities against four typical cancer cell lines (PC-3, Panc-1, HepG2, and Caki-1). The promising compound 17f was identified as a multi-target receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which also displayed favourable pharmacokinetic properties in rats, had an acceptable safety profile in preclinical studies, and significant anti-tumour activity in the Caki-1 tumour xenograft model...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937796/delay-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-lac-1-development-in-mice-by-dietary-oleic-acid
#4
Mariana Piegari, Elio A Soria, Aldo R Eynard, Mirta A Valentich
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer, and is a major sanitary concern worldwide. Some nutrients, such as ω-9 fatty acids, have been proposed as anticancer agents. Thus, an olein-enriched diet was assayed in a murine model of lung adenocarcinoma (LAC-1) to evaluate neoplastic and paraneoplastic evolution in BALB/c mice. The organic assimilation of dietary fatty acids was confirmed in liver by gas chromatography. This experimental oleic acid-containing diet increased animal survival and tumour latency (analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method), improving neoplastic evolution and general status, with weak effects on the paraneoplastic syndrome (thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, splenocyte response to mitogen, blood anaemia, and leucocytosis)...
September 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937779/-changes-of-the-who-classification-of-lymphoid-neoplasms-in-the-context-of-the-2016-revision
#5
Tomáš Balhárek, Juraj Marcinek, Lukáš Plank
As a result of increasing knowledge, the validity of any tumour classification could not be unlimited. The aim of this article is to review the most important changes in the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms of a non-Hodgkin type that have been announced and published in relation to its revision in 2016. These changes are based on better understanding of pathogenesis and genetics of diseases, refine diagnostic criteria, reflect existence of rare forms and introduce new provisional categories of lymphoid neoplasms...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937680/salinomycin-kills-cancer-stem-cells-by-sequestering-iron-in-lysosomes
#6
Trang Thi Mai, Ahmed Hamaï, Antje Hienzsch, Tatiana Cañeque, Sebastian Müller, Julien Wicinski, Olivier Cabaud, Christine Leroy, Amandine David, Verónica Acevedo, Akihide Ryo, Christophe Ginestier, Daniel Birnbaum, Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Patrice Codogno, Maryam Mehrpour, Raphaël Rodriguez
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells within tumours that exhibit self-renewal properties and the capacity to seed tumours. CSCs are typically refractory to conventional treatments and have been associated to metastasis and relapse. Salinomycin operates as a selective agent against CSCs through mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that a synthetic derivative of salinomycin, which we named ironomycin (AM5), exhibits a more potent and selective activity against breast CSCs in vitro and in vivo, by accumulating and sequestering iron in lysosomes...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937626/aspalathin-reverts-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-through-increased-autophagy-and-decreased-expression-of-p53-mtor-p62-signaling
#7
Rabia Johnson, Samukelisiwe Shabalala, Johan Louw, Abidemi Paul Kappo, Christo John Frederick Muller
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various cancers. Its clinical use is often limited due to its potentially fatal cardiotoxic side effect. Increasing evidence indicates that tumour protein p53 (p53), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), nucleoporin p62 (p62), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are critical mediators of Dox-induced apoptosis, and subsequent dysregulation of autophagy. Aspalathin, a polyphenolic dihydrochalcone C-glucoside has been shown to activate AMPK while decreasing the expression of p53...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937595/the-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-utility-of-molecular-testing-in-a-patient-with-waldenstrom-s-macroglobulinemia
#8
Collin K Chin, Connull Leslie, Carolyn S Grove, Chris Van Vliet, Chan Yoon Cheah
The application of molecular genomics and our understanding of its clinical implications in the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders has rapidly evolved over the past few years. Of particular importance are indolent B-cell malignancies where tumour cell survival and proliferation are commonly driven by mutations involving the B-cell receptor and downstream signalling pathways. In addition, the increasing number of novel therapies and targeted agents have provided clinicians with new therapeutic options with the aim of exploiting such mutations...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937331/ameloblastoma-resection-with-immediate-rib-reconstruction-addressing-the-problem-of-mandibular-angle-and-central-bone-bulk
#9
O Kenneth Johnson, Kapil Sharma
Several methods are available to treat mandibular tumours. This case series demonstrates the feasibility of resection and immediate reconstruction with free rib graft in limited resource settings. Innovative technical modifications are described to handle the problem of reconstruction of the angle of the mandible and to provide increased bone bulk in the centre of the mandible. Early postoperative complications are few. Follow-up demonstrates good functional results.
October 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937270/feasibility-of-free-breathing-lung-mri-for-radiotherapy-using-non-cartesian-k-space-acquisition-schemes
#10
Shivani Kumar, Robba Rai, Alto Stemmer, Sonal Josan, Lois Holloway, Shalini Vinod, Daniel Moses, Gary Liney
OBJECTIVES: To test a free breathing MRI protocol for anatomical and functional assessment during lung cancer radiotherapy by assessing two non-cartesian acquisition schemes based on a T1W 3D gradient recall echo sequence: (i) stack-of stars (StarVIBE) and (ii) spiral (SpiralVIBE) trajectories Methods: MR images on five healthy volunteers were acquired on a wide bore 3T scanner (Skyra, Siemens Healthcare). Anatomical image quality was assessed on: (1) free breathing (StarVIBE), (2) the standard clinical sequence (VIBE) acquired in a 20 second compliant breath-hold and (3) 20 second non-complaint breath-hold...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937269/dose-escalation-using-contact-x-ray-brachytherapy-papillon-for-rectal-cancer-does-it-improve-the-chance-of-organ-preservation
#11
Arthur Sun Myint, Fraser McLean Smith, Simon William Gollins, Helen Wong, Christopher Rao, Karen Whitmarsh, Raj Sripadam, Paul Rooney, Michael Jeremy Hershman, Zsolt Fekete, Kate Perkins, D Mark Pritchard
OBJECTIVE: A watch and wait policy for patients with a complete clinical response (cCR) after external beam chemoradiotherapy (EBCRT) for rectal cancer is an attractive option. However, approximately a third of tumours will regrow, which requires surgical salvage for cure. We assessed whether contact x-ray brachytherapy (CXB) can improve organ preservation by avoiding surgery for local regrowth. METHODS: From our institutional database, we identified 200 of 573 patients treated by CXB from 2003 to 2012...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937263/imaging-features-of-breast%C3%A2-cancers-on-digital%C3%A2-breast%C3%A2-tomosynthesis%C3%A2-according-to%C3%A2-molecular%C3%A2-subtype-association-with%C3%A2-breast%C3%A2-cancer%C3%A2-detection
#12
Su Hyun Lee, Jung Min Chang, Sung Ui Shin, A Jung Chu, Ann Yi, Nariya Cho, Woo Kyung Moon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate imaging features of breast cancers on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to molecular subtype and to determine whether the molecular subtype affects breast cancer detection on DBT. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved study with a waiver of informed consent. DBT findings of 288 invasive breast cancers were reviewed according to BI-RADS lexicon. Detectability of breast cancer was quantified by the number of readers (0-3) who correctly detected the cancer in an independent blinded review...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937145/immunoreduction-of-ocular-surface-tumours-with-intralesional-interferon-alpha-2a
#13
S E Kim, S M Salvi
PurposeTo share our initial experience in the use of intralesional interferon alpha-2a at primary presentation in ocular surface tumours as a method of immunoreduction prior to definitive surgical management.MethodsCase series of patients referred to Sheffield Ocular Oncology Service with rapidly growing ocular surface tumours, treated with intralesional interferon alpha-2a at first presentation prior to definitive surgical management.ResultsAll three patients, two with conjunctival melanoma and one with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) demonstrated immunoreduction of tumour without any adverse side effects...
September 22, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937015/chronic-noise-exposure-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#14
Anne T M Konkle, Stephen E Keith, James P McNamee, David Michaud
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between the relative risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and long-term exposure to elevated levels of transportation noise. The contention is that this association is largely owing to an increase in stress-related biomarkers that are thought to be associated with CVD. Animal models have demonstrated that acute noise exposure is capable of triggering a stress response; however, similar studies using chronic noise models are less common...
September 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936621/expression-of-inflammatory-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-predicts-the-progression-of-conventional-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-short-report
#15
Gyula Kovacs, Lehel Peterfi, Nelli Farkas, Andras Javorhazy, Csaba Pusztai, Arpad Szanto
BACKGROUND: The mortality of conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) correlates directly with the presence or postoperative development of metastases. The aim of this study was to identify new markers associated with the postoperative progression of conventional RCC. METHODS: Tissue microarrays (TMA) of conventional RCC from a cohort of 414 patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), which was identified as a candidate biomarker through Affymetrix U133 Plus 2...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936339/utility-of-vs38c-in-the-diagnostic-and-prognostic-assessment-of-osteosarcoma-and-other-bone-tumours-tumour-like-lesions
#16
E S Hookway, Z Orosz, Y Uchihara, A Grigoriadis, A B Hassan, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
BACKGROUND: VS38c is a monoclonal antibody that recognises a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) intracellular antigen termed cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein 63. rER is typically found in viable tumour cells and is abundant in osteosarcoma cells. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic utility of VS38c in the histological assessment of osteosarcoma and other bone tumours/tumour-like leisons. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining with VS38c was carried out on formalin-fixed specimens of osteosarcoma (pre/post-chemotherapy) and a wide range of benign and malignant bone lesions...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936089/rescue-measure-in-giant-intracranial-meningioma-resection-by-tranexamic-acid
#17
H Raghavendra, K S Varsha, M Arun Reddy, Samsun Sujith Kumar, G Sunanda, T Nagarjuna, Swarna Latha
Neurosurgeons may find themselves in a precarious situation, while unable to secure haemostasis following tumour resection. We report intraoperative use of tranexamic acid to secure complete haemostasis as rescue measure in intracranial meningioma resection in uncontrollable bleeding.
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935466/morphomechanical-and-structural-changes-induced-by-rock-inhibitor-in-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Mariafrancesca Cascione, Valeria De Matteis, Chiara Cristina Toma, Paolo Pellegrino, Stefano Leporatti, Rosaria Rinaldi
The EMT phenomenon is based on tumour progression. The cells lose their physiologic phenotype and assumed a mesenchymal phenotype characterized by an increased migratory capacity, invasiveness and high resistance to apoptosis. In this process, RHO family regulates the activation or suppression of ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase) which in turn regulates the cytoskeleton dynamics. However, while the biochemical mechanisms are widely investigated, a comprehensive and careful estimation of biomechanical changes has not been extensively addressed...
September 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935451/short-term-outcomes-following-hepatectomy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-within-and-beyond-the-bclc-guidelines-a-prospective-study
#19
Chetana Lim, Chady Salloum, Michael Osseis, Eylon Lahat, Imma G Gavara, Philippe Compagnon, Alain Luciani, Cyrille Feray, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Western guidelines recommend resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in so-called ideal cirrhotic patients with a Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0-A tumour. This study compares short-term outcomes following resection between patients defined as ideal and nonideal according to the BCLC guidelines. METHODS: This prospective single-centre open study (ClinicalTrials.govNCT02145013) included all cirrhotic patients with HCC referred for resection from 2014 to 2016...
September 18, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935367/from-symptom-to-diagnosis-the-prediagnostic-symptomatic-interval-of-pediatric-central-nervous-system-tumors-in-austria
#20
Amedeo A Azizi, Kirsten Heßler, Ulrike Leiss, Chryssa Grylli, Monika Chocholous, Andreas Peyrl, Johannes Gojo, Irene Slavc
BACKGROUND: Children with central nervous system (CNS) tumours may present with a multitude of symptoms, ranging from elevated intracranial pressure to focal neurological deficit. In everyday practice, some signs may be misleading, thereby causing prolonged prediagnostic symptomatic intervals. Prediagnostic symptomatic intervals are longer for pediatric brain tumors than for other childhood malignancies. This study evaluated prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and parental and diagnostic intervals for pediatric patients with CNS tumours in Austria...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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