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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343379/hepatitis-c-virus-nonstructural-5a-protein-hcv-ns5a-inhibits-hepatocyte-apoptosis-through-the-nf-kappab-mir-503-bcl-2-pathway
#1
Xie Zheng Yuan, Xiao Zhi Hua, Wang Fen Fen
The nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) encoded by the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome is a multifunctional phosphoprotein. To analyse the influence of NS5A on apoptosis, we established an Hep-NS5A cell line (HepG2 cells that stably express NS5A) and induced apoptosis using tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. We utilised the MTT assay to detect cell viability, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyse gene and protein expression, and a luciferase reporter gene experiment to investigate the targeted regulatory relationship...
March 27, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343330/human-papilloma-virus-hpv-infection-leads-to-the-development-of-head-and-neck-lesions-but-offers-better-prognosis-in-malignant-indian-patients
#2
Shreya Sarkar, Neyaz Alam, Jayanta Chakraborty, Jaydip Biswas, Syam Sundar Mandal, Susanta Roychoudhury, Chinmay Kumar Panda
Head and neck cancers constitute a multifactorial global disease burden and are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) as a possible risk factor. The aim of the study is to understand the relationship between HPV and the development of head and neck lesions in Indian patients. To this end, frequency of HPV was assessed in relation to different demographic and etiological features and correlated with patient survival. The prevalence of HPV significantly increased from mild dysplastic lesions (43.6%) to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) stage IV (68...
March 25, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343291/intercalary-frozen-autograft-for-reconstruction-of-malignant-bone-and-soft-tissue-tumours
#3
Karem M Zekry, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Takashi Higuchi, Kensaku Abe, Yuta Taniguchi, Ali Zein A A Alkhooly, Ahmed Saleh Abd-Elfattah, Ezzat H Fouly, Adel Refaat Ahmed, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
PURPOSE: In 1999, we developed a technique using frozen autografts-tumour-containing bone treated with liquid nitrogen-for the reconstruction of malignant bone tumours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and oncological outcomes of frozen autografts for intercalary reconstruction of malignant bones and soft tissue tumours. METHODS: This retrospective study was designed to assess 34 patients of mean age 35 (range, 6-79) years. The mean follow-up period was 62 (24-214) months...
March 25, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343156/ectopic-acth-producing-large-cell-neuroendocrine-pancoast-tumour-presenting-as-horner-syndrome
#4
Rajanshu Verma, Alexandra Lambert, Harold H Katz, Scott J Benson
We present an interesting case where a patient is presented with a droopy left eyelid (as part of Horner syndrome) and Cushingoid features which were a result of a Pancoast tumour (apical lung tumour in superior pulmonary sulcus) involving the left lung. This tumour was secreting ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a paraneoplastic endocrine phenomenon, which resulted in Cushing syndrome symptomatology. Though most ectopic ACTH-producing lung cancers are either small cell or carcinoid tumours, this was in fact a large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC)...
March 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343069/linc00152-promotes-cancer-progression-in-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Xin Deng, Xiao Fang Zhao, Xing Qiu Liang, Ran Chen, Yi Feng Pan, Jian Liang
BACKGROUND: The X protein (HBx) plays as a key role in hepatocarcinogenesis associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. The study aimed to figure out the role of Linc00152 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the association between the expression levels of Linc00152 and HBx. METHODS: QRT-PCR assays were applied to analyzed the expression levels of Linc00152 and HBx. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was performed to identify the association between LINC00152 and the over survival time (OS) in HCC patients...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342782/the-modified-glasgow-prognostic-score-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#6
Rossel Morhij, Ashish Mahendra, Mike Jane, Donald C McMillan
BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of markers of the systemic inflammatory response in patients with soft tissue and bone sarcomas remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the prognostic value of markers of the systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing surgery for primary soft tissue and bone sarcoma. METHOD: Patients who underwent resection of primary soft tissue/bone sarcoma between 2008 and 2012 and had pre-operative measurements of the systemic inflammatory response [C-reactive protein, albumin, white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, and the combination of C-reactive protein and albumin (mGPS)] were included in the study (n = 111)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342648/the-first-clinical-implementation-of-a-real-time-six-degree-of-freedom-target-tracking-system-during-radiation-therapy-based-on-kilovoltage-intrafraction-monitoring-kim
#7
Doan Trang Nguyen, Ricky O'Brien, Jung-Ha Kim, Chen-Yu Huang, Lee Wilton, Peter Greer, Kimberley Legge, Jeremy T Booth, Per Rugaard Poulsen, Jarad Martin, Paul J Keall
PURPOSE: We present the first clinical implementation of a real-time six-degree of freedom (6DoF) Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring (KIM) system which tracks the cancer target translational and rotational motions during treatment. The method was applied to measure and correct for target motion during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer. METHODS: Patient: A patient with prostate adenocarcinoma undergoing SBRT with 36.25Gy, delivered in 5 fractions was enrolled in the study...
March 22, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342640/systematic-review-links-the-prevalence-of-intraductal-carcinoma-of-the-prostate-to-prostate-cancer-risk-categories
#8
Laura H Porter, Mitchell G Lawrence, Dragan Ilic, David Clouston, Damien M Bolton, Mark Frydenberg, Declan G Murphy, Carmel Pezaro, Gail P Risbridger, Renea A Taylor
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is associated with poor prognosis. While it is often regarded as a rare pathology, the prevalence of IDC-P remains unclear, with variable reports from small and disparate patient populations. To determine how common IDC-P is across the spectrum of prostate cancer, we conducted a systematic review correlating IDC-P prevalence with prostate cancer risk. Electronic searches of the OVID Medline, PubMed, and Scopus literature databases identified 38 patient cohorts in 24 articles, which were divided between four prostate cancer risk categories (low, moderate, high, and recurrent or metastatic disease)...
March 22, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342453/ionizing-radiation-biomarkers-in-epidemiological-studies-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Janet Hall, Penny A Jeggo, Catharine West, Maria Gomolka, Roel Quintens, Christophe Badie, Olivier Laurent, An Aerts, Nataša Anastasov, Omid Azimzadeh, Tamara Azizova, Sarah Baatout, Bjorn Baselet, Mohammed A Benotmane, Eric Blanchardon, Yann Guéguen, Siamak Haghdoost, Mats Harms-Ringhdahl, Julia Hess, Michaela Kreuzer, Dominique Laurier, Ellina Macaeva, Grainne Manning, Eileen Pernot, Jean-Luc Ravanat, Laure Sabatier, Karine Tack, Soile Tapio, Horst Zitzelsberger, Elisabeth Cardis
Recent epidemiology studies highlighted the detrimental health effects of exposure to low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiation (IR): nuclear industry workers studies have shown increased leukaemia and solid tumour risks following cumulative doses of <100mSv and dose rates of <10mGy per year; paediatric patients studies have reported increased leukaemia and brain tumours risks after doses of 30-60mGy from computed tomography scans. Questions arise, however, about the impact of even lower doses and dose rates where classical epidemiological studies have limited power but where subsets within the large cohorts are expected to have an increased risk...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342387/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-putative-human-polyomavirus
#10
Tarik Gheit, Sankhadeep Dutta, Javier Oliver, Alexis Robitaille, Shalaka Hampras, Jean-Damien Combes, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Neil Fenske, Basil Cherpelis, Anna R Giuliano, Silvia Franceschi, James McKay, Dana E Rollison, Massimo Tommasino
The small double-stranded DNA polyomaviruses (PyVs) form a family of 73 species, whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds. So far, 13 PyVs have been isolated in humans, and some of them have clearly been associated with several diseases, including cancer. In this study, we describe the isolation of a novel PyV in human skin using a sensitive degenerate PCR protocol combined with next-generation sequencing. The new virus, named Lyon IARC PyV (LIPyV), has a circular genome of 5269 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses showed that LIPyV is related to the raccoon PyV identified in neuroglial tumours in free-ranging raccoons...
March 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341420/brain-metastasization-of-breast-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Tânia Custódio-Santos, Mafalda Videira, Maria Alexandra Brito
Central nervous system metastases have been reported in 15-25% of breast cancer patients, and the incidence is increasing. Moreover, the survival of these patients is generally poor, with reports of a 1-year survival rate of 20%. Therefore, a better knowledge about the determinants of brain metastasization is essential for the improvement of the clinical outcomes. Here, we summarize the current data about the metastatic cascade, ranging from the output of cancer cells from the primary tumour to their colonization in the brain, which involves the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion of mammary tissue, intravasation into circulation, and homing into and extravasation towards the brain...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340320/protective-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-on-methotrexate-induced-oxidative-lung-injury-in-rats
#12
Huseyin Arpag, Mehmet Gül, Yusuf Aydemir, Nurhan Atilla, Birgül Yiğitcan, Tugrul Cakir, Cemal Polat, Özer Þehirli, Muhammet Sayan
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of methotrexate induced lung injury (MILI). Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), which occurs naturally in human food, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to research the potential protective role of ALA on MILI in rats. METHODS: Twenty one rats were randomly subdivided into three groups: control (group I), methotrexate (MTX) treated (group II), and MTX+ALA treated (group III). Lung injury was performed with a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) to groups 2 and 3...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340282/carfilzomib-induces-leukaemia-cell-apoptosis-via-inhibiting-elk1-kiaa1524-elk-1-cip2a-and-activating-pp2a-not-related-to-proteasome-inhibition
#13
Chun-Yu Liu, Feng-Shu Hsieh, Pei-Yi Chu, Wen-Chun Tsai, Chun-Teng Huang, Yuan-Bin Yu, Tzu-Ting Huang, Po-Shen Ko, Man-Hsin Hung, Wan-Lun Wang, Chung-Wai Shiau, Kuen-Feng Chen
Enhancing the tumour suppressive activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been suggested to be an anti-leukaemic strategy. KIAA1524 (also termed CIP2A), an oncoprotein inhibiting PP2A, is associated with disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia and may be prognostic in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia. Here we demonstrated that the selective proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib, induced apoptosis in sensitive primary leukaemia cells and in sensitive leukaemia cell lines, associated with KIAA1524 protein downregulation, increased PP2A activity and decreased p-Akt, but not with the proteasome inhibition effect of carfilzomib...
March 24, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339935/nephrotoxicity-of-anticancer-treatment
#14
Jolanta Malyszko, Klaudia Kozlowska, Leszek Kozlowski, Jacek Malyszko
Severe adverse systemic drug events occur commonly as a result of treatment of cancer patients. Nephrotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents remains a significant complication limiting the efficacy of the treatment. A variety of renal disease and electrolyte disorders can result from the drugs that are used to treat malignant disease. The kidneys are a major elimination pathway for many antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites. Tumour lysis syndrome, an emergency in haematooncology, occurs most often after the initiation of cytotoxic therapy in patients with high-grade lymphomas and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia...
October 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339783/a-stochastic-model-for-tumour-control-probability-that-accounts-for-repair-from-sublethal-damage
#15
Ana Victoria Ponce Bobadilla, Philip K Maini, Helen Byrne
The tumour control probability (TCP) is the probability that a treatment regimen of radiation therapy (RT) eradicates all tumour cells in a given tissue. To decrease the toxic effects on healthy cells, RT is usually delivered over a period of weeks in a series of fractions. This allows tumour cells to repair sublethal damage (RSD) caused by radiation. In this article, we introduce a stochastic model for tumour response to radiotherapy which accounts for the effects of RSD. The tumour is subdivided into two cell types: 'affected' cells which have been damaged by RT and 'unaffected' cells which have not...
February 26, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338841/out-of-field-dose-measurements-for-3d-conformal-and-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-of-a-paediatric-brain-tumour
#16
Marija Majer, Liliana Stolarczyk, Marijke De Saint-Hubert, Damian Kabat, Željka Kneževic, Saveta Miljanic, Natalia Mojzeszek, Roger Harrison
The purpose of this study was to measure out-of-field organ doses in clinical conditions in anthropomorphic paediatric phantoms which received a simulated treatment of a brain tumour with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT). Organ doses measured with radiophotoluminescent and thermoluminescent dosemeters were on average 1.6 and 3.0 times higher for the 5 y-old than for the 10 y-old phantom for IMRT and 3D CRT, respectively. A larger 5-y to 10-y organ dose ratio for 3D CRT can be explained because the use of a mechanical wedge for the 5-y-old 3D CRT phantom treatment increased out-of-field doses...
February 27, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338731/purification-and-enzymatic-characterization-of-gallus-gallus-blm-helicase
#17
Jing Shi, Na-Nv Liu, Yan-Tao Yang, Xu-Guang Xi
Mutations in human BLM helicase give rise to the autosomal recessive Bloom syndrome, which shows high predisposition to types of malignant tumours. Though lots of biochemical and structural investigations have shed lights on the helicase core, structural investigations of the whole BLM protein are still limited due to its low stability and production. Here by comparing with the expression systems and functions of other BLM homologues, we developed the heterologous high-level expression and high-yield purification systems for Gallus gallus BLM (gBLM) in Escherichia coli...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338660/germline-and-somatic-genetics-of-osteosarcoma-connecting-aetiology-biology-and-therapy
#18
REVIEW
D Matthew Gianferante, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage
Clinical outcomes and treatment modalities for osteosarcoma, the most common primary cancer of bone, have changed very little over the past 30 years. The peak incidence of osteosarcoma occurs during the adolescent growth spurt, which suggests that bone growth and pubertal hormones are important in the aetiology of the disease. Tall stature, high birth weight and certain inherited cancer predisposition syndromes are well-described risk factors for osteosarcoma. Common genetic variants are also associated with osteosarcoma...
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338588/-vertical-midface-lifting-with-periorbital-anchoring-in-the-management-of-lower-eyelid-retraction-a-ten-year-clinical-retrospective-study
#19
Michele Pascali, Chiara Botti, Valerio Cervelli, Giovanni Botti
BACKGROUND: Lower eyelid retraction can be the unfortunate result of aesthetic surgery, trauma, disease or simply aging processes. The purpose of this article is to assess whether midface lifting based on purely vertical repositioning constitutes an effective procedure for its correction. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on 199 patients (311 eyelids) operated on between January 2004 and January 2014. The various causes of eyelid retraction in this population comprised cosmetic blepharoplasty (56...
March 3, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338471/generalized-psf-modelling-for-optimized-quantitation-in-pet-imaging
#20
Saeed Ashrafinia, Hassan Mohy-Ud-Din, Nicolas Karakatsanis, Abhinav Jha, Michael Casey, Dan Kadrmas, Arman Rahmim
Point-Spread Function (PSF) modelling offers the capability to account for resolution degrading phenomena within the PET reconstruction framework. PSF modelling improves resolution and enhances contrast, but at the same time significantly alters image noise properties and induces edge overshoot effect. Thus, studying the effect of PSF modelling on quantitation task performance can be very important. Frameworks explored in the past involve a dichotomy of PSF vs. no-PSF modelling. By contrast, the present work focuses on quantitative performance evaluation of standard uptake value (SUV) PET images, while incorporating a wide spectrum of PSF models, including those that under- and over-estimate the true PSF, for the potential of enhanced quantitation of standardized uptake values (SUVs)...
March 24, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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