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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338916/violent-offenders-respond-to-provocations-with-high-amygdala-and-striatal-reactivity
#1
Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Patrick MacDonald Fisher, Liv Vadskjær Hjordt, Erik Perfalk, Anine Persson Skibsted, Camilla Bock, Anders Ohlhues Baandrup, Marie Deen Christensen, Carsten Thomsen, Dorte Sestoft, Gitte M Knudsen
The ability to successfully suppress impulses and angry affect is fundamental to control aggressive reactions following provocations. The aim of this study was to examine neural responses to provocations and aggression using a laboratory model of reactive aggression. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging point-subtraction aggression paradigm in 44 men, of whom 18 were incarcerated violent offenders and 26 were control non-offenders. We measured brain activation following provocations (monetary subtractions), while the subjects had the possibility to behave aggressively or pursue monetary rewards...
March 8, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338897/specialized-information-processing-deficits-and-distinct-metabolomic-profiles-following-tm-domain-disruption-of-nrg1
#2
Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Naina Mathur, Matthew J O'Callaghan, Lynsey MacIntyre, Richard Harvey, Donna Lai, John L Waddington, Benjamin S Pickard, David G Watson, Paula M Moran
Although there is considerable genetic and pathologic evidence for an association between neuregulin 1 (NRG1) dysregulation and schizophrenia, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Mutant mice containing disruption of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the NRG1 gene constitute a heuristic model for dysregulation of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in schizophrenia. The present study focused on hitherto uncharacterized information processing phenotypes in this mutant line. Using a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we also quantified levels of unique metabolites in brain...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336432/behavioral-abnormalities-and-reduced-norepinephrine-in-ep4-receptor-associated-protein-eprap-deficient-mice
#3
Risako Fujikawa, Sei Higuchi, Taichi Ikedo, Manabu Nagata, Kosuke Hayashi, Tao Yang, Takeshi Miyata, Masayuki Yokode, Manabu Minami
EP4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) is a newly identified molecule that regulates macrophage activation. We recently demonstrated the presence of EPRAP in the mice brain; however, little is known about the function of EPRAP in this tissue. Therefore, we investigated the role of EPRAP in behavior and emotion using behavioral analysis in mice. In this study, we subjected EPRAP-deficient (KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. EPRAP-KO mice tended to have shorter latencies to fall in the wire hang test, but had normal neuromuscular strength...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336394/ts1cje-down-syndrome-model-mice-exhibit-environmental-stimuli-triggered-locomotor-hyperactivity-and-sociability-concurrent-with-increased-flux-through-central-dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism
#4
Atsushi Shimohata, Keiichi Ishihara, Satoko Hattori, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Hiromasa Morishita, Guy Ornthanalai, Matthieu Raveau, Abdul Shukkur Ebrahim, Kenji Amano, Kazuyuki Yamada, Haruhiko Sago, Satoshi Akiba, Nobuko Mataga, Niall P Murphy, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Ts1Cje mice have a segmental trisomy of chromosome 16 that is orthologous to human chromosome 21 and display Down syndrome-like cognitive impairments. Despite the occurrence of affective and emotional impairments in patients with Down syndrome, these parameters are poorly documented in Down syndrome mouse models, including Ts1Cje mice. Here, we conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses, including anxiety-, sociability-, and depression-related tasks, and biochemical analyses of monoamines and their metabolites in Ts1Cje mice...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334166/grk5-regulates-social-behavior-via-suppression-of-mtorc1-signaling-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Bing Niu, Peipei Liu, Minjie Shen, Cao Liu, Li Wang, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Impairments in social behaviors are features of a number of psychiatric diseases associated with subtle alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 5 is widely expressing in the cortex, however, its role in regulation of the mPFC activity and the development of social behaviors and psychiatric disorders is unclear. Here, we found that GRK5 dificiency in mice caused social behavior impairments. Further morphological, electrophysiological, and biochemical analyses showed abnormal postsynaptic ultrastructure, impaired excitatory synaptic transmission, the increased association of raptor with mTOR, and overactivated mTORC1-S6K signaling in the mPFC of Grk5-/- mice...
February 27, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333924/csl-encodes-a-leucine-rich-repeat-protein-implicated-in-red-violet-light-signaling-to-the-circadian-clock-in-chlamydomonas
#6
Ayumi Kinoshita, Yoshimi Niwa, Kiyoshi Onai, Takashi Yamano, Hideya Fukuzawa, Masahiro Ishiura, Takuya Matsuo
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii shows various light responses in behavior and physiology. One such photoresponse is the circadian clock, which can be reset by external light signals to entrain its oscillation to daily environmental cycles. In a previous report, we suggested that a light-induced degradation of the clock protein ROC15 is a trigger to reset the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas. However, light signaling pathways of this process remained unclear. Here, we screened for mutants that show abnormal ROC15 diurnal rhythms, including the light-induced protein degradation at dawn, using a luciferase fusion reporter...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332124/use-of-physical-restraints-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-ethiopian-mental-specialized-hospital-outpatient-department-cross-sectional-study
#7
Habte Belete
BACKGROUND: Even though United Nation announced that all persons with a mental illness shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being, up to now, the use of coercion (physical restrain) is still considered as unavoidable in managing abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients. But, there is no information regarding the magnitude and contributing factors of physical restrain among bipolar patients in low-income countries like Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 400 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332006/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-decreases-the-release-of-dopamine-in-the-medial-frontal-cortex-and-induces-atomoxetine-responsive-neurobehavioral-deficits-in-mice
#8
Tursun Alkam, Takayoshi Mamiya, Nami Kimura, Aya Yoshida, Daisuke Kihara, Yuki Tsunoda, Yuki Aoyama, Masayuki Hiramatsu, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is partly associated with the early developmental exposure to nicotine in tobacco smoke. Emerging reports link tobacco smoke exposure or prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) with AD/HD-like behaviors in rodent models. We have previously reported that PNE induces cognitive behavioral deficits in offspring and decreases the contents of dopamine (DA) and its turnover in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of offspring It is well known that the dysfunction of DAergic system in the brain is one of the core factors in the pathophysiology of AD/HD...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331341/investigating-the-expression-effect-and-tumorigenic-pathway-of-padi2-in-tumors
#9
Wei Guo, Yabing Zheng, Bing Xu, Fang Ma, Chang Li, Xiaoqian Zhang, Yao Wang, Xiaotian Chang
BACKGROUND: Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues, termed citrullination. Recent studies have suggested that PAD isoform 2 (PADI2) plays an important role in tumors, although its tumorigenic effect and mechanism are largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to investigate the expression level of PADI2 in various tumor tissues and patient blood samples, respectively...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329842/magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-progressive-brain-injury-in-rats-acutely-intoxicated-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#10
Brad A Hobson, Sílvia Sisó, Douglas J Rowland, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Acute intoxication with organophosphates (OPs) can trigger seizures that progress to status epilepticus, and survivors often exhibit chronic neuropathology, cognitive impairment, affective disorders and/or electroencephalographic abnormalities. Understanding how acute injury transitions to persistent neurological sequelae is critical to developing medical countermeasures for mitigating damage following OP-induced seizures. Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of neuropathology for one month after acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328571/neuropathic-pain-induced-enhancement-of-spontaneous-and-pain-evoked-neuronal-activity-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-that-is-attenuated-by-gabapentin
#11
Vijay K Samineni, Louis S Premkumar, Carl L Faingold
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating pathological condition that is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal central processing occurs during the development of neuropathic pain induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. Yet, it is unclear what role neurons in supraspinal pain network sites, such as the periaqueductal gray, play in altered behavioral sensitivity seen during chronic pain conditions. To elucidate these mechanisms, we studied the spontaneous and thermally-evoked firing patterns of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons in awake behaving rats treated with paclitaxel to induce neuropathic pain...
March 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328133/an-xq22-1q22-2-nullisomy-in-a-male-patient-with-severe-neurological-impairment
#12
Kentaro Shirai, Yuya Higashi, Keiko Shimojima, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
The proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) is located on chromosome Xq22.2 and is related to X-linked recessive leukoencephalopathy (Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: PMD). Compared to PLP1 duplications, which are a major contributor to PMD, chromosomal deletions in this region are rare and only a few PMD patients with small deletions have been reported, suggesting that large deletions of this region would cause embryonic lethality. Previously, we have reported female patients, with chromosomal deletions in this region, who showed severe developmental delays and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327144/computational-medical-imaging-and-hemodynamics-framework-for-functional-analysis-and-assessment-of-cardiovascular-structures
#13
REVIEW
Kelvin K L Wong, Defeng Wang, Jacky K L Ko, Jagannath Mazumdar, Thu-Thao Le, Dhanjoo Ghista
Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential...
March 21, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327107/brain-structure-differences-among-male-schizophrenic-patients-with-history-of-serious-violent-acts-an-mri-voxel-based-morphometric-study
#14
Noriomi Kuroki, Hiroko Kashiwagi, Miho Ota, Masanori Ishikawa, Hiroshi Kunugi, Noriko Sato, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Toshio Ota
BACKGROUND: The biological underpinnings of serious violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts, who were being treated under relatively new legislation for offenders with mental illness in Japan where their relevant action should be strongly associated with their mental illness. We also investigated whether morphometric changes would depend on types of serious violent actions or not...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326910/circadian-rhythms-in-plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-differ-in-men-and-women
#15
Sean W Cain, Anne-Marie Chang, Irma Vlasac, Archana Tare, Clare Anderson, Charles A Czeisler, Richa Saxena
The measurement of circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a marker of disease and an indicator of recovery. Thus, knowing the temporal pattern and influence of potential circadian rhythms is important. Although several studies have measured BDNF at different times of day, no studies have done so while controlling for potential masking influences such as sleep and activity. Further, no previous study has examined circadian rhythms within individuals. We examined circadian rhythms in plasma BDNF while minimizing masking from behavioral and environmental factors using a 30-h constant routine (CR) protocol...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326890/functional-and-molecular-correlates-following-single-and-repeated-rat-closed-head-concussion-indices-of-vulnerability-following-brain-injury
#16
Andrea Mountney, Angela Boutte, Casandra M Cartagena, William J Flerlage, David Johnson, Chanyang Rho, Xi-Chun M Lu, Angela M Yarnell, Sean R Marcsisin, Jason Sousa, Chau Vuong, Victor E Zottig, Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Janice Gilsdorf, Frank C Tortella, Deborah A Shear
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Isolated concussions frequently produce acute neurological impairments; however, individuals typically recover spontaneously within a short time frame. In contrast, brain injuries resulting from multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and elevated risk of developing chronic brain pathologies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Increased attention has focused on identification of diagnostic markers that can prognostically serve as indices of brain health after injury, revealing the temporal profile of vulnerability to a second insult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326054/dynamical-constants-and-time-universals-a-first-step-toward-a-metrical-definition-of-ordered-and-abnormal-cognition
#17
REVIEW
Mark A Elliott, Naomi du Bois
From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326016/early-origin-and-evolution-of-the-angelman-syndrome-ubiquitin-ligase-gene-ube3a
#18
REVIEW
Masaaki Sato
The human Ube3a gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and exhibits brain-specific genomic imprinting. Genetic abnormalities that affect the maternal copy of this gene cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS), which is characterized by severe mental retardation, speech impairment, seizure, ataxia and some unique behavioral phenotypes. In this review article, I highlight the evolution of the Ube3a gene and its imprinting to provide evolutionary insights into AS. Recent comparative genomic studies have revealed that Ube3a is most phylogenetically similar to HECTD2 among the human HECT (homologous to the E6AP carboxyl terminus) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, and its distant evolutionary origin can be traced to common ancestors of fungi and animals...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325525/clinical-heterogeneity-of-glycine-encephalopathy-in-three-palestinian-siblings-a-novel-mutation-in-the-glycine-decarboxylase-gldc-gene
#19
Waseem Khraim, Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Suhail Ayesh, Imad Dweikat
INTRODUCTION: Glycine encephalopathy (GE), also known as non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), is a rare inborn error of glycine metabolism caused by a defect in glycine cleavage system, a multi-enzyme complex located in mitochondrial membrane. This defect results in elevated glycine concentration in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Clinical manifestations vary from severe lethargy, hypoactivity and apneic episodes in the neonatal form, mild or moderate psychomotor delay and seizures in the infantile form, and abnormal behaviors, ataxia and choreoathetoid movements in late onset form...
March 18, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325022/comparing-glucose-and-insulin-data-from-the-two-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects-and-marathon-runners
#20
Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong
Glucose is the main energy source of the body's cells and is essential for normal metabolism. Two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are involved in glucose home-ostasis. Alteration in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations could lead to distinct symptoms and diseases, ranging from mental function impairment to coma and even death. Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are typical examples of abnormal glucose metabolism that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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