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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635306/self-injurious-behaviors-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-enrolled-in-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#1
Gnakub Norbert Soke, Steven A Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Roma A Vasa, Li-Ching Lee, Carolyn DiGuiseppi
We assessed potential factors associated with "current" or "ever" self-injurious behaviors, reported in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, among children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 692) from the Study to Explore Early Development. Data on factors examined were obtained from questionnaires, standardized clinical instruments, and birth certificates. We employed a log-binomial regression to assess these associations. Although most associations were quite similar for currently and ever exhibiting self-injurious behaviors, a few differences were noted...
June 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634598/previously-unrecognized-behavioral-phenotype-in-gaucher-disease-type-3
#2
Magy Abdelwahab, Michael Potegal, Elsa G Shapiro, Igor Nestrasil
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive description of abnormal behaviors in patients with Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) and relate these behaviors to demographic, neurodevelopmental, and neurologic characteristics. METHODS: Thirty-four Egyptian patients with GD3 (mean age of 7.9 years) were enrolled in the study. They were selected based on parent report and/or physician observation of one or more abnormal behaviors documented in 2 settings and by 2 different individuals and/or by video recording...
June 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634445/antioxidant-treatment-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-prevents-the-development-of-cognitive-and-social-behavioral-deficits-that-result-from-perinatal-ketamine-treatment
#3
Aarron Phensy, Hasmik E Duzdabanian, Samantha Brewer, Anurag Panjabi, Christopher Driskill, Annuska Berz, George Peng, Sven Kroener
Alterations of the normal redox state can be found in all stages of schizophrenia, suggesting a key role for oxidative stress in the etiology and maintenance of the disease. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors can disrupt natural antioxidant defense systems and induce schizophrenia-like behaviors in animals and healthy human subjects. Perinatal administration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine produces persistent behavioral deficits in adult mice which mimic a range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that characterize schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#4
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633508/rescue-of-peripheral-vestibular-function-in-usher-syndrome-mice-using-a-splice-switching-antisense-oligonucleotide
#5
Sarath Vijayakumar, Frederic F Depreux, Francine M Jodelka, Jennifer J Lentz, Frank Rigo, Timothy A Jones, Michelle L Hastings
Usher syndrome type 1C (USH1C/harmonin) is associated with profound retinal, auditory and vestibular dysfunction. We have previously reported on an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-29) that dramatically improves auditory function and balance behavior in mice homozygous for the harmonin mutation Ush1c c.216G>A following a single systemic administration. The findings were suggestive of improved vestibular function; however, no direct vestibular assessment was made. Here, we measured vestibular sensory evoked potentials (VsEPs) to directly assess vestibular function in Usher mice...
June 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633291/p2x7-receptors-drive-spine-synapse-plasticity-in-the-learned-helplessness-model-of-depression
#6
L Otrokocsi, Á Kittel, B Sperlágh
Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments, however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632874/screening-for-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#7
David C Grossman, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance)...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631721/disc1-in-astrocytes-influences-adult-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-behaviors-in-mice
#10
Chantelle E Terrillion, Bagrat Abazyan, Zhongxi Yang, Joshua Crawford, Alexey V Shevelkin, Yan Jouroukhin, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Robin Roychaudhuri, Solomon H Snyder, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Mikhail V Pletnikov
The functional role of genetic variants in glia in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remains poorly studied. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a genetic risk factor implicated in major mental disorders, has been implicated in regulation of astrocyte functions. As both astrocytes and DISC1 influence adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, we hypothesized that selective expression of dominant-negative C-terminus truncated human DISC1 (mutant DISC1) in astrocytes would affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent behaviors...
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630658/evidence-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-biochemical-links-genetic-based-associations-and-non-energy-related-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Keren K Griffiths, Richard J Levy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States, represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behavior. The underlying cause of autism is unknown and therapy is currently limited to targeting behavioral abnormalities. Emerging studies suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ASD. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating this potential connection...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630298/hypocretin-orexin-is-critical-in-sustaining-theta-gamma-rich-waking-behaviors-that-drive-sleep-need
#12
Anne Vassalli, Paul Franken
Hcrt gene inactivation in mice leads to behavioral state instability, abnormal transitions to paradoxical sleep, and cataplexy, hallmarks of narcolepsy. Sleep homeostasis is, however, considered unimpaired in patients and narcoleptic mice. We find that whereas Hcrt(ko/ko) mice respond to 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) with a slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG δ (1.0 to 4.0 Hz) power rebound like WT littermates, spontaneous waking fails to induce a δ power reflecting prior waking duration. This correlates with impaired θ (6...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#13
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630111/investigation-of-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-drosophila-model-of-human-epilepsy-with-optogenetic-stimulation
#14
Arunesh Saras, Veronica V Wu, Harlan J Brawer, Mark A Tanouye
We examined seizure-susceptibility in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy using optogenetic stimulation of ReaChR opsin. Photostimulation of the seizure-sensitive mutant para(bss1) causes behavioral paralysis that resembles paralysis caused by mechanical stimulation, in many aspects. Electrophysiology shows that photostimulation evokes abnormal seizure-like neuronal firing in para(bss1) followed by a quiescent period resembling synaptic failure and apparently responsible for paralysis. The pattern of neuronal activity concludes with seizure-like activity just prior to recovery (recovery)...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629963/environmental-enrichment-reduces-innate-anxiety-with-no-effect-on-depression-like-behaviour-in-mice-lacking-the-serotonin-transporter
#15
Jake Rogers, Shanshan Li, Laurence Lanfumey, Anthony J Hannan, Thibault Renoir
Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629384/involvement-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-and-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiao-yao-san-on-chronically-stressed-mice
#16
Xiu-Fang Ding, Yue-Hua Li, Jia-Xu Chen, Long-Ji Sun, Hai-Yan Jiao, Xin-Xin Wang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is an herbal prescription which is used in the treatment of depression for thousands of years from Song dynasty in China (960-1127 A.D.), and is the bestselling and most popular herb formula for treating major depression. This study aimed to assess the chronic antidepressant effects of XYS and fluoxetine in depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its association with  alterations in glutamate/glutamine cycle and glutamate transporters...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628841/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-clinical-features-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Fiona Hollis, Alexandros K Kanellopoulos, Claudia Bagni
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prototypic pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social interaction, and communication deficits, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behavior, and impairments in language and development. Clinical studies have identified mitochondrial disturbances at the levels of DNA, activity, complexes, oxidative stress, and metabolites in blood and urine of ASD patients. However, these observations from postmortem brains or peripheral tissues do not provide a direct link between autism and mitochondria...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628767/multi-modal-neuroimaging-of-adolescents-with-non-suicidal-self-injury-amygdala-functional-connectivity
#18
Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Bryon A Mueller, Lynn E Eberly, Kristina M Reigstad, Patricia A Carstedt, Kathleen M Thomas, Ruskin H Hunt, Kelvin O Lim, Kathryn R Cullen
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant mental health problem among adolescents. Research is needed to clarify the neurobiology of NSSI and identify candidate neurobiological targets for interventions. Based on prior research implicating heightened negative affect and amygdala hyperactivity in NSSI, we pursued a systems approach to characterize amygdala functional connectivity networks during rest (resting-state functional connectivity [RSFC)]) and a task (task functional connectivity [TFC]) in adolescents with NSSI...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625590/intranasal-cotinine-improves-memory-and-reduces-depressive-like-behavior-and-gfap-cells-loss-induced-by-restraint-stress-in-mice
#20
Nelson Perez-Urrutia, Cristhian Mendoza, Nathalie Alvarez-Ricartes, Patricia Oliveros-Matus, Florencia Echeverria, J Alex Grizzell, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Valentina Echeverria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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