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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441394/maternal-obese-type-gut-microbiota-differentially-impact-cognition-anxiety-and-compulsive-behavior-in-male-and-female-offspring-in-mice
#1
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, R Leigh Townsend, Claudia Kruger, Richard Carmouche, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438970/the-severity-of-vestibular-dysfunction-in-deafness-as-a-determinant-of-comorbid-hyperactivity-or-anxiety
#2
Michelle W Antoine, Sarath Vijayakumar, Nicholas McKeehan, Sherri M Jones, Jean M Hébert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety-related disorders occur at rates 2-3 times higher in deaf compared with hearing children. Potential explanations for these elevated rates and the heterogeneity of behavioral disorders associated with deafness have usually focused on socio-environmental rather than biological effects. Children with the 22q11.2 deletion or duplication syndromes often display hearing loss and behavioral disorders including ADHD and anxiety-related disorders. Here, we show that mouse mutants with either a gain- or loss-of-function of the T-Box transcription factor gene, Tbx1, which lies within the 22q11...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438638/adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-neuroimmune-function-through-th17-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-t-ror%C3%AE-t-signaling-in-a-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#3
Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Raish Mohammad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal social interactions, repetitive behaviors that impair social communication, and circumscribed interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice are generally used as a model for ASD, as they show repetitive behaviors and social deficits that resemble signs of ADS in humans. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered as potential targets in the treatment of immune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on behavior (self-grooming), hot plate test results, and expression levels of IL-17A(+), RORγt(+), Foxp3(+), and IL-10(+) in CD4(+) T spleen cells in BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
April 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437681/predicting-wellbeing-among-people-with-epilepsy-using-illness-cognitions
#4
Kirstie A Salter, Kirsty N Prior, Malcolm J Bond
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the synergistic contribution of illness-related perceptions (stigma, severity, and threat) and illness behavior to wellbeing among people with epilepsy. Poorer wellbeing was expected among those who perceived greater stigma, illness severity, and threat and had more extreme illness behavior. METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis of epilepsy (N=210), recruited through local and online support groups, completed a questionnaire comprising demographic and epilepsy-specific information, and validated measures of illness perceptions and behavior, epilepsy-related quality of life, and general psychological health...
April 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436163/social-defeat-models-in-animal-science-what-we-have-learned-from-rodent-models
#5
REVIEW
Atsushi Toyoda
Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435999/neonatal-propofol-anesthesia-changes-expression-of-synaptic-plasticity-proteins-and-increases-stereotypic-and-anxyolitic-behavior-in-adult-rats
#6
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Vladimir Avramovic, Vesna Tesic, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Selma Kanazir, Sabera Ruzdijic
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain...
April 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435973/acclimatization-to-middle-altitude-hypoxia-protects-against-developmental-and-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-acute-fetal-hypoxia-in-mice
#7
Hui-Lang Liu, Yong-Mei Sun, Chuan-Yu Li, Hai-Chen Niu, Min Su, Jing-Kun Wang
Acute fetal hypoxia (AFH) can elicit postnatal motor deficits and cognitive impairments. To test whether lifelong acclimatization to middle altitude (MA) hypoxia has protective effects on the impairments caused by AFH, ICR mice bred at 1 900 m altitude for 6-7 generations were evaluated under AFH. On gestation day 9 (GD 9), 13 (GD 13) or 17 (GD 17), pregnant mice received a single exposure to acute hypoxia (7% O2, 6 h). Physiological and neurodevelopmental behaviors, motor function (open field), spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), and anxiety level (elevated plus maze) were examined in the offspring from neonate to adulthood...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434769/kleine-levin-syndrome-an-update-and-mini-review
#8
REVIEW
Natan Gadoth, Arie Oksenberg
Since 1962, when Critchley and Hoffman coined the term Kleine-Levin Syndrome (KLS) for the triad of hypersomnia, excessive eating and "often abnormal behavior" which they have observed in 11 adolescent boys, the number of patients recognized with this rare syndrome expanded, the spectrum of the clinical presentation, disease course, prognosis, gender specificity and the presence of familial cases were established. However, in spite of the progress made in neuroscience, the search for the cause, neuroanatomy, pathophysiology and drug treatment of KLS is still ongoing...
April 20, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434590/studies-into-abnormal-aggression-in-humans-and-rodents-methodological-and-translational-aspects
#9
REVIEW
Jozsef Haller
Here we review the principles based on which aggression is rendered abnormal in humans and laboratory rodents, and comparatively overview the main methodological approaches based on which this behavior is studied in the two categories of subjects. It appears that the discriminating property of abnormal aggression is rule breaking, which renders aggression dysfunctional from the point of view of the perpetrator. We show that rodent models of abnormal aggression were created by the translation of human conditions into rodent equivalents, and discuss how findings obtained with such models may be "translated back" to human conditions when the mechanisms underlying aggression and its possibilities of treatment are investigated...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434164/microglia-loss-contributes-to-the-development-of-major-depression-induced-by-different-types-of-chronic-stresses
#10
Lijuan Tong, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433802/role-of-environmental-stressors-in-determining-the-developmental-outcome-of-neonatal-anesthesia
#11
Ling-Sha Ju, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Christoph N Seubert, Timothy E Morey, Colin Sumners, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Jian-Jun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies evaluating neurocognition in humans who had procedures under anesthesia early in life found long-term deficits even though the typical anesthesia duration normalized to the human life span is much shorter than that shown to induce developmental abnormalities in rodents. Therefore, we studied whether subsequent environmental stressors contribute to deficiencies programmed by a brief neonatal etomidate exposure. METHODS: Postnatal days (P) 4, 5, or 6, Sprague-Dawley rats, pretreated with vehicle or the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) inhibitor, bumetanide, received two injections of etomidate resulting in anesthesia for 2h...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433461/severely-impaired-adult-brain-neurogenesis-in-cyclin-d2-knock-out-mice-produces-very-limited-phenotypic-changes
#12
REVIEW
Robert K Filipkowski, Leszek Kaczmarek
The discovery of new neurons being produced in the brains of adult mammals (adult brain neurogenesis) began a quest to determine the function(s) of these cells. Major hypotheses in the field have assumed that these neurons play pivotal role, in particular, in learning and memory phenomena, mood control, and epileptogenesis. In our studies summarized herein, we used cyclin D2 knockout (KO) mice, as we have shown that cyclin D2 is the key factor in adult brain neurogenesis and thus its lack produces profound impairment of the process...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432728/expansion-of-the-clinical-phenotype-of-the-distal-10q26-3-deletion-syndrome-to-include-ataxia-and-hyperemia-of-the-hands-and-feet
#13
Melanie Lacaria, Myriam Srour, Jacques L Michaud, Asif Doja, Elka Miller, Jeremy Schwartzentruber, Claire Goldsmith, Jacek Majewski, Kym M Boycott
Distal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 10 is associated with a dysmorphic craniofacial appearance, microcephaly, behavioral issues, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and ocular, urogenital, and limb abnormalities. Herein, we present clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic investigations of four patients, including two siblings, with nearly identical terminal deletions of 10q26.3, all of whom have an atypical presentation of this syndrome. Their prominent features include ataxia, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and hyperemia of the hands and feet, and they do not display many of the other features commonly associated with deletions of this region...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432546/affective-cognitive-and-behavioral-outcomes-associated-with-a-false-positive-ovarian-cancer-screening-test-result
#14
Amanda T Wiggins, Edward J Pavlik, Michael A Andrykowski
While participation in cancer screening can facilitate early detection and improved prognosis, all screening tests yield some proportion of abnormal test results which are later determined benign. These false positive (FP) results can negatively impact affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Women participating in an ovarian cancer (OC) screening program receiving an abnormal screening test result (n = 375) were matched with women receiving normal results (n = 375). Both groups completed a baseline and 1- and 4-month follow-up assessments...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429381/the-structural-connectome-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Marsh Königs, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan, Petra J W Pouwels
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mild to severe pediatric TBI on the structural connectome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+) , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 16) at 2.8 years post-injury. Probabilistic tractography on diffusion tensor imaging data was used in combination with graph theory to study structural connectivity. Functional outcome was measured using neurocognitive tests and parent and teacher questionnaires for behavioral functioning...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#16
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428263/different-requirements-of-functional-telomeres-in-neural-stem-cells-and-terminally-differentiated-neurons
#17
Anastasia Lobanova, Robert She, Simon Pieraut, Charlie Clapp, Anton Maximov, Eros Lazzerini Denchi
Telomeres have been studied extensively in peripheral tissues, but their relevance in the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the roles of telomeres at distinct stages of murine brain development by using lineage-specific genetic ablation of TRF2, an essential component of the shelterin complex that protects chromosome ends from the DNA damage response machinery. We found that functional telomeres are required for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but their uncapping has surprisingly no detectable consequences on terminally differentiated neurons...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426681/preventing-treating-and-predicting-barbering-a-fundamental-role-for-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-trichotillomania
#18
Giovana de L T Vieira, Amy C Lossie, Donald C Lay, John S Radcliffe, Joseph P Garner
Barbering, where a "barber" mouse plucks hair from its cagemates or itself, is both a spontaneously occurring abnormal behavior in mice and a well validated model of Trichotillomania (TTM). N-Acetylcysteine, (NAC) a cysteine derived food additive, is remarkably effective in treating TTM patients, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), also known as free radicals, form as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen. Under normal circumstances, cells are able to defend themselves against ROS damage with antioxidant pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425213/genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-behavioral-characteristics-and-changes-with-age
#19
Joanna Moss, Jessica Penhallow, Morad Ansari, Stephanie Barton, David Bourn, David R FitzPatrick, Judith Goodship, Peter Hammond, Catherine Roberts, Alice Welham, Chris Oliver
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder associated with unusual facial features, limb abnormalities, a wide range of health conditions, and intellectual disability. Mutations in five genes that encode (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or regulate (NIPBL, HDAC8) the cohesin complex have been identified in up to 70% of individuals. Genetic cause remains unknown for a proportion of individuals. There is substantial heterogeneity in all aspects of CdLS but very little is known about what predicts phenotypic heterogeneity...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424597/working-memory-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-neural-basis-of-improved-performance-with-methylphenidate
#20
Anne E Manktelow, David K Menon, Barbara J Sahakian, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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