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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#1
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930069/initial-elevations-in-glutamate-and-dopamine-neurotransmission-decline-with-age-as-does-exploratory-behavior-in-lrrk2-g2019s-knock-in-mice
#2
Mattia Volta, Dayne A Beccano-Kelly, Sarah A Paschall, Stefano Cataldi, Sarah E MacIsaac, Naila Kuhlmann, Chelsie A Kadgien, Igor Tatarnikov, Jesse Fox, Jaskaran Khinda, Emma Mitchell, Sabrina Bergeron, Heather Melrose, Matthew J Farrer, Austen J Milnerwood
LRRK2 mutations produce end-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) with reduced nigrostriatal dopamine. Conversely, asymptomatic carriers have increased dopamine turnover and altered brain connectivity. LRRK2 pathophysiology remains unclear, but reduced dopamine and mitochondrial abnormalities occur in aged mutant knock-in (GKI) mice. Conversely, cultured GKI neurons exhibit increased synaptic transmission. We assessed behavior and synaptic glutamate and dopamine function across ages. Young GKI exhibit more vertical exploration, elevated glutamate and dopamine transmission, and aberrant D2-receptor responses...
September 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929252/knowledge-about-cervical-cancer-risk-factors-and-practices-of-pap-testing-among-turkish-immigrant-women-in-the-united-states
#3
Aynur Uysal Toraman, Nilufer Yildirim
The objective of this study was to examine knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and practices of Pap testing among female Turkish immigrants in the state of Florida in the United States of America (USA). This descriptive study was conducted between April and September 2012. The study sampling was consist of 156 Turkish women living in the state of Florida. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the population of Turkish immigrant women. On the survey form comprised of a total of 37 questions and three sections there are questions pertaining to the socio-demographic characteristics of the individuals, their knowledge on the cervical cancer risk factors and their approach to getting Pap smear tests...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929129/an-automated-home-cage-system-to-assess-learning-and-performance-of-a-skilled-motor-task-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Cameron L Woodard, Federico Bolaños, James D Boyd, Gergely Silasi, Timothy H Murphy, Lynn A Raymond
Behavioral testing is a critical step in assessing the validity of rodent models of neurodegenerative disease, as well as evaluating the efficacy of pharmacological interventions. In models of Huntington's disease (HD), a gradual progression of impairments is observed across ages, increasing the need for sensitive, high-throughput and longitudinal assessments. Recently, a number of automated systems have been developed to perform behavioral profiling of animals within their own home-cage, allowing for 24-h monitoring and minimizing experimenter interaction...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928046/new-directions-for-ambulatory-monitoring-following-2017-hrs-ishne-expert-consensus
#5
Emanuela T Locati
The main role of ambulatory electrocardiography (AECG) in clinical practice is to detect and characterize the behavior of cardiac electrical activity during ordinary daily life activities. Because certain rhythm abnormalities may be infrequent and paroxysmal, and may occur only during sleep or in association with mental, emotional, or exercise-induced perturbation in cardiac function, AECG needs to be recorded over a long period of time, originally lasting 24h and now expanding up to several weeks and even to months...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927787/a-mimetic-of-the-msin3-binding-helix-of-nrsf-rest-ameliorates-abnormal-pain-behavior-in-chronic-pain-models
#6
Hiroshi Ueda, Jun-Ichi Kurita, Hiroyuki Neyama, Yuuka Hirao, Hiroyuki Kouji, Tadashi Mishina, Masaji Kasai, Hirofumi Nakano, Atsushi Yoshimori, Yoshifumi Nishimura
The neuron-restrictive silencing factor NRSF/REST binds to neuron-restrictive silencing elements in neuronal genes and recruits corepressors such as mSin3 to inhibit epigenetically neuronal gene expression. Because dysregulation of NRSF/REST is related to neuropathic pain, here, we have designed compounds to target neuropathic pain based on the mSin3-binding helix structure of NRSF/REST and examined their ability to bind to mSin3 by NMR. One compound, mS-11, binds strongly to mSin3 with a binding mode similar to that of NRSF/REST...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927076/microrna-154-inhibits-the-growth-and-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer-cells-by-directly-targeting-mtdh
#7
Wenhui Qiao, Nong Cao, Lei Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-protein-coding, highly conserved single-stranded RNA molecules. The abnormal expression of miRNAs has been demonstrated to have an important function in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. microRNA-154 (miR-154) has been reported to be downregulated in non-small cell lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. However, the expression and roles of miR-154 in gastric cancer remain to be established. The present study measured the expression levels of miR-154 in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926739/electrophysiological-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-in-binge-drinking-impaired-error-related-but-preserved-feedback-processing
#8
Séverine Lannoy, Fabien D'Hondt, Valérie Dormal, Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage
OBJECTIVE: Performance monitoring, which allows efficient behavioral regulation using either internal (error processing) or external (feedback processing) cues, has not yet been explored in binge drinking despite its adaptive importance in everyday life, particularly in the regulation of alcohol consumption. Capitalizing on a theoretical model of risky behaviors, the present study aimed at determining the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of the cognitive (inhibition) and motivational (reward sensitivity) systems during performance monitoring...
September 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926419/peduncular-hallucinosis-and-autonomic-dysfunction-in-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody-syndrome
#9
Renee Berry, Peter K Panegyres
Neuromyelitis optica is a rare, severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, previously described as affecting only the optic nerve and spinal cord. Since the discovery of a highly specific autoantibody, anti-aquaporin-4, lesions are now recognized outside these regions. We report a man with severe, debilitating symptoms resulting from a symptomatic lesion within the diencephalon, manifesting with abnormal circadian rhythms, autonomic dysfunction, behavioral disturbance, and complex visual hallucinations...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924292/hemimegalencephaly-with-intractable-epilepsy-a-case-report
#10
Prem Chand, Muhammad Faraz Raghib, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Fazal Manzoor Arain
Isolated Hemimegalencephaly (iHME) is a rare form of congenital malformation of cortical development.It is characterized by enlargement of all or part of one cerebral hemisphere. It typically presents with intractable seizures, mental retardation, developmental delay, contralateral hemiparesis and hemianopia. The patient was a five and half month's old baby girl who presented first with focal seizures at 10th day of life. No other physical or behavioral abnormality was noted. However, Initial EEG showed excessive sharp EEG transients more over the right hemisphere, repeated EEG showed spikes, polyspikes, sharps and slow wave discharges predominately over right hemisphere...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924181/common-and-dissociable-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-differences-associate-with-dimensions-of-psychopathology-across-categorical-diagnoses
#11
A N Kaczkurkin, T M Moore, M E Calkins, R Ciric, J A Detre, M A Elliott, E B Foa, A Garcia de la Garza, D R Roalf, A Rosen, K Ruparel, R T Shinohara, C H Xia, D H Wolf, R E Gur, R C Gur, T D Satterthwaite
The high comorbidity among neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a possible common neurobiological phenotype. Resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abnormalities in regional CBF are present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Regional CBF may also provide a useful biological marker across different types of psychopathology. To investigate CBF changes common across psychiatric disorders, we capitalized upon a sample of 1042 youths (ages 11-23 years) who completed cross-sectional imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923119/alk-positive-gastric-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-in-an-adult-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-and-diffuse-fundic-polyposis
#12
Jun Fan, Bo Huang, Xiuping Yang, Ming Yang, Jun He, Xiu Nie
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the stomach is extremely rare in adults and exhibits a variable biological behavior that ranges from frequently benign lesions to more aggressive variants. Here we report a case of gastric IMT with lymph node metastasis in an adult who had undergone total colectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old man presented gradual-onset epigastric discomfort; he had undergone total colectomy for FAP 6 years before...
September 18, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922736/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#13
Taiga Ninomiya, Harumi Oshita, Yoshihisa Kawano, Chiharu Goto, Mai Matsuhashi, Koji Masuda, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Ayako Inoue, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions. BPD may be linked to an abnormal brain anatomy, but little is known about possible impairments of the white matter microstructure in BPD or their relationship with impulsivity or risky behaviors. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between BPD and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 35 un-medicated BPD patients in a medication-free state and 50 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922267/the-1-year-follow-up-clinic-for-neonates-and-children-after-respiratory-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-a-10-year-single-institution-experience
#14
Suzan Kakat, Maura O'Callaghan, Liz Smith, Raymond Hreiche, Deborah A Ridout, Jo Wray, Timothy Thiruchelvam, Katherine L Brown, Aparna U Hoskote
OBJECTIVES: To establish the effectiveness of a "1-year extracorporeal membrane oxygenation follow-up clinic" and to characterize any neurodevelopmental concerns identified. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective cohort of respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survivors over 10 years. SETTING: Nationally commissioned center for neonatal and pediatric (> 28 d of life) respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PATIENTS: Children attending the follow-up clinic 1 year after receiving respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between 2003 and 2013...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921735/three-shades-of-grey-detecting-brain-abnormalities-in-children-with-autism-by-using-source-voxel-and-surface-based-morphometry
#15
Edoardo Pappaianni, Roma Siugzdaite, Sofie Vettori, Paola Venuti, Remo Job, Alessandro Grecucci
Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions, communication and stereotyped behavior. Recent evidence from neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that ASD deficits in adults may be related to abnormalities in a specific frontal-temporal network (Autism-specific Structural Network, ASN). To see whether these results extend to younger children and to better characterize these abnormalities, we applied three morphometric methods on brain grey matter of children with and without ASD...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921675/altered-cav1-2-function-in-the-timothy-syndrome-mouse-model-produces-ascending-serotonergic-abnormalities
#16
Daniel G Ehlinger, Kathryn G Commons
Polymorphism in the gene CACNA1C, encoding the pore-forming subunit of Cav1.2 L-type calcium channels, has one of the strongest genetic linkages to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: psychopathologies in which serotonin signaling has been implicated. Additionally, a gain-of-function mutation in CACNA1C is responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Timothy Syndrome that presents with prominent behavioral features on the autism spectrum. Given an emerging role for serotonin in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, we investigate the relationship between Cav1...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920807/use-of-oral-fluoxetine-for-the-treatment-of-abnormal-aggression-in-two-red-necked-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus
#17
June E Olds
: Abnormal inter- and intraspecies aggression, perceived to be anxiety related, was identified in two male red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) housed within a zoo. Aggressive episodes were directed at conspecifics, other exhibit animals, and, in one case, human caretakers. The clinical use of oral fluoxetine (0.5 mg/kg po bid) for a period of approximately 4 mo was effective in eliminating aggression towards humans and other animals in these two individuals. There was no evidence of recrudescence of aggression in either case following discontinuation of therapy for up to 3 yr posttreatment...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920433/fluorotryptophan-incorporation-modulates-the-structure-and-stability-of-transthyretin-in-a-site-specific-manner
#18
Xun Sun, H Jane Dyson, Peter E Wright
Abnormal deposition of aggregated wild-type (WT) human transthyretin (TTR) and its pathogenic variants is responsible for cardiomyopathy and neuropathy related to TTR amyloidosis. The tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence measurements typically used to study structural changes of TTR do not yield site-specific information on the two Trp residues per TTR protomer. To obtain such information, tryptophan labeled with fluorine at the 5 and 6 positions (5FW and 6FW) was incorporated into TTR. Fluorescence of 5FW and 6FW-labeled WT-TTR (WT-5FW and WT-6FW) and a single-Trp mutant W41Y showed that the photophysics of incorporated fluoro-Trp is consistent with site-specific solvation of the indole ring of W41 and W79...
September 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919761/effects-of-bromadiolone-poisoning-on-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Meiling Wang, Yanfeng Yang, Yiwei Hou, Wenbin Ma, Rui Jia, Jinbo Chen
Cases of rodenticide poisoning (second-generation long-acting dicoumarin rodenticide, superwarfarin) have occasionally been reported. The main symptoms of bromadiolone poisoning are skin mucosa hemorrhage, digestive tract hemorrhage, and hematuresis. However, the symptoms of central nervous system toxicity have rarely been reported. Our case reports on a 41-year-old male who had no contact with bromadiolone. His main symptoms were dizziness, unsteady gait, and abnormal behavior. Laboratory test results revealed the presence of bromadiolone in his blood and urine, a longer prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and a high international normalized ratio...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918358/the-role-of-central-and-medial-amygdala-in-normal-and-abnormal-aggression-a-review-of-classical-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Jozsef Haller
The involvement of the amygdala in aggression is supported by overwhelming evidence. Frequently, however, the amygdala is studied as a whole, despite its complex internal organization. To reveal the role of various subdivisions, here we review the involvement of the central and medial amygdala in male rivalry aggression, maternal aggression, predatory aggression, and models of abnormal aggression where violent behavior is associated with increased or decreased arousal. We conclude that: (1) rivalry aggression is controlled by the medial amygdala; (2) predatory aggression is controlled by the central amygdala; (3) hypoarousal-associated violent aggression recruits both nuclei, (4) a specific upregulation of the medial amygdala was observed in hyperarousal-driven aggression...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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