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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920752/the-effect-of-emotion-and-reward-contingencies-on-relational-memory-in-major-depression-an-eye-movement-study-with-follow-up
#1
Viola L Nemeth, Gergo Csete, Gergely Drotos, Nora Greminger, Zoltan Janka, Laszlo Vecsei, Anita Must
Background: Episodic memory disturbances were found to constitute a potential trait marker for major depression (MD). The recall of positive or rewarding information in a relational context is specifically impaired. Eye-movement recording constitutes a novel, direct approach to examine implicit memory performance. Here we aimed to assess the effect of emotional context and implicit virtual monetary reward or loss on viewing patterns in association with relational memory in a 6-months follow-up study in MD. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with MD and 30 healthy participants were trained to associate a face (happy/sad/neutral) with a background scene...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919830/newly-acquired-and-reactivated-contextual-fear-memories-are-more-intense-and-prone-to-generalize-after-activation-of-prelimbic-cortex-nmda-receptors
#2
Ana C Vanvossen, Marina A M Portes, Rafael Scoz-Silva, Hugo B Reichmann, Cristina A J Stern, Leandro J Bertoglio
Activity in the rodent prelimbic (PL) cortex contributes to consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of learned fear. The PL cortex is considered homologous to the primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the dACC is often reported to be hyperactive after acquisition and/or around the retrieval of the traumatic memory. It is still unknown, however, whether there is a relationship between altered dACC functioning at these time points and PTSD-associated behavioral outcomes, such as fear overgeneralization...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919417/multidirectional-wss-disturbances-in-stenotic-turbulent-flows-a-pre-and-post-intervention-study-in-an-aortic-coarctation
#3
Magnus Andersson, Jonas Lantz, Tino Ebbers, Matts Karlsson
Wall shear stress (WSS) disturbances are commonly expressed at sites of abnormal flow obstructions and may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In laminar flows these disturbances have recently been assessed by the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which accounts for the WSS multidirectionality. Site-specific estimations of WSS disturbances in pulsatile transitional and turbulent type of flows are more challenging due to continuous and unpredictable changes in WSS behavior...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919317/drosophila-neprilysins-control-insulin-signaling-and-food-intake-via-cleavage-of-regulatory-peptides
#4
Benjamin Hallier, Ronja Schiemann, Eva Cordes, Jessica Vitos-Faleato, Stefan Walter, Jürgen J Heinisch, Anders Malmendal, Achim Paululat, Heiko Meyer
Insulin and IGF signaling are critical to numerous developmental and physiological processes, with perturbations being pathognomonic of various diseases, including diabetes. Although the functional roles of the respective signaling pathways have been extensively studied, the control of insulin production and release is only partially understood. Herein, we show that in Drosophila expression of insulin-like peptides is regulated by neprilysin activity. Concomitant phenotypes of altered neprilysin expression included impaired food intake, reduced body size, and characteristic changes in the metabolite composition...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917752/genetic-and-environmental-factors-in-invasive-cervical-cancer-design-and-methods-of-a-classical-twin-study
#5
Dorothy A Machalek, John D Wark, Sepehr N Tabrizi, John L Hopper, Minh Bui, Gillian S Dite, Alyssa M Cornall, Marian Pitts, Dorota Gertig, Bircan Erbas, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary prerequisite for development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). However, HPV infection is not sufficient to drive this process, and genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. METHODS/DESIGN: The Cervical Cancer, Genetics and Environment Twin Study was established to investigate the environmental and genetic influences on variation in susceptibility to cervical pre-cancer in 25- to 69-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins recruited through the Australian Twin Registry...
December 5, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915073/a-mathematical-model-of-reward-and-executive-circuitry-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Anca Raˇdulescu, Rachel Marra
The neuronal circuit that controls obsessive and compulsive behaviors involves a complex network of brain regions (some with known involvement in reward processing). Among these are cortical regions, the striatum and the thalamus (which compose the CSTC pathway), limbic areas such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, and well as dopamine pathways. Abnormal dynamic behavior in this brain network is a hallmark feature of patients with increased anxiety and motor activity, like the ones affected by OCD. There is currently no clear understanding of precisely what mechanisms generate these behaviors...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914789/long-term-effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-satellite-glial-cells-in-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglia
#7
E Blum, P Procacci, V Conte, P Sartori, M Hanani
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to study neuroinflammation, but usually its effects were examined acutely (24h <). We have shown previously that a single intraperitoneal LPS injection activated satellite glial cells (SGCs) in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and altered several functional parameters in these cells for at least one week. Here we asked whether the LPS effects would persist for 1 month. We injected mice with a single LPS dose and tested pain behavior, assessed SGCs activation in DRG using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, and injected a fluorescent dye intracellularly to study intercellular coupling...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913953/neuroinflammation-induced-downregulation-of-hippocampacal-neuregulin-1-erbb4-signaling-in-the-parvalbumin-interneurons-might-contribute-to-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#8
Rong Gao, Mu-Huo Ji, Da-Peng Gao, Run-Hua Yang, Shao-Gang Zhang, Jian-Jun Yang, Jin-Chun Shen
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication associated with poor prognosis in septic patients, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that disturbed neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling in the parvalbumin interneurons was involved in sepsis-induced cognitive impairment in a mouse model of SAE. The SAE model was induced by cecal ligation/perforation (CLP). Animals were randomly divided into the following six groups: sham + vehicle group, sham + NRG1 group, CLP + vehicle group, CLP + NRG1 group, CLP + NRG1 + AG1478 (ErbB4 inhibitor) group, and CLP + minocycline group...
December 2, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912058/impaired-amino-acid-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-a-cause-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Dora C Tărlungeanu, Elena Deliu, Christoph P Dotter, Majdi Kara, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Mateja Tesulov, Emanuela Morelli, Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, Kaya Bilguvar, Ryuichi Ohgaki, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Anide Johansen, Seham Esharif, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Meral Topcu, Avner Schlessinger, Cesare Indiveri, Kent E Duncan, Ahmet Okay Caglayan, Murat Gunel, Joseph G Gleeson, Gaia Novarino
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911740/the-puzzle-of-visual-development-behavior-and-neural-limits
#10
Lynne Kiorpes
The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909101/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#11
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important, because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher order areas for further processing and localization...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#12
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904027/retinal-vascular-changes-and-prospective-risk-of-disabling-dementia-the-circulatory-risk-in-communities-study-circs
#13
Hiroshige Jinnouchi, Akihiko Kitamura, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Masahiko Kiyama, Hironori Imano, Takeo Okada, Renzhe Cui, Mitsumasa Umesawa, Isao Muraki, Mina Hayama-Terada, Ryo Kawasaki, Tomoko Sankai, Tetsuya Ohira, Hiroyasu Iso
AIM: To investigate the association of retinal vascular changes with a risk of dementia in longitudinal population-based study. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study of 3,718 persons, aged 40-89 years, enrolled between 1983 and 2004. Retinal vascular changes were observed in 351 cases with disabling dementia (average period before the onset, 11.2 years) and in 702 controls matched for sex, age, and baseline year. Incidence of disabling dementia was defined as individuals who received cares for disabilities including dementia-related symptoms and/or behavioral disturbance...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903734/deviations-from-critical-dynamics-in-interictal-epileptiform-activity
#14
Oshrit Arviv, Mordekhay Medvedovsky, Liron Sheintuch, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
: The framework of criticality provides a unifying perspective on neuronal dynamics from in vitro cortical cultures to functioning human brains. Recent findings suggest that a healthy cortex displays critical dynamics, giving rise to scale-free spatiotemporal cascades of activity, termed neuronal avalanches. Pharmacological manipulations of the excitation-inhibition balance (EIB) in cortical cultures were previously shown to result in deviations from criticality and from the power law scaling of avalanche size distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903723/cerebellar-shank2-regulates-excitatory-synapse-density-motor-coordination-and-specific-repetitive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#15
Seungmin Ha, Dongwon Lee, Yi Sul Cho, Changuk Chung, Ye-Eun Yoo, Jihye Kim, Jiseok Lee, Woohyun Kim, Hyosang Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Eunjoon Kim
: Shank2 is a multidomain scaffolding protein implicated in the structural and functional coordination of multiprotein complexes at excitatory postsynaptic sites as well as in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. While Shank2 is strongly expressed in the cerebellum, whether Shank2 regulates cerebellar excitatory synapses, or contributes to the behavioral abnormalities observed in Shank2(-/-) mice, remains unexplored. Here we show that Shank2(-/-) mice show reduced excitatory synapse density in cerebellar Purkinje cells in association with reduced levels of excitatory postsynaptic proteins, including GluD2 and PSD-93, and impaired motor coordination in the Erasmus test...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902734/galectin-7-expression-potentiates-her-2-positive-phenotype-in-breast-cancer
#16
Andrée-Anne Grosset, Françoise Poirier, Louis Gaboury, Yves St-Pierre
HER-2 positive tumors are among the most aggressive subtypes of breast cancer and are frequently associated with metastasis and poor outcome. As with other aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, these tumors are associated with abnormally high expression of galectin-7 (gal-7), which confers metastatic breast tumor cells with increased invasive behavior. Although previous studies in the rat model of breast tumorigenesis have shown that gal-7 is also increased in primary breast tumor, its contribution to the development of the primary breast tumors remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898200/transcranial-sonography-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#17
Xudong Li, Shuang Xue, Shuhong Jia, Zhi Zhou, Yanan Qiao, Chunlei Hou, Kun Wei, Wenjing Zheng, Pei Rong, Jinsong Jiao
AIMS: We investigated preclinical abnormalities revealed by transcranial sonography (TCS) in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) compared with those revealed in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or Parkinson's disease (PD) and in normal controls. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with iRBD, 21 patients with MSA, 22 patients with PD and 21 normal controls were included in this study. All participants underwent one night of video-polysomnography (PSG) monitoring, and the sleep parameters were analyzed using Polysmith software and by visual analysis...
November 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896587/psychological-and-behavioral-issues-in-the-management-of-migraine-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
William Qubty, Amy A Gelfand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is sometimes assumed that children and adolescents with migraine have a psychiatric or behavioral comorbidity, a belief that can be stigmatizing. This review will examine the recent literature addressing this area to determine if pediatric and adolescent migraineurs are at increased risk for psychiatric comorbidity and to discuss management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: A large systematic review of pediatric and adolescent studies concluded anxiety and depression were not associated with onset of recurrent headaches...
December 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#19
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894934/mir-142-is-required-for-staphylococcus-aureus-clearance-at-skin-wound-sites-via-small-gtpase-mediated-regulation-of-the-neutrophil-actin-cytoskeleton
#20
Katsuya Tanaka, Sang Eun Kim, Hiroki Yano, Gaku Matsumoto, Ryoma Ohuchida, Yuhoko Ishikura, Masatake Araki, Kimi Araki, Seongjoon Park, Toshimitsu Komatsu, Hiroko Hayashi, Kazuya Ikematsu, Katsumi Tanaka, Akiyoshi Hirano, Paul Martin, Isao Shimokawa, Ryoichi Mori
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein translation by binding to complementary target mRNAs. We previously identified two mature members of the miR-142 family, miR-142-5p and miR-142-3p, as inflammation-related miRNAs with potential roles in wound healing. Here, we demonstrated that these two miRNAs are prominently expressed in wound-infiltrated neutrophils and macrophages and play central roles in wound healing. We generated miR-142(-/-) mice using the exchangeable gene-trap method and showed that healing of Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds was significantly delayed in miR-142(-/-) mice compared with that in wild-type mice...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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