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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335519/translating-developmental-origins-improving-the-health-of-women-and-their-children-using-a-sustainable-approach-to-behaviour-change
#1
Mary Barker, Janis Baird, Tannaze Tinati, Christina Vogel, Sofia Strömmer, Taylor Rose, Rufia Begum, Megan Jarman, Jenny Davies, Sue Thompson, Liz Taylor, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper, Don Nutbeam, Wendy Lawrence
Theories of the developmental origins of health and disease imply that optimising the growth and development of babies is an essential route to improving the health of populations. A key factor in the growth of babies is the nutritional status of their mothers. Since women from more disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer quality diets and the worst pregnancy outcomes, they need to be a particular focus. The behavioural sciences have made a substantial contribution to the development of interventions to support dietary changes in disadvantaged women...
March 20, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335439/mercury-levels-in-human-hair-and-farmed-fish-near-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-communities-in-the-madre-de-dios-river-basin-peru
#2
Aubrey L Langeland, Rebecca D Hardin, Richard L Neitzel
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#3
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334107/floral-strips-attract-beneficial-insects-but-do-not-enhance-yield-in-cucumber-fields
#4
N F Quinn, D C Brainard, Z Szendrei
Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#5
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333597/when-is-parenteral-nutrition-appropriate
#6
Patricia Worthington, Jane Balint, Matthew Bechtold, Angela Bingham, Lingtak-Neander Chan, Sharon Durfee, Andrea K Jevenn, Ainsley Malone, Maria Mascarenhas, Daniel T Robinson, Beverly Holcombe
Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents one of the most notable achievements of modern medicine, serving as a therapeutic modality for all age groups across the healthcare continuum. PN offers a life-sustaining option when intestinal failure prevents adequate oral or enteral nutrition. However, providing nutrients by vein is an expensive form of nutrition support, and serious adverse events can occur. In an effort to provide clinical guidance regarding PN therapy, the Board of Directors of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) convened a task force to develop consensus recommendations regarding appropriate PN use...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333547/food-and-mood-diet-quality-is-inversely-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-in-female-university-students
#7
Rachel Quehl, Jess Haines, Stephen P Lewis, Andrea C Buchholz
Researchers have found support for an inverse association between diet quality and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. This association has not been well examined among university students, a population at risk of developing both depression and unhealthy lifestyle habits. We sought to examine the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and diet quality in female university students. One hundred and forty-one females (19.1 ± 1.5 years, 22.3 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a Canadian university in 2012 and 2013...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332204/evaluation-of-hmw-gs-20-and-2-2-from-near-isogenic-lines-nils-of-wheat-variety-hd2329-for-bread-quality-improvement
#8
Sonia Goel, Sapna Grewal, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end- product quality. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in (HMW-GS) genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#9
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#10
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332111/practical-issues-in-evidence-based-use-of-performance-supplements-supplement-interactions-repeated-use-and-individual-responses
#11
REVIEW
Louise M Burke
Current sports nutrition guidelines recommend that athletes only take supplements following an evidence-based analysis of their value in supporting training outcomes or competition performance in their specific event. While there is sound evidence to support the use of a few performance supplements under specific scenarios (creatine, beta-alanine, bicarbonate, caffeine, nitrate/beetroot juice and, perhaps, phosphate), there is a lack of information around several issues needed to guide the practical use of these products in competitive sport...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#12
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330728/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-nutrition-label-use-and-food-selection-servings-and-consumption-in-a%C3%A2-university-dining-setting
#13
Mary J Christoph, Brenna Ellison
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels at the point of purchase are recommended to improve food choice, yet food choice does not always translate into food consumption. It is important to understand the relationship between label use, food selection, servings, and consumption. Previous research, which has relied on self-reported intake or inferred label use or intake based on sales data, has not adequately answered this question. OBJECTIVE: To combine survey and meal photographic data to compare food selection, servings, and consumption between label users and nonusers...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330707/structure-based-feeding-strategies-a-key-component-of-child-nutrition
#14
Maija B Taylor, Elizabeth Emley, Mercedes Pratt, Dara R Musher-Eizenman
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). METHODS AND MEASURES: Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake...
March 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330313/optimization-of-process-parameters-for-enhanced-production-of-jamun-juice-using-pectinase-aspergillus-aculeatus-enzyme-and-its-characterization
#15
Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra
Jamun fruit comprises of seed and thick pulp. The pectin-protein bond of the thick pulp creates difficulty in making juice. Clear Jamun juice is not available in the market, so there is a need for extraction of juice with maximum yield. The goal of this research is to obtain high yield of clarified juice with the help of Pectinase (Aspergillus aculeatus) enzyme. The study was conducted at different enzyme concentration (0.01-0.1%), time duration (40-120 min), and temperature (30-50 °C). Various physical and chemical parameters, such as yield, turbidity, viscosity, clarity, colour, polyphenol, protein, TSS, and total solid, were measured as dependent variables...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330205/dna-record-of-some-traditional-small-millet-landraces-in-india-and-nepal
#16
Subramanyam Ragupathy, Shanmughanandhan Dhivya, Kirit Patel, Abiran Sritharan, Kathirvelu Sambandan, Hom Gartaula, Ramalingam Sathishkumar, Kamal Khadka, Balasubramanian C Nirmala, A Nirmala Kumari, Steven G Newmaster
Despite the extensive use of small millet landraces as an important source of nutrition for people living in semi-arid regions, they are presently marginalized and their diversity and distribution are threatened at a global scale. Local farmers have developed ancient breeding programs entrenched in traditional knowledge (TK) that has sustained rural cultures for thousands of years. The convention on biological diversity seeks fair and equitable sharing of genetic resources arising from local knowledge and requires signatory nations to provide appropriate policy and legal framework to farmers' rights over plant genetic resources and associated TK...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329856/adult-day-center-programs-and-their-associated-outcomes-on-clients-caregivers-and-the-health-system-a-scoping-review
#17
Moriah E Ellen, Peter Demaio, Ariella Lange, Michael G Wilson
Purpose of the Study: Adult day centers (ADCs) offer a heterogeneous group of services that provide for the daily living, care, nutritional, and social needs of older adults. We sought to conceptually map and identify key gaps and findings from literature focused on ADCs, including the types of programs that exist and their associated outcomes on improving health and strengthening health systems. Design and Methods: We conducted a scoping review by searching 5 databases for studies evaluating the outcomes of ADCs specifically for community-dwelling older adults...
March 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327968/subjective-and-objective-taste-and-smell-changes-in-cancer
#18
L E Spotten, C A Corish, C M Lorton, P M Ui Dhuibhir, N C O'Donoghue, B O'Connor, T D Walsh
Context: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in cancer patients and an important predictor of morbidity, mortality, treatment response and toxicity. Taste and smell changes (TSCs) are common and may contribute to malnutrition. Research has previously focused on patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) or head and neck radiotherapy (RT). However, TSCs may occur pre-treatment, with other treatment modalities, and in cancer survivors. This review evaluates objective and subjective assessment of taste and smell, discusses the prevalence of TSCs in cancer, and reviews the clinical sequelae of TSCs in cancer patients...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327493/noninvasive-ventilation-open-issues-for-nursing-research
#19
Stefano Bambi, Enrica Mati, Christian De Felippis, Alberto Lucchini
According to the current literature, Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV) is a well-recognized respiratory support technique for patients affected by Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF). As highlighted by recent meta-analysis, a tight adherence to protocols regarding patients' selection criteria, relative or absolute contraindications, plus highly skilled and experienced operators, can positively affect the NIV performance and mortality rates. Positive outcome from NIV respiratory support is dependent from: patient's clinical condition and education needs; confidence of the staff with NIV technology; choice and management of the most suitable interface available prevention of interface complications; nutritional assessment (artificial feeding if required) and conditioning of medical gas...
March 14, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327198/improving-the-adaptability-of-who-evidence-informed-guidelines-for-nutrition-actions-results-of-a-mixed-methods-evaluation
#20
Maria Cecilia Dedios, Alexo Esperato, Luz Maria De-Regil, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Susan L Norris
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, the World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented a standardized, evidence-informed guideline development process to assure technically sound and policy-relevant guidelines. This study is an independent evaluation of the adaptability of the guidelines produced by the Evidence and Programme Guidance unit, at the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD). The study systematizes the lessons learned by the NHD group at WHO. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach to determine the adaptability of the nutrition guidelines...
March 21, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
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