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nutrition research

Ho Sun Kim, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Me-Riong Kim, Young-Hyeon Bae, Ki Byung Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Joo-Hee Kim, In-Hyuk Ha
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis...
2016: PloS One
Karin Riemann-Lorenz, Marlene Eilers, Gloria von Geldern, Karl-Heinz Schulz, Sascha Köpke, Christoph Heesen
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors have been discussed to influence risk or disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific diets are widely used among patients with MS. OBJECTIVE: To design and pilot-test an evidence based patient education program on dietary factors in MS. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on the effectiveness of dietary interventions in MS. A web-based survey among 337 patients with MS and 136 healthy controls assessed knowledge, dietary habits and information needs...
2016: PloS One
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Rachel B Acton, Lana Vanderlee, Christine White, David Hammond
OBJECTIVES: Several countries have proposed changes to calorie labelling on nutrition facts tables (NFTs) on pre-packaged foods. As most research to date has examined general use of NFTs, there is a lack of evidence to guide specific design changes to calorie information on labels. This study examined the efficacy of various calorie labelling formats on recall, comprehension, and consumer preferences for calorie information. METHODS: Experiments were conducted as part of an online survey with a national sample of 2,008 Canadians aged 16-24...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Bria Dexter, Sarah Frank, Louise Seguin
PURPOSE: To understand how and where parents of infants and young children (children ≤5 years old) prefer to receive nutrition information. METHODS: A 1-page survey was developed and pilot tested at 2 community agencies. The final survey was distributed at 18 community health centres (CHCs) in Calgary and surrounding rural areas. Any parent attending a well-child visit (child ≤5 years old) was able to participate. RESULTS: Five hundred and twenty-nine surveys were completed...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Rafael E Pedro, Débora A Guariglia, Sidney B Peres, Solange M Moraes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a major problem among people living with HIV/aids. The exercise training has been used for its treatment; however, the knowledge about benefits and safety still is emerging. The aim was systematically review the literature for physiological, metabolic, immunologic, and morphologic adaptations to aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training in people living with HALS. METHODS: A search of the Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library and PEDro was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ronit Weisman
All organisms can respond to the availability of nutrients by regulating their metabolism, growth, and cell division. Central to the regulation of growth in response to nutrient availability is the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that is composed of two structurally distinct complexes: TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). The TOR genes were first identified in yeast as target of rapamycin, a natural product of a soil bacterium, which proved beneficial as an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug and is currently being tested for a handful of other pathological conditions including diabetes, neurodegeneration, and age-related diseases...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Ronaldo Sousa Oliveira Filho, Lia Mara Kauchi Ribeiro, Lucia Caruso, Patricia Azevedo Lima, Náglia Raquel Teixeira Damasceno, Francisco García Soriano
INTRODUCTION: Quality Indicators for Nutritional Therapy (QINT) allow a practical assessment of nutritional therapy (NT) quality. OBJECTIVE: To apply and monitor QINT for critically ill patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: Cross sectional study including critically ill patients > 18 years old, at nutritional risk, on exclusive enteral (ENT) or parenteral nutritional therapy (PNT) for > 72 hours. After three consecutive years, 9 QINT were applied and monitored...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
S Kennedy, E L Davies, L Ryan, M E Clegg
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Joanne F Guthrie
Nutrition education has a long history of being informed by economic thinking, with the earliest nutrition education guides incorporating household food budgeting into nutrition advice. Behavioral economics research goes beyond that traditional role to provide new insights into how consumers make choices. These insights have numerous potential applications for nutrition interventions to promote healthy food choices consistent with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Research to test the value of such applications can contribute to the development of evidence-based nutrition education practice called for in federal nutrition education programs...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Bradley M Appelhans, Molly A Martin, Marieli Guzman, Tamara Olinger, Andrew Pleasant, Jennifer Cabe, Lynda H Powell
OBJECTIVE: This report describes the development and validation of a technology-based system that integrates data on food choice, nutrition, and plate waste to generate feedback reports summarizing students' dietary intake at school meals. METHODS: Cafeteria staff used the system to document the school lunch choices of seventh-graders (n = 37) in an urban charter school for 5 months. Plate waste was assessed by research staff using a visual estimation method that was validated against directly weighed plate waste...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Santosh Gaihre, Janet Kyle, Sean Semple, Jo Smith, Madhu Subedi, Debbi Marais
BACKGROUND: Although linkages have been found between agricultural interventions and nutritional health, and the development of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves in reducing household air pollution and adverse health effects, the extent of the potential of combined household interventions to improve health, nutrition and the environment has not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted to identify the extent and type of community-based agricultural and household interventions aimed at improving food security, health and the household environment in low and middle income countries...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Mojtaba Farjam, Hossein Bahrami, Ehsan Bahramali, Javad Jamshidi, Alireza Askari, Habibollah Zakeri, Reza Homayounfar, Hossein Poustchi, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality even in rural areas of many developing countries, including Iran. In view of this increased risk, Fasa Cohort Study (FACS) has been established to assess the risk factors for NCDs with the ultimate goal of providing optimal risk calculators for Iranian population and finding grounds for interventions at the population level. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, at least 10,000 people within the age range of 35 to 70 years old from Sheshdeh, the suburb of Fasa city and its 24 satellite villages are being recruited...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Chiara Peila, Nikki E Emmerik, Marzia Giribaldi, Bernd Stahl, Joost E Ruitenberg, Ruurd M van Elburg, Guido E Moro, Enrico Bertino, Alessandra Coscia, Laura Cavallarin
OBJECTIVES: Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 min (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and non-thermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Vildan Kaya, Aynur Aytekin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of pacifier use on transition to full breastfeeding and sucking skills in preterm infants. BACKGROUND: Feeding problems in preterm infants cause delays in hospital discharge, extend mother-infant reunification, and increase medical cost. Nutritive sucking skills of preterm infants may develop by improving non-nutritive sucking skills and increasing sucking experiences. DESIGN: A prospective, randomised controlled trial conducted in the Eastern Turkey...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Gustavo Bergonzoli, Luis G Castellanos, Rodolfo Rodríguez, Lina María Garcia
Objectives To explore the relationships among social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants of tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality, and to identify the mechanisms that mediate such associations in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods This was an ecological study of 26 LAC countries that had accurate data available on 38 selected variables for the year 2010. The countries represented 99% of the TB burden in LAC. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations among determinants of health and TB morbidity and mortality...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Satya P Sharma, Hea J Chung, Hyeon J Kim, Seong T Hong
Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
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