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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710809/the-uvb-photoreceptor-uvr8-mediates-accumulation-of-uv-absorbing-pigments-but-not-changes-in-plant-morphology-under-outdoor-conditions
#1
A Coffey, Els Prinsen, M A K Jansen, James Conway
UVB radiation is biologically active; in plants, it can induce a range of molecular, biochemical, morphological and developmental responses. Although much progress has been made in elucidating UVB perception and signalling pathways under controlled laboratory conditions, understanding of the adaptive, ecological role of UVB responses is still very limited. In this study, we looked at the functional role of UVR8 under outdoor light conditions, by studying growth, photosynthetic competence and accumulation of UV absorbing pigments in a mutant lacking functional UVR8 protein...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666078/public-perceptions-of-how-long-air-pollution-and-carbon-dioxide-remain-in-the-atmosphere
#2
Rachel Dryden, M Granger Morgan, Ann Bostrom, Wändi Bruine de Bruin
The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believed that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter held the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able to stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution...
June 30, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646973/parent-involvement-in-beginning-primary-school-correlates-and-changes-in-involvement-across-the-first-two-years-of-school-in-a-new-zealand-sample
#3
Philippa S McDowall, Mele Taumoepeau, Elizabeth Schaughency
This study described the relations of parents' and teachers' beliefs and attitudes to forms of parents' involvement in children's first two years of primary school. Parents of children in their first year of primary school (age 5) were recruited from 12 classrooms within four schools in New Zealand; 196 families participated in their child's first year, and 124 families continued to participate in their child's second school year. Parents completed the Family-Involvement Questionnaire, New Zealand, and we archivally collected parent-documented children's oral reading homework...
June 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645248/characterizing-the-reproductive-transcriptomic-correlates-of-acute-dehydration-in-males-in-the-desert-adapted-rodent-peromyscus-eremicus
#4
Lauren Kordonowy, Matthew MacManes
BACKGROUND: The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634636/farmers-willingness-to-adopt-conservation-agriculture-new-evidence-from-lebanon
#5
Ali Chalak, Alexandra Irani, Jad Chaaban, Issam Bashour, Karin Seyfert, Kaitlyn Smoot, Gumataw Kifle Abebe
With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626463/cereal-crop-proteomics-systemic-analysis-of-crop-drought-stress-responses-towards-marker-assisted-selection-breeding
#6
REVIEW
Arindam Ghatak, Palak Chaturvedi, Wolfram Weckwerth
Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618174/intraspecific-maternal-competition-induces-summer-diapause-in-insect-parasitoids
#7
Kevin Tougeron, George Hraoui, Cécile Le Lann, Joan van Baaren, Jacques Brodeur
Organisms often live in unpredictable environments and have to adopt life history strategies that optimize their fitness under these conditions. According to bet-hedging theory, individuals can reduce variation in fitness outcomes by investing in different strategies at the same time. For arthropods, facultative summer diapause enables survival during dry and hot periods of the year, and can be triggered by a decrease in resource abundance. However, the effect of resource depletion on diapause induction has never been disentangled from the effect of the perception of the presence of competitors...
June 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603558/climate-negotiators-and-scientists-assessments-of-the-climate-negotiations
#8
Astrid Dannenberg, Sonja Zitzelsberger, Alessandro Tavoni
Climate negotiation outcomes are difficult to evaluate objectively because there are no clear reference scenarios. Subjective assessments from those directly involved in the negotiations are particularly important, as this may influence strategy and future negotiation participation. Here we analyze the perceived success of the climate negotiations in a sample of more than 600 experts involved in international climate policy. Respondents were pessimistic when asked for specific assessments of the current approach centered on voluntary pledges, but were more optimistic when asked for general assessments of the outcomes and usefulness of the climate negotiations...
June 2017: Nature Climate Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601034/a-sequential-model-to-link-contextual-risk-perception-and-public-support-for-flood-adaptation-policy
#9
Wanyun Shao, Siyuan Xian, Ning Lin, Mitchell J Small
The economic damage from coastal flooding has dramatically increased over the past several decades, owing to rapid development in shoreline areas and possible effects of climate change. To respond to these trends, it is imperative for policy makers to understand individuals' support for flood adaptation policy. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data on flood risk, this study investigates coastal residents' support for two adaptation policy measures: incentives for relocation and funding for educational programs on emergency planning and evacuation...
June 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574955/safety-culture-in-the-operating-room-variability-among-perioperative-healthcare-workers
#10
Marc Philip T Pimentel, Stephanie Choi, Karen Fiumara, Allen Kachalia, Richard D Urman
INTRODUCTION: Safety culture is defined as the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behavior that determine an organization's health and safety management. There is a lack of studies assessing patient safety culture in the perioperative setting. OBJECTIVES: We examined safety culture at a single tertiary care hospital, across all types of surgery, using previously collected data from a validated survey tool...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562260/ten-year-trends-in-bullying-and-related-attitudes-among-4th-to-12-th-graders
#11
Tracy Evian Waasdorp, Elise T Pas, Benjamin Zablotsky, Catherine P Bradshaw
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bullying is a significant public health concern, and it has received considerable attention from the media and policymakers over the past decade, which has led some to believe that it is increasing. However, there are limited surveillance data on bullying to inform our understanding of such trends over the course of multiple years. The current study examined the prevalence of bullying and related behaviors between 2005 and 2014 and explored whether any such changes varied across schools or as a function of school-level covariates...
May 1, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559353/the-impact-of-last-glacial-climate-variability-in-west-european-loess-revealed-by-radiocarbon-dating-of-fossil-earthworm-granules
#12
Olivier Moine, Pierre Antoine, Christine Hatté, Amaëlle Landais, Jérôme Mathieu, Charlotte Prud'homme, Denis-Didier Rousseau
The characterization of Last Glacial millennial-timescale warming phases, known as interstadials or Dansgaard-Oeschger events, requires precise chronologies for the study of paleoclimate records. On the European continent, such chronologies are only available for several Last Glacial pollen and rare speleothem archives principally located in the Mediterranean domain. Farther north, in continental lowlands, numerous high-resolution records of loess and paleosols sequences show a consistent environmental response to stadial-interstadial cycles...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557720/a-family-centered-rounds-checklist-family-engagement-and-patient-safety-a-randomized-trial
#13
Elizabeth D Cox, Gwen C Jacobsohn, Victoria P Rajamanickam, Pascale Carayon, Michelle M Kelly, Tosha B Wetterneck, Paul J Rathouz, Roger L Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Family-centered rounds (FCRs) have become standard of care, despite the limited evaluation of FCRs' benefits or interventions to support high-quality FCR delivery. This work examines the impact of the FCR checklist intervention, a checklist and associated provider training, on performance of FCR elements, family engagement, and patient safety. METHODS: This cluster randomized trial involved 298 families. Two hospital services were randomized to use the checklist; 2 others delivered usual care...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536730/alexithymia-illness-perception-and-self-management-competency-in-psoriasis
#14
Marie H Larsen, Anne Lene Krogstad, Astrid K Wahl
Alexithymia, defined as difficulty in describing or recognizing emotions, has been shown to be connected with psoriasis, but its relationship with self-management of psoriasis has not been explored. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of alexithymia and its relationship with self-management and illness perception in the context of psoriasis. A total of 163 patients participating in 3 weeks of climate heliotherapy (CHT) at Gran Canaria were assessed for alexithymia using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at baseline...
May 24, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486803/study-of-volatile-compounds-of-virgin-olive-oils-with-frostbitten-olives-sensory-defect
#15
Inmaculada Romero, Diego L García-González, Ramón Aparicio-Ruiz, María T Morales
Freeze injuries in olives are responsible for the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect that is sometimes detected in virgin olive oil. This defect is becoming one of the most common negative attributes today because climate change has modified weather patterns. The temperature changes can take place abruptly, with rapid freeze-thaw cycles, or gradually. These changes produce significant alterations in the quality of the oils. This study analyzed the volatile composition of virgin olive oils characterized with 'frostbitten olives' defect...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448914/reconciling-agriculture-and-stream-restoration-in-europe-a-review-relating-to-the-eu-water-framework-directive
#16
REVIEW
H M Flávio, P Ferreira, N Formigo, J C Svendsen
Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) playing a significant role in strengthening the progress. Analysing recent peer-reviewed European literature (2009-2016), this review explores 1) the conflicts and difficulties faced when restoring agriculturally impacted streams, 2) the aspects relevant to effectively reconcile agricultural land uses and healthy riverine ecosystems and 3) the effects and potential shortcomings of the first WFD management cycle...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437850/public-perception-of-uncertainties-within-climate-change-science
#17
Vivianne H M Visschers
Climate change is a complex, multifaceted problem involving various interacting systems and actors. Therefore, the intensities, locations, and timeframes of the consequences of climate change are hard to predict and cause uncertainties. Relatively little is known about how the public perceives this scientific uncertainty and how this relates to their concern about climate change. In this article, an online survey among 306 Swiss people is reported that investigated whether people differentiate between different types of uncertainty in climate change research...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371819/the-effects-of-patient-education-on-patient-safety-can-we-change-patient-perceptions-and-attitudes-lessons-from-the-armed-forces-capital-hospital-in-korea
#18
JinOk An, Seung Ju Kim, Sohee Park, Ki Tae Moon, Eun-Cheol Park
Objective: Strategies to promote patient involvement in medical error prevention have been implemented, but little is known about the effects of education on changes in perceptions and attitudes about patients' own safety. Design: We administered a survey to military personnel admitted to the Armed Forces Capital Hospital. Responses were classified according to perception and attitude. Setting: Single military hospital in Korea. Participants: A total of 483 completed surveys were included in our study; 252 of the respondents received safety education at admission...
June 1, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359315/perceptions-of-malaria-control-and-prevention-in-an-era-of-climate-change-a-cross-sectional-survey-among-cdc-staff-in-china
#19
Michael Xiaoliang Tong, Alana Hansen, Scott Hanson-Easey, Scott Cameron, Jianjun Xiang, Qiyong Liu, Xiaobo Liu, Yehuan Sun, Philip Weinstein, Gil-Soo Han, Craig Williams, Peng Bi
BACKGROUND: Though there was the significant decrease in the incidence of malaria in central and southwest China during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of malaria since 2000. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the staff of eleven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China to gauge their perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission and its control and prevention. Descriptive analysis was performed to study CDC staff's knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and suggestions for malaria control in the face of climate change...
March 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339420/a-pilot-study-of-a-worksite-based-participatory-intervention-program-its-acceptability-and-short-term-effects-on-work-climate-and-attitudes-in-human-service-employees
#20
Eva Charlotta Nylén, Petra Lindfors, Lars Ishäll, Sara Göransson, Gunnar Aronsson, Camilla Kylin, Magnus Sverke
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees' perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
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