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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900353/survey-data-on-key-climate-and-environmental-drivers-of-farmers-migration-in-burkina-faso-west-africa
#1
Safiétou Sanfo, M William Fonta, Ibrahim Boubacar, P A John Lamers
This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893160/integrating-household-risk-mitigation-behavior-in-flood-risk-analysis-an-agent-based-model-approach
#2
Toon Haer, W J Wouter Botzen, Hans de Moel, Jeroen C J H Aerts
Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating...
November 28, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891140/drought-and-heat-differentially-affect-xth-expression-and-xet-activity-and-action-in-3-day-old-seedlings-of-durum-wheat-cultivars-with-different-stress-susceptibility
#3
Andrea Iurlaro, Monica De Caroli, Erika Sabella, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Patrizia Rampino, Luigi De Bellis, Carla Perrotta, Giuseppe Dalessandro, Gabriella Piro, Stephen C Fry, Marcello S Lenucci
Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876363/understanding-the-effects-of-past-flood-events-and-perceived-and-estimated-flood-risks-on-individuals-voluntary-flood-insurance-purchase-behavior
#4
Wanyun Shao, Siyuan Xian, Ning Lin, Howard Kunreuther, Nida Jackson, Kirby Goidel
Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865528/integrating-new-indicators-of-predictors-that-shape-the-public-s-perception-of-local-extreme-temperature-in-china
#5
Jie Ban, Lei Huang, Chen Chen, Yuming Guo, Mike Z He, Tiantian Li
The public's risk perception of local extreme heat or cold plays a critical role in community health and prevention under climate change. However, there is limited evidence on such issues in China where extreme weather is occurring more frequently due to climate change. Here, a total of 2500 residents were selected using a three-step sampling method and investigated by a questionnaire in two representative cities. We investigated risk perception of extreme heat in Beijing and extreme cold in Harbin in 2013, aiming to examine their possible correlations with multiple epidemiological factors...
November 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857955/non-thermal-modulation-of-sudomotor-function-during-static-exercise-and-the-impact-of-intensity-and-muscle-mass-recruitment
#6
Christopher J Gordon, Joanne N Caldwell, Nigel A S Taylor
Aim: Static muscle activation elicits intensity-dependent, non-thermal sweating that is presumably controlled by feedforward (central command) mechanisms. However, it is currently unknown how the size of the recruited muscle mass interacts with that mechanism. To investigate the possible muscle-size dependency of that non-thermal sweating, the recruitment of two muscle groups of significantly different size was investigated in individuals within whom steady-state thermal sweating had been established and clamped...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829008/examining-the-gap-between-science-and-public-opinion-about-genetically-modified-food-and-global-warming
#7
Brandon R McFadden
There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823904/mind-the-gap-lessons-from-science-based-stakeholder-dialogue-in-climate-adapted-management-of-wetlands
#8
Mateusz Grygoruk, Sven Rannow
Effective stakeholder involvement is crucial for the management of protected areas, especially when new challenges like adaptation to climate change need to be addressed. Under these circumstances, science-based stakeholder involvement is required. However, there is often a gap between the information produced by science and the need for information from stakeholders. Along with the design and implementation of adaptive management strategies and policies, efforts must be taken to adjust messages about conservation and adaptation issues, to make them easier to understand, relevant and acceptable for stakeholders...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818533/flood-realities-perceptions-and-the-depth-of-divisions-on-climate
#9
Lawrence C Hamilton, Cameron P Wake, Joel Hartter, Thomas G Safford, Alli J Puchlopek
Research has led to broad agreement among scientists that anthropogenic climate change is happening now and likely to worsen. In contrast to scientific agreement, US public views remain deeply divided, largely along ideological lines. Science communication has been neutralised in some arenas by intense counter-messaging, but as adverse climate impacts become manifest they might intervene more persuasively in local perceptions. We look for evidence of this occurring with regard to realities and perceptions of flooding in the northeastern US state of New Hampshire...
October 2016: Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816864/drivers-of-self-reported-heat-stress-in-the-australian-labour-force
#10
Kerstin K Zander, Simon A Moss, Stephen T Garnett
Heat stress causes reductions in well-being and health. As average annual temperatures increase, heat stress is expected to affect more people. While most research on heat stress has explored how exposure to heat affects functioning of the human organism, stress from heat can be manifest long before clinical symptoms are evident, with profound effects on behavior. Here we add to the little research conducted on these subclinical effects of environmental heat using results from an Australian-wide cross-sectional study of nearly 2000 respondents on their self-reported level of heat stress...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784304/riverine-fishers-knowledge-of-extreme-climatic-events-in-the-brazilian-amazonia
#11
Ana Isabel Camacho Guerreiro, Richard J Ladle, Vandick da Silva Batista
BACKGROUND: Climate change is altering climate patterns, mainly increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme events with potentially serious impacts on natural resources and the people that use them. Adapting to such impacts will require the integration of scientific and local (folk) knowledge, especially the first-hand experiences and perceptions of resource users such as fishers. In this study, we identify how commercial riverine fishers in the Amazon remember extreme climatic events (flood and drought) and how they face the consequences of extreme events on fish availability...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778064/climate-trends-and-farmers-perceptions-of-climate-change-in-zambia
#12
Brian P Mulenga, Ayala Wineman, Nicholas J Sitko
A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763409/big-is-a-thing-of-the-past-climate-change-and-methodology-in-the-history-of-ideas
#13
Deborah R Coen
The climate crisis has raised questions about the proper scale of historical analysis in the Anthropocene. After explaining how this methodological crisis differs from an earlier stand-off between proponents of microhistory and total history, this paper suggests a role for intellectual history in moving us beyond the current debate. What is needed is a history of "scaling"; that is, we need to historicize the process of mediating between different frameworks of measurement, even those that might at first appear incommensurable...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752964/informing-public-perceptions-about-climate-change-a-mental-models-approach
#14
Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Wändi Bruine de Bruin
As the specter of climate change looms on the horizon, people will face complex decisions about whether to support climate change policies and how to cope with climate change impacts on their lives. Without some grasp of the relevant science, they may find it hard to make informed decisions. Climate experts therefore face the ethical need to effectively communicate to non-expert audiences. Unfortunately, climate experts may inadvertently violate the maxims of effective communication, which require sharing communications that are truthful, brief, relevant, clear, and tested for effectiveness...
October 17, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752459/determinants-of-adaptation-choices-to-climate-change-by-sheep-and-goat-farmers-in-northern-ethiopia-the-case-of-southern-and-central-tigray-ethiopia
#15
Fikeremaryam Birara Feleke, Melaku Berhe, Getachew Gebru, Dana Hoag
The livestock sector serves as a foremost source of revenue for rural people, particularly in many developing countries. Among the livestock species, sheep and goats are the main source of livelihood for rural people in Ethiopia; they can quickly multiply, resilient and are easily convertible to cash to meet financial needs of the rural producers. The multiple contributions of sheep and goat and other livestock to rural farmers are however being challenged by climate change and variability. Farmers are responding to the impacts of climate change by adopting different mechanisms, where choices are largely dependent on many factors...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736912/diffusion-dynamics-of-energy-saving-practices-in-large-heterogeneous-online-networks
#16
Neda Mohammadi, Qi Wang, John E Taylor
Online social networks are today's fastest growing communications channel and a popular source of information for many, so understanding their contribution to building awareness and shaping public perceptions of climate change is of utmost importance. Today's online social networks are composed of complex combinations of entities and communication channels and it is not clear which communicators are the most influential, what the patterns of communication flow are, or even whether the widely accepted two-step flow of communication model applies in this new arena...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726439/survey-of-international-members-of-the-american-thoracic-society-on-climate-change-and-health
#17
Mona Sarfaty, Jennifer Kreslake, Gary Ewart, Tee L Guidotti, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Edward W Maibach
The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%)...
October 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706373/victimization-perception-of-insecurity-and-changes-in-daily-routines-in-mexico
#18
María Elena Ávila, Belén Martínez-Ferrer, Alejandro Vera, Alejandro Bahena, Gonzalo Musitu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationships between victimization, perception of insecurity, and changes in routines. METHODS: The 8,170 subjects of both sexes (49.9% women and 50.1% men) aged between 12 and 60 years, selected from a proportional stratified sampling, participated in this study. The measuring instrument was an adaptation of the National Survey on Victimization and Perception of Public Security. Chi-square tests were performed. RESULTS: The results show significant differences on victimization and sex regarding perception of insecurity, restrictions on everyday activities, and protection measures...
October 3, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687619/comparing-state-legislative-aides-perspectives-on-tobacco-policymaking-in-states-with-strong-and-weak-policies-a-qualitative-study
#19
Ricardo J Wray, Nancy Weaver, Keri Jupka, Stacie Zellin, Susan Berman, Santosh Vijaykumar
PURPOSE: The study compared perceptions of state legislative aides about tobacco policymaking in states with strong and weak tobacco control policies. APPROACH: Qualitative in-depth interviews carried out in 2009. SETTING: The US states were ranked on a combination of tobacco prevention funding, taxes, and presence of smoke-free policies. States at the top and bottom of the rankings were chosen. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted with 10 legislative aides in 5 states with strong tobacco control policies and 10 aides in 7 states with weak policies...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665616/farmers-options-to-address-water-scarcity-in-a-changing-climate-case-studies-from-two-basins-in-mediterranean-chile
#20
Lisandro Roco, David Poblete, Francisco Meza, George Kerrigan
Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile...
September 24, 2016: Environmental Management
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