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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900353/survey-data-on-key-climate-and-environmental-drivers-of-farmers-migration-in-burkina-faso-west-africa
#1
Safiétou Sanfo, M William Fonta, Ibrahim Boubacar, P A John Lamers
This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893160/integrating-household-risk-mitigation-behavior-in-flood-risk-analysis-an-agent-based-model-approach
#2
Toon Haer, W J Wouter Botzen, Hans de Moel, Jeroen C J H Aerts
Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating...
November 28, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891140/drought-and-heat-differentially-affect-xth-expression-and-xet-activity-and-action-in-3-day-old-seedlings-of-durum-wheat-cultivars-with-different-stress-susceptibility
#3
Andrea Iurlaro, Monica De Caroli, Erika Sabella, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Patrizia Rampino, Luigi De Bellis, Carla Perrotta, Giuseppe Dalessandro, Gabriella Piro, Stephen C Fry, Marcello S Lenucci
Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876363/understanding-the-effects-of-past-flood-events-and-perceived-and-estimated-flood-risks-on-individuals-voluntary-flood-insurance-purchase-behavior
#4
Wanyun Shao, Siyuan Xian, Ning Lin, Howard Kunreuther, Nida Jackson, Kirby Goidel
Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance...
November 5, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865528/integrating-new-indicators-of-predictors-that-shape-the-public-s-perception-of-local-extreme-temperature-in-china
#5
Jie Ban, Lei Huang, Chen Chen, Yuming Guo, Mike Z He, Tiantian Li
The public's risk perception of local extreme heat or cold plays a critical role in community health and prevention under climate change. However, there is limited evidence on such issues in China where extreme weather is occurring more frequently due to climate change. Here, a total of 2500 residents were selected using a three-step sampling method and investigated by a questionnaire in two representative cities. We investigated risk perception of extreme heat in Beijing and extreme cold in Harbin in 2013, aiming to examine their possible correlations with multiple epidemiological factors...
November 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862495/concept-analysis-of-safety-climate-in-healthcare-providers
#6
Ying-Siou Lin, Yen-Chun Lin, Meei-Fang Lou
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of safety climate in healthcare providers. BACKGROUND: Compliance with safe work practices is essential to patient safety and care outcomes. Analysing the concept of safety climate from the perspective of healthcare providers could improve understanding of the correlations between safety climate and healthcare provider compliance with safe work practices, thus enhancing quality of patient care. DESIGN: Concept analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857955/non-thermal-modulation-of-sudomotor-function-during-static-exercise-and-the-impact-of-intensity-and-muscle-mass-recruitment
#7
Christopher J Gordon, Joanne N Caldwell, Nigel A S Taylor
Aim: Static muscle activation elicits intensity-dependent, non-thermal sweating that is presumably controlled by feedforward (central command) mechanisms. However, it is currently unknown how the size of the recruited muscle mass interacts with that mechanism. To investigate the possible muscle-size dependency of that non-thermal sweating, the recruitment of two muscle groups of significantly different size was investigated in individuals within whom steady-state thermal sweating had been established and clamped...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846668/-eating-disorders-in-female-high-school-students-educational-and-migration-background-school-related-stress-and-performance-orientated-classes
#8
M Grüttner
Background: Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources...
November 15, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832120/variability-of-the-structural-coloration-in-two-butterfly-species-with-different-prezygotic-mating-strategies
#9
Gábor Piszter, Krisztián Kertész, Zsolt Bálint, László Péter Biró
Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829008/examining-the-gap-between-science-and-public-opinion-about-genetically-modified-food-and-global-warming
#10
Brandon R McFadden
There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823904/mind-the-gap-lessons-from-science-based-stakeholder-dialogue-in-climate-adapted-management-of-wetlands
#11
Mateusz Grygoruk, Sven Rannow
Effective stakeholder involvement is crucial for the management of protected areas, especially when new challenges like adaptation to climate change need to be addressed. Under these circumstances, science-based stakeholder involvement is required. However, there is often a gap between the information produced by science and the need for information from stakeholders. Along with the design and implementation of adaptive management strategies and policies, efforts must be taken to adjust messages about conservation and adaptation issues, to make them easier to understand, relevant and acceptable for stakeholders...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818533/flood-realities-perceptions-and-the-depth-of-divisions-on-climate
#12
Lawrence C Hamilton, Cameron P Wake, Joel Hartter, Thomas G Safford, Alli J Puchlopek
Research has led to broad agreement among scientists that anthropogenic climate change is happening now and likely to worsen. In contrast to scientific agreement, US public views remain deeply divided, largely along ideological lines. Science communication has been neutralised in some arenas by intense counter-messaging, but as adverse climate impacts become manifest they might intervene more persuasively in local perceptions. We look for evidence of this occurring with regard to realities and perceptions of flooding in the northeastern US state of New Hampshire...
October 2016: Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816864/drivers-of-self-reported-heat-stress-in-the-australian-labour-force
#13
Kerstin K Zander, Simon A Moss, Stephen T Garnett
Heat stress causes reductions in well-being and health. As average annual temperatures increase, heat stress is expected to affect more people. While most research on heat stress has explored how exposure to heat affects functioning of the human organism, stress from heat can be manifest long before clinical symptoms are evident, with profound effects on behavior. Here we add to the little research conducted on these subclinical effects of environmental heat using results from an Australian-wide cross-sectional study of nearly 2000 respondents on their self-reported level of heat stress...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809756/recent-patents-in-agricultural-biotechnology-focus-on-health
#14
Abdullah Makhzoum, Srividhya Venkataraman, Jocelyne Tremouillaux-Guiller, Kathleen L Hefferon
BACKGROUND: Agricultural biotechnology, including the generation of genetically modified food crops, has been the subject of much controversy over the last few years. Initially serving the basic needs of farmers, Ag Biotech has more recently gained much appeal for its opportunities with respect to both the nutritional and pharmaceutical sciences. METHODS: The following review describes a number of recently approved patents that could have direct implications for the field of medicine...
November 1, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808531/authoritative-school-climate-number-of-parents-at-home-and-academic-achievement
#15
Francis L Huang, Katie Eklund, Dewey G Cornell
School climate is widely recognized as an important factor in promoting student academic achievement. The current study investigated the hypothesis that a demanding and supportive school climate, based on authoritative school climate theory, would serve as a protective factor for students living with 1 or no parents at home. Using a statewide sample of 56,508 middle school students from 415 public schools in 1 state, results indicated that student perceptions of disciplinary structure, academic demandingness, and student support all had positive associations with student self-reported grade point average (GPA)...
November 3, 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795968/designing-a-model-for-critical-thinking-development-in-aja-university-of-medical-sciences
#16
Mahyar Mafakheri Laleh, Mojgan Mohammadimehr, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame
INTRODUCTION: In the new concept of medical education, creativity development is an important goal. The aim of this research was to identify a model for developing critical thinking among students with the special focus on learning environment and learning style. METHODS: This applied and cross-sectional study was conducted among all students studying in undergraduate and professional doctorate programs in Fall Semester 2013-2014 in AJA University of Medical Sciences (N=777)...
October 2016: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790382/resilience-and-disaster-trends-in-the-philippines-opportunities-for-national-and-local-capacity-building
#17
Tilly Alcayna, Vincenzo Bollettino, Philip Dy, Patrick Vinck
INTRODUCTION:  The Philippines is one of the top countries in the world at risk of climate-related disasters. For populations subsisting at the poverty line in particular, but also the nation as a whole, daily lives and wellbeing are routinely challenged. The Philippines government takes disaster risk seriously and has devoted significant resources to build disaster capacity and reduce population exposure and vulnerability, nationally and locally. This paper explores the policy and institutional mechanisms for disaster risk reduction management and research which have been conducted in the Philippines related to disaster preparedness, management and resilience...
September 14, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784304/riverine-fishers-knowledge-of-extreme-climatic-events-in-the-brazilian-amazonia
#18
Ana Isabel Camacho Guerreiro, Richard J Ladle, Vandick da Silva Batista
BACKGROUND: Climate change is altering climate patterns, mainly increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme events with potentially serious impacts on natural resources and the people that use them. Adapting to such impacts will require the integration of scientific and local (folk) knowledge, especially the first-hand experiences and perceptions of resource users such as fishers. In this study, we identify how commercial riverine fishers in the Amazon remember extreme climatic events (flood and drought) and how they face the consequences of extreme events on fish availability...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779820/provider-perspectives-on-safety-in-primary-care-in-albania
#19
Jonila Cyco Gabrani, Wendy Knibb, Elizana Petrela, Adrian Hoxha, Adriatik Gabrani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the safety attitudes of specialist physicians (SPs), general physicians (GPs), and nurses in primary care in Albania. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional. It involved the SPs, GPs, and nurses from five districts in Albania. A demographic questionnaire and the adapted Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ)-Long Ambulatory Version A was used to gather critical information regarding the participant's profile, perception of management, working conditions, job satisfaction, stress recognition, safety climate, and perceived teamwork...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778064/climate-trends-and-farmers-perceptions-of-climate-change-in-zambia
#20
Brian P Mulenga, Ayala Wineman, Nicholas J Sitko
A number of studies use meteorological records to analyze climate trends and assess the impact of climate change on agricultural yields. While these provide quantitative evidence on climate trends and the likely effects thereof, they incorporate limited qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of climate change and/or variability. The present study builds on the quantitative methods used elsewhere to analyze climate trends, and in addition compares local narratives of climate change with evidence found in meteorological records in Zambia...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
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