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Thyroid AND reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645579/anti-androgenic-mechanisms-of-bisphenol-a-involve-androgen-receptor-signaling-pathway
#1
Hui Wang, Zhen Ding, Qiao-Mei Shi, Xing Ge, Heng-Xue Wang, Meng-Xue Li, Gang Chen, Qi Wang, Qiang Ju, Jin-Peng Zhang, Mei-Rong Zhang, Li-Chun Xu
We have shown Bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in the previous study. However, the mechanisms underlying anti-androgenic effects of BPA remain unclear. The objective of this study was to explore whether the AR signaling was involved in AR antagonism of BPA. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) iCELLigence system were applied to analyze the mouse Sertoli cell TM4 proliferation. The mammalian two-hybrid assays were performed to investigate the effects of BPA on the AR amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions (N/C) interaction and the interactions of the AR with steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), co-repressors including silencing mediator for thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR)...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635231/-comparison-of-paired-box-genes-8-and-2-expression-in-epithelium-tissues-and-the-related-tumors
#2
Y Song, X Huang, G H Shen, X Y Liu, X Zhang
Objective: To explore the expressional differences between paired box genes 2(Pax2) and 8 (Pax8) protein in different kinds of epitheliums and tumors, and to investigate the clinicopathologic significance. Methods: Expression levels of Pax2 and Pax8 protein were detected in 75 cases of different human epithelium tissues and 255 cases of different tumors on tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pax2 and Pax8 selectively expressed in different tissues. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in the normal epithelium of the thyroid, urinary system and female reproductive system were 100% (2/2), 60...
June 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630022/lamprey-metamorphosis-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-a-basal-vertebrate
#3
REVIEW
Richard G Manzon, Lori A Manzon
As one of the most basal living vertebrates, lampreys represent an excellent model system to study the evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. The lamprey hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and reproductive axes overlap functionally. Lampreys have 3 gonadotropin releasing hormones and a single glycoprotein hormone from the hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively, that regulate both the reproductive and thyroid axes. TH synthesis in larval lampreys takes place in an endostyle that transforms into typical vertebrate thyroid tissue during metamorphosis; both the endostyle and follicular tissue have all the typical TH synthetic components found in other vertebrates...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627816/spectrophotometric-determination-of-selenium-through-triiodide-anion
#4
Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon, Radu Nartita, Alexandru F Rogobete, Adina Negrea, Ramona Stroescu, Teofana O Bizerea, Constantin Ilie, Otilia Marginean
BACKGROUND: Selenium is a chemical element found in the human body that plays a crucial role in its regulation. Depending on the concentration, it may have beneficial or have toxic effects. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine amino acid residue in selenoproteins which play an important role in many biological functions: anti-oxidant defense, regulation of the immune function and of the inflammatory response, metabolism of thyroid hormones, functioning of the central nervous system, biosynthesis of DNA and RNA, fertility, and reproduction...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614731/potentiation-of-ecological-factors-on-the-disruption-of-thyroid-hormones-by-organo-halogenated-contaminants-in-female-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-the-barents-sea
#5
Sophie Bourgeon, Astrid Kolind Riemer, Sabrina Tartu, Jon Aars, Anuschka Polder, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Heli Routti
As apex predators, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among the most heavily polluted organisms in the Arctic. In addition to this anthropogenic stressor, climate warming has been shown to negatively affect their body condition, reproductive output and survival. Among potential underlying physiological mechanisms, thyroid hormones (THs), which control thermoregulation, metabolism and reproduction, can be affected by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic factors. While THs have been extensively used as proxies for pollution exposure in mammals, including polar bears, there is a lack of knowledge of their natural variations...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609287/the-role-of-thyrostimulin-and-its-potential-clinical-significance
#6
Dimitrios Karponis, S Ananth
Thyrostimulin is a glycoprotein heterodimer of GPA2 and GPB5, first described in 2002. It is involved in the physiological function of several tissues. Moreover, evidence points towards the ability of thyrostimulin's individual monomers to induce a biological effect, which could denote the circulatory/systemic effects of the molecule when found in higher concentrations. From the evolutionary point of view, thyrostimulin shares a binding epitope with the thyroid-stimulating hormone for the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, whilst possessing affinity for another unique binding site on the same receptor...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602941/hormonal-correlates-of-energetic-condition-in-mantled-howler-monkeys
#7
Pedro Américo D Dias, Alejandro Coyohua-Fuentes, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Roberto Chavira-Ramírez, Ariadna Rangel-Negrín
Hormones have a key role in energy allocation, so their study allows understanding individual metabolic strategies. Because different hormones convey different information on the responses of individuals to energetic demands, a simultaneous analysis of variation in multiple hormones may offer a more reliable picture of metabolic strategies than single hormone assessments. In this study we focused on determining which factors were related to variation in fecal glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone metabolites in wild mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)...
June 21, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588554/female-reproductive-factors-and-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Mariacarla Moleti, Giacomo Sturniolo, Maria Di Mauro, Marco Russo, Francesco Vermiglio
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583599/serum-concentration-dynamic-of-energy-homeostasis-hormones-leptin-insulin-thyroid-hormones-and-cortisol-throughout-canine-pregnancy-and-lactation
#9
L Cardinali, A Troisi, J P Verstegen, L Menchetti, A Elad Ngonput, C Boiti, S Canello, R Zelli, A Polisca
Pregnancy and lactation represent critical periods of canine reproductive life and different hormones are required to maintain homeostasis and the correct energy requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate leptin, insulin, triiodotyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and cortisol serum concentrations to better describe the canine maternal energy metabolism. Twelve Bloodhound bitches that had at least one litter and were considered to be healthy submitted blood samples every 15 days starting from day 0 (ovulation) throughout pregnancy up to the end of lactation (day 120)...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578598/hyperthyroidism-hypothyroidism-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-a-large-cohort-of-women
#10
Neige My Journy, Marie-Odile Bernier, Michele M Doody, Bruce H Alexander, Martha Linet, Cari Meinhold Kitahara
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism is 0.5-4% in iodine-replete communities, but 5-10 times higher in women than men. Those conditions are associated with a broad range of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Biological evidence of a role of thyroid hormones in carcinogenesis also exists. However, the association between thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality risk remains controversial. In a large cohort of women, we evaluated the associations of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism with cause-specific mortality after nearly 30 years of follow-up...
June 3, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571120/development-of-physiologically-based-organ-models-to-evaluate-the-pharmacokinetics-of-drugs-in-the-testes-and-the-thyroid-gland
#11
Sabine Pilari, Thomas Gaub, Michael Block, Linus Görlitz
We extended a generic whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for rats and humans for organs of the reproductive and endocrine systems, i.e., the testes and the thyroid gland. An extensive literature search was performed, firstly, to determine the most generic organ model structures for testes and thyroid across species and, secondly, to identify the corresponding anatomical and physiological parameters in rats and humans. The testes and thyroid organ models were implemented in the PBPK modeling software PK-Sim® and MoBi®...
June 1, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569618/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-triclosan-on-reproductive-and-thyroid-endpoints-in-the-adult-wistar-female-rat
#12
Gwendolyn W Louis, Daniel R Hallinger, M Janay Braxton, Alaa Kamel, Tammy E Stoker
Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor in the rat. Previously, subchronic TCS treatment to female rats was found to advance puberty and potentiate the effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth when EE and TCS were co-administered prior to weaning. In the pubertal study, a decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations with no significant change in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was also observed. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize the influence of TCS on the reproductive and thyroid axes of the female rat using a chronic exposure regimen...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554005/contaminants-and-energy-expenditure-in-an-arctic-seabird-organochlorine-pesticides-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-are-associated-with-metabolic-rate-in-a-contrasted-manner
#13
Pierre Blévin, Sabrina Tartu, Hugh I Ellis, Olivier Chastel, Paco Bustamante, Charline Parenteau, Dorte Herzke, Frédéric Angelier, Geir W Gabrielsen
Basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimal energetic cost of living in endotherms, is known to be influenced by thyroid hormones (THs) which are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in birds and mammals. Several environmental contaminants may act on energy expenditure through their thyroid hormone-disrupting properties. However, the effect of contaminants on BMR is still poorly documented for wildlife. Here, we investigated the relationships between three groups of contaminants (organochlorines (OCs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and mercury) with metabolic rate (MR), considered here as a proxy of BMR and also with circulating total THs (thyroxine (TT4) and triiodothyronine (TT3)) in Arctic breeding adult black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard, during the chick rearing period...
August 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546800/hyperprolactinaemia-a-problem-in-patients-from-the-reproductive-period-to-the-menopause
#14
Sylwia Pałubska, Aneta Adamiak-Godlewska, Izabela Winkler, Katarzyna Romanek-Piva, Tomasz Rechberger, Marek Gogacz
Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery...
March 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#15
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500731/alternative-plasticizer-4-cyclohexene-1-2-dicarboxylic-acid-dinonyl-ester-for-blood-containers-with-protective-effects-on-red-blood-cells-and-improved-cold-resistance
#16
Yuki Morishita, Yusuke Nomura, Chie Fukui, Ayano Fujisawa, Kayo Watanabe, Hideo Fujimaki, Hidefumi Kumada, Kaoru Inoue, Tomomi Morikawa, Miwa Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tomokazu Mukai, Toshiyasu Yuba, Ken-Ichi Inamura, Akito Tanoue, Ken-Ichi Miyazaki, Ung-Il Chung, Kumiko Ogawa, Midori Yoshida, Yuji Haishima
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical plasticizer used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is eluted from PVC-made blood containers and protects against red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis. However, concerns have arisen regarding the reproductive and developmental risks of DEHP in humans, and the use of alternative plasticizers for medical devices has been recommended worldwide. In this study, we propose that the use of a novel plasticizer, 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid dinonyl ester (DL9TH), could help produce more useful and safe blood containers...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484364/energy-homeostasis-in-monotremes
#17
REVIEW
Stewart C Nicol
In 1803, the French anatomist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire decided that the newly described echidna and platypus should be placed in a separate order, the monotremes, intermediate between reptiles and mammals. The first physiological observations showed monotremes had low body temperatures and metabolic rates, and the consensus was that they were at a stage of physiological development intermediate between "higher mammals" and "lower vertebrates." Subsequent studies demonstrated that platypuses and echidnas are capable of close thermoregulation in the cold although less so under hot conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480843/prognostic-risk-of-obstetric-and-perinatal-complications-in-pregnant-women-with-thyroid-dysfunction
#18
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, T Gagua, D Gagua
Maternal thyroid pathology takes important role in obstetric and peri-neonatal morbidity structure. Despite of the number of studies conducted in the field of thyroid disorders of pregnant females, the definition of influence of thyroid gland dysfunction on maternal and neonatal health still remains actual. The mentioned topics draw specific interest in the aspect of prognosticaiton of complications and unfavorable outcome. Aim of the study - to define the specificities of gestation period and determine the prognostic risk of obstetric and perinatal complications in pregnant females with thyroid pathology...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471544/neonatal-hypothyroidism-affects-testicular-glucose-homeostasis-through-increased-oxidative-stress-in-prepubertal-mice-effects-on-glut3-glut8-and-cx43
#19
D Sarkar, S K Singh
Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells...
May 4, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461507/evolutionarily-conserved-trh-neuropeptide-pathway-regulates-growth-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Elien Van Sinay, Olivier Mirabeau, Geert Depuydt, Matthias Boris Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Jan Watteyne, Sven Zels, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
In vertebrates thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that exerts the hormonal control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as well as neuromodulatory functions. However, a functional equivalent in protostomian animals remains unknown, although TRH receptors are conserved in proto- and deuterostomians. Here we identify a TRH-like neuropeptide precursor in Caenorhabditis elegans that belongs to a bilaterian family of TRH precursors. Using CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi reverse genetics, we show that TRH-like neuropeptides, through the activation of their receptor TRHR-1, promote growth in Celegans TRH-like peptides from pharyngeal motor neurons are required for normal body size, and knockdown of their receptor in pharyngeal muscle cells reduces growth...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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