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Thyroid AND reproduction

Natalie M Crawford, Anne Z Steiner
Thyroid hormones are important for normal reproductive function, and maternal thyroid dysfunction has been associated with infertility, miscarriage, preterm birth, and poor neurodevelopment in the offspring. Thyroid autoimmunity is the leading cause of thyroid dysfunction in women of reproductive age. Women with thyroid autoimmunity, even with normal thyroid function, appear to be at a higher risk for poor reproductive outcomes, including miscarriage and preterm birth. Thyroxine replacement in women with thyroid autoimmunity with or without appreciable thyroid dysfunction may improve pregnancy outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Aimee Seungdamrong
Subclinical hypothyroidism has been found to be associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, such as infertility, miscarriage, preterm birth, and complications of pregnancy. Multiple studies have investigated the relationships between thyroid function, thyroid antibodies, fertility, and pregnancy. Thyroid autoimmunity is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient locations. Thyroid antibodies have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes such as miscarriage and infertility. Debate exists regarding the method of identification of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy, which can be conducted by targeted screening or by universal screening...
October 14, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Neal Patel, James A Kashanian
Normal thyroid physiology is paramount for the proper development and important for the maintenance of male reproduction. Both short- and long-term deviations in thyroid hormone levels have been shown to alter male reproductive function on a micro- and macroscopic level. Thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism are associated with changes in spermatogenesis, semen quality, levels of sexual hormones, and erectile function. However, the degree to which thyroid dysfunction is clinically responsible for male infertility has not been clearly elucidated...
October 14, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Clarisa R Gracia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
L Casarini, G Brigante, M Simoni, D Santi
Gonadotropins (LH, FSH, and hCG) act in concert in the regulation of female reproductive system. Exploiting this influence, they are part of the assisted reproductive technique protocols. In this review we analyze the effectiveness of the different available gonadotropin formulations and the consequent adverse events. Moreover, different protocols for poor-responders and polycystic ovary syndrome affected women are explored. All these clinical different approaches have specific molecular bases, covered in this review starting from evolution and population genetics, getting to in vitro studies of gonadotropins action...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
T Yuen, L Sun, P Liu, H C Blair, M New, A Zallone, M Zaidi
The long-held belief that pituitary hormones act solely on master targets was first questioned when we documented G protein-coupled receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin on bone cells. These evolutionarily conserved hormones and their receptors are known to have primitive roles, and exist in invertebrate species as far down as coelenterates. It is not surprising therefore that each such hormone has multiple hitherto unrecognized functions in mammalian integrative physiology, and hence, becomes a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Milou M L Dingemans, Marjolijn Kock, Martin van den Berg
At present, human risk assessment of the structurally similar non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) is done independently for both groups of compounds. There are however obvious similarities between NDL-PCBs and PBDEs with regard to modulation of the intracellular calcium homeostasis (basal calcium levels, voltage-gated calcium channels, calcium uptake, ryanodine receptor) and thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis (TH levels and transport). which are mechanisms of action related to neurobehavioral effects (spontaneous activity, habituation and learning ability)...
October 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Youssef A Attia, Abd El-Hamid E Abd El-Hamid, Ahmed A Abedalla, Marfat A Berika, Mohammed A Al-Harthi, Osman Kucuk, Kazim Sahin, Baha M Abou-Shehema
Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock...
2016: SpringerPlus
Alban Deroux, Chantal Dumestre-Perard, Camille Dunand-Faure, Laurence Bouillet, Pascale Hoffmann
On average, 10 % of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Auto-immune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome) accounts for a part of these cases. In the last 20 years, aspecific auto-immunity, defined as positivity of auto-antibodies in blood sample without clinical or biological criteria for defined diseases, has been evoked in a subpopulation of infertile women. A systematic review was performed (PUBMED) using the MESH search terms "infertility" and "auto-immunity" or "reproductive technique" or "assisted reproduction" or "in vitro fertilization" and "auto-immunity...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Li-Hua Zhang, Jing-Yan Li, Qi Tian, Shuang Liu, Hong Zhang, Sheng Liu, Jiu-Gen Liang, Xian-Ping Lu, Ning-Yi Jiang
The aims of the present study were to analyze the outcomes of pregnancy, after (131)I treatment, in patients of reproductive age with Graves' hyperthyroidism and to investigate the effects, if any, of the (131)I treatment on the mothers and newborns. From 2009 to 2014, 257 pregnant female patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism in the outpatients at the Department of Nuclear Medicine and 166 healthy pregnant women from the Department of Obstetrics at Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital were included in our study. They were divided into a (131)I therapy group (n = 130) and an anti-thyroid drug (ATD) group (n = 127) according to their therapy before conception...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Vinuta Mohan, Robert Lind
Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I(131) iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves' disease...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Yu Li, Ping Pan, Ping Yuan, Qi Qiu, Dongzi Yang
BACKGROUND: Resistant ovary syndrome (ROS) is a rare endocrine disorder characterized with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Infertility is a common complaint of woman presenting with ROS, and little progress has been made in term of reproduction with the patient's own gamete. So far only one case report of live birth has been reported after in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes in a patient suffering from ROS in 2013. CASE PRESENTATION: A secondary infertile woman of 33 years-old was manifested with oligomenorrhea and markedly increased gonadotropin levels around postmenopausal range, but had normal antral follicle count, normal serum inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone levels...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Erik R Nelson, Hamid R Habibi
Vitellogenin (Vtg) is an egg-yolk precursor protein that is synthesized in the liver of oviparous species and taken up from the circulation by the ovary. It is well known that Vtg is induced by circulating estrogens. However, other endocrine factors that regulate the expression of Vtg are less well characterized; factors that might play significant roles, especially in seasonal spawners such as the goldfish which require increased quantities of Vtg for the development of hundreds of follicles. In this regard, thyroid hormones have been shown to cycle with the reproductive season...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Weixuan Fu, William R Lee, Behnam Abasht
BACKGROUND: Identification of the genomic signatures of recent selection may help uncover causal polymorphisms controlling traits relevant to recent decades of selective breeding in livestock. In this study, we aimed at detecting signatures of recent selection in commercial broiler chickens using genotype information from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 565 chickens from five commercial purebred lines, including three broiler sire (male) lines and two broiler dam (female) lines, were genotyped using the 60K SNP Illumina iSelect chicken array...
2016: BMC Genetics
Line Riis Jølving, Jan Nielsen, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel, Rasmus Gaardskaer Nielsen, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen, Bente Mertz Nørgård
INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during pregnancy. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers...
August 25, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Christopher D Kassotis, John J Bromfield, Kara C Klemp, Chun-Xia Meng, Andrew Wolfe, R Thomas Zoeller, Victoria D Balise, Chiamaka J Isiguzo, Donald E Tillitt, Susan C Nagel
Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0...
September 2016: Endocrinology
Miguel González-Doncel, Gregoria Carbonell, José Enrique García-Mauriño, Salvador Sastre, Eulalia María Beltrán, Carlos Fernàndez Torija
In this research work, we addressed the effects of a diet fortified with BDE-47 (0, 10, 100, 1000ng/g) dosed to 4-7 day-old post-hatch medaka fish for 40 days, followed by an 80-day depuration period. BDE-47 accumulation and overall growth were evaluated throughout the dosing period, and its elimination was quantified over the following 60 days. The histological condition of the thyroid gland, liver and gonads from the 1000ng BDE-47-treated fish were assessed 5 and 70days after exposures finished. The phenotypic males to females ratio was also quantified 70days after treatments finished...
September 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Amira M Aker, Deborah J Watkins, Lauren E Johns, Kelly K Ferguson, Offie P Soldin, Liza V Anzalota Del Toro, Akram N Alshawabkeh, José F Cordero, John D Meeker
INTRODUCTION: Phenols and parabens are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Evidence from animal studies and limited human data suggest they may be endocrine disruptors. In the current study, we examined associations of phenols and parabens with reproductive and thyroid hormones in 106 pregnant women recruited for the prospective cohort, "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT)". METHODS: Urinary exposure biomarkers (bisphenol A, triclosan, benzophenone-3, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, butyl, methyl and propyl paraben) and serum hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone) were measured at up to two time points during pregnancy (16-20 weeks and 24-28 weeks)...
July 20, 2016: Environmental Research
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, D Gagua, T Gagua
Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology...
June 2016: Georgian Medical News
Christian E Elger, Michael Rademacher, Christian Brandt, Sami Elmoufti, Peter Dedeken, Klaus Eckhardt, Frank Tennigkeit, Marc De Backer
Treatment with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as carbamazepine (CBZ) can lead to changes in reproductive, endocrine, and lipid parameters, resulting in clinical symptoms for some patients. Previous studies indicate that these changes can be reversed by switching to a nonenzyme-inducing AED. Lacosamide is a newer-generation AED, not known to induce or strongly inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. In this phase IIIb, prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial (NCT01375374), the serum concentrations of CYP-related reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, and lipids were assessed in otherwise healthy male patients with focal seizures (N=11), before and after a switch from CBZ (600-1200mg/day at baseline) to lacosamide (target dose: 400mg/day by the end of titration) as adjunctive treatment to the nonenzyme-inducing AED levetiracetam (LEV, stable dosage of >1000mg/day throughout)...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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