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Gokce Kundakci Gelir, Sule Sengul, Gokhan Nergizoglu, Sehsuvar Ertürk, Neval Duman, Sim Kutlay
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relation between sclerostin, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular events (CVE) in hemodialysis patients (HD). METHODS: Sclerostin level and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 97 HD patients and sclerostin level in 40 controls were measured. RESULTS: Sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Sclerostin associated positively with age, male gender, cardiovascular disease, statin use, BMI, and PWV while negatively with alkaline phosphatase, parathormone (PTH), Kt/V, cinacalcet and vitamin D use in univariable correlation analyses...
April 25, 2018: Blood Purification
Sean DuBois, Ankur R Desai, Aditya Singh, Shawn P Serbin, Michael L Goulden, Dennis D Baldocchi, Siyan Ma, Walter C Oechel, Sonia Wharton, Eric L Kruger, Philip A Townsend
A central challenge to understanding how climate anomalies, such as drought and heatwaves, impact the terrestrial carbon cycle, is quantification and scaling of spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). Existing empirical and model-based satellite broadband spectra-based products have been shown to miss critical variation in GPP. Here, we evaluate the potential of high spectral resolution (10 nm) shortwave (400-2500 nm) imagery to better detect spatial and temporal variations in GPP across a range of ecosystems, including forests, grassland-savannas, wetlands, and shrublands in a water-stressed region...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura Abreu, Elisiane Soares Novaes, Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira, Thais Aidar de Freitas Mathias, Sonia Silva Marcon
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of fall-related morbidity and mortality in older adults in Brazil from 1996 to 2012. METHOD: This is an ecological study of fall-related admission and mortality rate trends in older adults by gender, Brazilian regions, and Brazilian state capitals using data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Healthcare System (SIH-SUS) and from the National Mortality Information System (SIM). Trend analyses were based on polynomial regression models...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Gwangsu Yoo, S-S B Lee, H-S Sim
Quantum entanglement between an impurity spin and electrons nearby is a key property of the single-channel Kondo effects. We show that the entanglement can be detected by measuring electron conductance through a double quantum dot in an orbital Kondo regime. We derive a relation between the entanglement and the conductance, when the SU(2) spin symmetry of the regime is weakly broken. The relation reflects the universal form of many-body states near the Kondo fixed point. Using it, the spatial distribution of the entanglement-hence, the Kondo cloud-can be detected, with breaking of the symmetry spatially nonuniformly by electrical means...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Youhua Chen, Ruizhi Cao, Wenjie Liu, Dazhao Zhu, Zhiming Zhang, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
We present an alternative approach to realize structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable for live cell imaging. The prototype utilizes two sets of scanning galvo mirrors, a polarization converter and a piezo-platform to generate a fast shifted, s-polarization interfered and periodic variable illumination patterns. By changing the angle of the scanning galvanometer, we can change the position of the spots at the pupil plane of the objective lens arbitrarily, making it easy to switch between widefield and total internal reflection fluorescent-SIM mode and adapting the penetration depth in the sample...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Yuli Wang, Raehyun Kim, Dulan B Gunasekara, Mark I Reed, Matthew DiSalvo, Daniel L Nguyen, Scott J Bultman, Christopher E Sims, Scott T Magness, Nancy L Allbritton
Background & Aims: The successful culture of intestinal organoids has greatly enhanced our understanding of intestinal stem cell physiology and enabled the generation of novel intestinal disease models. Although of tremendous value, intestinal organoid culture systems have not yet fully recapitulated the anatomy or physiology of the in vivo intestinal epithelium. The aim of this work was to re-create an intestinal epithelium with a high density of polarized crypts that respond in a physiologic manner to addition of growth factors, metabolites, or cytokines to the basal or luminal tissue surface as occurs in vivo...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Hayley A Hodgson, Taeyong Sim, Hemil Gonzalez, Mariam Aziz, Yoona Rhee, Paul O Lewis, Neel Jhobalia, Beth Shields, Sheila K Wang
A price increase of pyrimethamine tablets in the United States has made the life-saving drug difficult to acquire for hospitalized patients who need it most. We report the successful use of a pyrimethamine oral suspension compounded from an economical bulk powder in a patient with acute toxoplasmic encephalitis.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Mei Yi Sim, Mei Lin Go, John Shyi Peng Yuen
AIM: To investigate the effect of dioxonaphthoimidazolium analog YM155 on cell cycle progression of the clear-cell variant of renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). MAIN METHODS: Cell cycle analysis was performed using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and PI, apoptosis initiation was monitored using Annexin V and proteins expression was determined using western immunoblotting. KEY FINDINGS: Here, we showed that YM155 activated stress-related molecules (histone H2AX, checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2, p53) that mediate DNA damage checkpoint responses...
April 21, 2018: Life Sciences
Anne Mandy, Tara Sims, Graham Stew, Dominic Onions
OBJECTIVE: Neurological bilateral upper limb weakness can result in self-feeding difficulties and reliance on care providers. Mealtimes become time consuming and frustrating. In this exploratory inquiry, we examined the experiences of users of a feeding device. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were either conducted by telephone or administered via email to explore quality of life, changes to independence, benefits and limitations, and psychological impact of the equipment...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Michael Schomaker, Bernard Rachet, Mireille E Schnitzer
When estimating the average effect of a binary treatment (or exposure) on an outcome, methods that incorporate propensity scores, the G-formula, or targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) are preferred over naïve regression approaches, which are biased under misspecification of a parametric outcome model. In contrast propensity score methods require the correct specification of an exposure model. Double-robust methods only require correct specification of either the outcome or the exposure model. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation is a semiparametric double-robust method that improves the chances of correct model specification by allowing for flexible estimation using (nonparametric) machine-learning methods...
April 23, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Eoin Moloney, Joanne O'Connor, Dawn Craig, Shannon Robalino, Alexandros Chrysos, Mehdi Javanbakht, Andrew Sims, Gerard Stansby, Scott Wilkes, John Allen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common condition, in which atherosclerotic narrowing in the arteries restricts blood supply to the leg muscles. In order to support future model-based economic evaluations comparing methods of diagnosis in this area, a systematic review of economic modelling studies was conducted. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed in June 2017 to identify model-based economic evaluations of diagnostic tests to detect PAD, with six individual databases searched...
April 23, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Emily Z Roben, Karen Mangold, Christina Cochran
Introduction Emergency departments (EDs) see a surge of intoxicated patients during large public summer events. These patients can be distracting and complicated for ED staff to care for. Methods We developed two cases to prepare emergency department staff for an anticipated surge of patients related to a large music festival that occurs proximal to our pediatric hospital. We developed and performed cases of simulated patients with alcohol intoxication and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ingestion to review medical management of these patients, as well as to review many of the social aspects of the cases...
February 21, 2018: Curēus
Jong-Hyun Nho, Ho-Kyung Jung, Mu-Jin Lee, Ji-Hun Jang, Mi-Ok Sim, Da-Eun Jeong, Hyun-Woo Cho, Jong-Choon Kim
Anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are effectively used more than radiotherapy. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug, used for treatment of various forms of cancer. However, it has side effects such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity increases tubular damage and renal dysfunction. Consequently, we investigated the beneficial effect of cynaroside on cisplatin-induced kidney injury using HK-2 cell (human proximal tubule cell line) and an animal model. Results indicated that 10 μM cynaroside diminished cisplatin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3 activation, cisplatin-induced upregulation of caspase-3/MST-1 pathway decreased by treatment of cynaroside in HK-2 cells...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Antonio J Berlanga-Taylor, Katharine Plant, Andrew Dahl, Evelyn Lau, Michael Hill, David Sims, Andreas Heger, Jonathan Emberson, Jane Armitage, Robert Clarke, Julian C Knight
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with multiple diseases, but the causal relevance and underlying processes are not fully understood. Elucidating the mechanisms of action of drug treatments in humans is challenging, but application of functional genomic approaches in randomized trials may afford an opportunity to systematically assess molecular responses. METHODS: In the Biochemical Efficacy and Safety Trial of Vitamin D (BEST-D), a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, randomized clinical trial, 305 community-dwelling individuals aged over 65 years were randomly allocated to treatment with vitamin D3 4000 IU, 2000 IU or placebo daily for 12 months...
April 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Nasir Idkaidek, Salim Hamadi, Manal El-Assi, Ahmad Al-Shalalfeh, Ahmad Al-Ghazawi
The objective is using saliva instead of plasma for pregabalin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) since saliva reflects the free non-protein bound drug concentration, simple and noninvasive sampling, cheaper and does not require the expertise of drawing blood. Forty four patients participated in this study, two samples of saliva and another two of blood were taken from each patient; first sample of both saliva and blood is the trough sample and was taken just before the first dose of the day and second sample is the peak sample and was taken 1 h after taking the first dose of the day...
April 23, 2018: Drug Research
Jianzhuang Jiang, Hao-Ling Sun, Yuxiang Chen, Chao Liu, Fang Ma, Dongdong Qi, Qingyun Liu
Non-peripherally substituted 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octa(butoxy)-phthalocyanine-involved unsymmetrical heteroleptic bis(phthalocyaninato) terbium double-decker Tb(Pc){H[Pc(α-OC4H9)8]} (Pc = unsubstituted phthalocyanine) (1) was revealed to exhibit typical single ion magnet behavior with effective energy barrier, 180 K (125 cm-1), and blocking temperature, 2 K, due to the sever deviation of the terbium coordination polyhedron from the square-antiprismatic geometry. Fabrication of this double-decker compound into the novel tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) terbium pseudo-quadruple-decker Na2{Tb(Pc)[Pc(α-OC4H9)8]}2 (2) single molecule magnet (SMM) not only optimizes the coordination polyhedron of terbium ion towards the square-antiprismatic geometry and intensifies the coordination field strength but more importantly significantly enhances the molecular magnetic anisotropy in the unsymmetrical bis(phthalocyaninato) double-decker unit along with the change of the counter cation from H+ of 1 to Na+ of 2, leading to an significantly enhanced magnetic behavior with spin-reversal energy barrier, 528 K (367 cm-1), and blocking temperature, 25 K...
April 23, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jasmine A Oliver, Omar Zeidan, Sanford L Meeks, Amish P Shah, Jason Pukala, Patrick Kelly, Naren R Ramakrishna, Twyla R Willoughby
PURPOSE: To describe the commissioning of AIRO mobile CT system (AIRO) for adaptive proton therapy on a compact double scattering proton therapy system. METHODS: A Gammex phantom was scanned with varying plug patterns, table heights, and mAs on a CT simulator (CT Sim) and on the AIRO. AIRO-specific CT-stopping power ratio (SPR) curves were created with a commonly used stoichiometric method using the Gammex phantom. A RANDO anthropomorphic thorax, pelvis, and head phantom, and a CIRS thorax and head phantom were scanned on the CT Sim and AIRO...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Young Ho Yun, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Jin-Ah Sim, EunKyo Kang, Jihye Lee, Jiyeon Choo, Shin Hye Yoo, Miso Kim, Young Ae Kim, Beo Deul Kang, Hyun-Jeong Shim, Eun-Kee Song, Jung Hun Kang, Jung Hye Kwon, Jung Lim Lee, Soon Nam Lee, Chi Hoon Maeng, Eun Joo Kang, Young Rok Do, Yoon Seok Choi, Kyung Hae Jung
PURPOSE: Understanding the concept of a "good death" is crucial to end-of-life care, but our current understanding of what constitutes a good death is insufficient. Here, we investigated the components of a good death that are important to the general population, cancer patients, their families, and physicians. METHODS: We conducted a stratified nationwide cross-sectional survey of cancer patients and their families from 12 hospitals, physicians from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and the general population, investigating their attitudes toward 10 good-death components...
April 22, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Takashi Onozaki
Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the main floricultural crops in Japan and worldwide. The vase life of cut ornamental flowers, including carnations, is important in determining their quality and consumers' preference. To improve the vase life of carnation flowers, my group started a breeding research program in 1992 using conventional cross-breeding techniques. We repeatedly crossed and selected promising offspring with long vase life for seven generations, from 1992 to 2008. In 2005, we developed two cultivars, 'Miracle Rouge' and 'Miracle Symphony', with genetically determined long vase lives of 17...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, juvenile hormone (JH) is critical for the control of species-specific size. However, whether the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim domain receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) is involved remains unconfirmed. In the present paper, we found that RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of Met gene (LdMet) lowered the larval and pupal fresh weights and shortened the larval development period in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Dietary introduction of JH into the LdMet RNAi larvae rescued neither the decreased weights nor the reduced development phase, even though JH ingestion by control larvae extended developmental time and caused large pupae...
April 19, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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