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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135018/chronic-prurigo-of-nodular-type-a-review
#1
Claudia Zeidler, Athanasios Tsianakas, Manuel Pereira, Hartmut Ständer, Gil Yosipovitch, Sonja Ständer
Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a subtype of chronic prurigo presenting single to multiple symmetrically distributed, hyperkeratotic and intensively itching papules and nodules. PN evolves along with chronic pruritus in the context of diverse dermatological, systemic, neurological or psychiatric conditions. Permanent scratching is possibly a major trigger of PN, although its exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Current state-of-the-art therapy for PN consists of topical steroids, capsaicin, calcineurin inhibitors, ultraviolet (UV) therapy, systemic administration of gabapentinoids, μ-opioid receptor antagonists, antidepressants or immunosuppressants...
August 23, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128343/post-stroke-depression-mechanisms-and-pharmacological-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonio Moretti
Depression, the most frequent psychiatric disorder following ischaemic stroke, negatively affects survivals' functional outcome, response to rehabilitation and quality of life. Approximately, one-third of them are affected by post-stroke depression (PSD), making it a serious social and public health problem and anti-depressant preventive and curative therapies worth investigating. However, a two-way association between depression and stroke has been also established: stroke increases the risk of PSD, but depression is an independent risk factor for stroke...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128043/transcriptome-alterations-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Matthew J Girgenti, Ronald S Duman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of nearly 8% in the general population. While the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of PTSD remain unknown, recent studies indicate that PTSD is associated with aberrant gene expression in brain as well as peripheral blood cells. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies will allow us to elucidate the gene expression changes occurring in both brain and blood of patients with PTSD. RNA sequencing allows for analysis of the amount of transcript being made as well as alternative splicing, novel transcript identification, microRNA, and noncoding RNA quantification...
October 4, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126813/automated-immunohistochemical-method-to-analyze-large-areas-of-the-human-cortex
#4
Mohamad Abbass, Kathleen Trought, David Long, Anton Semechko, Albert H C Wong
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. New METHOD: We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in vast regions of human cortex in psychiatric patients. This method accurately segments DAPI positive cells that are also stained with CUX2 and FEZF2...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123483/impact-of-vortioxetine-on-synaptic-integration-in-prefrontal-subcortical-circuits-comparisons-with-escitalopram
#5
Shreaya Chakroborty, Thomas R Geisbush, Elena Dale, Alan L Pehrson, Connie Sánchez, Anthony R West
Prefrontal-subcortical circuits support executive functions which often become dysfunctional in psychiatric disorders. Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that is currently used in the clinic to treat major depressive disorder. Mechanisms of action of vortioxetine include serotonin (5-HT) transporter blockade, 5-HT1A receptor agonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, and 5-HT1D, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism. Vortioxetine facilitates 5-HT transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), however, the impact of this compound on related prefrontal-subcortical circuits is less clear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122573/cause-specific-life-years-lost-in-people-with-mental-disorders-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#6
Annette Erlangsen, Per Kragh Andersen, Anita Toender, Thomas Munk Laursen, Merete Nordentoft, Vladimir Canudas-Romo
BACKGROUND: People with mental disorders have higher mortality rates than the general population and more detailed estimates of mortality differences are needed to address this public health issue. We aimed to assess whether differences in cause-specific mortality between people with and without mental disorders have changed between 1995 and 2014 by quantifying life-years lost and assessing differences over time. METHODS: Using a cohort design, we linked nationwide population data from the Danish Civil Registration System to information about hospital contacts from the Psychiatric Central Research Register and deaths from the Danish Cause of Death register...
November 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122466/novel-algorithm-to-help-identify-stroke-mimics
#7
Nadeem Israr Khan, Shilpa Chaku, Christina Goehl, Laura Endris, Georgia Mueller-Luckey, Fazeel M Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of disability in the United States. A portion of patients presenting with stroke-like symptoms in the emergency room who receive tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) do not end up having a true stroke, leading to unnecessary health-care costs. The aim of our study is to identify those patients who have a high likelihood of experiencing a stroke mimic using a novel stroke mimic score and to identify a cutoff point with a high specificity of ruling in stroke mimics...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118430/inter-individual-variation-in-genes-governing-human-hippocampal-progenitor-differentiation-in-vitro-is-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-adulthood
#8
Timothy R Powell, Tytus Murphy, Sang H Lee, Rodrigo R R Duarte, Hyun Ah Lee, Demelza Smeeth, Jack Price, Gerome Breen, Sandrine Thuret
Hippocampal volumes are smaller in psychiatric disorder patients and lower levels of hippocampal neurogenesis are the hypothesized cause. Understanding which molecular processes regulate hippocampal progenitor differentiation might aid in the identification of novel drug targets that can promote larger hippocampal volumes. Here we use a unique human cell line to assay genome-wide expression changes when hippocampal progenitor cells differentiate. RNA was extracted from proliferating cells versus differentiated neural cells and applied to Illumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112194/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-novel-locus-for-cannabis-dependence
#9
A Agrawal, Y-L Chou, C E Carey, D A A Baranger, B Zhang, R Sherva, L Wetherill, M Kapoor, J-C Wang, S Bertelsen, A P Anokhin, V Hesselbrock, J Kramer, M T Lynskey, J L Meyers, J I Nurnberger, J P Rice, J Tischfield, L J Bierut, L Degenhardt, L A Farrer, J Gelernter, A R Hariri, A C Heath, H R Kranzler, P A F Madden, N G Martin, G W Montgomery, B Porjesz, T Wang, J B Whitfield, H J Edenberg, T Foroud, A M Goate, R Bogdan, E C Nelson
Despite moderate heritability, only one study has identified genome-wide significant loci for cannabis-related phenotypes. We conducted meta-analyses of genome-wide association study data on 2080 cannabis-dependent cases and 6435 cannabis-exposed controls of European descent. A cluster of correlated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a novel region on chromosome 10 was genome-wide significant (lowest P=1.3E-8). Among the SNPs, rs1409568 showed enrichment for H3K4me1 and H3K427ac marks, suggesting its role as an enhancer in addiction-relevant brain regions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular and cingulate gyri...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111406/panic-like-escape-response-elicited-in-mice-by-exposure-to-co2-but-not-hypoxia
#10
Ailton Spiacci, Heloisa H Vilela-Costa, Ana Beatriz Sant'Ana, Gabriel Gripp Fernandes, Alana Tercino Frias, Glauber S Ferreira da Silva, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Hélio Zangrossi
Exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 or hypoxia has been widely used in psychiatric research as a panic provoking stimulus. However, the use of these respiratory challenges to model panic-like responses in experimental animals has been less straightforward. Little data is available, from behavioral and endocrine perspectives, to support the conclusion that a marked aversive situation, such as that experienced during panic attacks, was evoked in these animals. We here compared the behavioral responses of male CB57BL/6 mice during exposure to 20% CO2 or 7% O2 and its consequence on plasma levels of corticosterone...
October 28, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110094/mapping-gpr88-venus-illuminates-a-novel-role-for-gpr88-in-sensory-processing
#11
Aliza T Ehrlich, Meriem Semache, Julie Bailly, Stefan Wojcik, Tanzil M Arefin, Christine Colley, Christian Le Gouill, Florence Gross, Viktoriya Lukasheva, Mireille Hogue, Emmanuel Darcq, Laura-Adela Harsan, Michel Bouvier, Brigitte L Kieffer
GPR88 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor originally characterized as a striatal-enriched transcript and is a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders. At present, gene knockout studies in the mouse have essentially focused on striatal-related functions and a comprehensive knowledge of GPR88 protein distribution and function in the brain is still lacking. Here, we first created Gpr88-Venus knock-in mice expressing a functional fluorescent receptor to fine-map GPR88 localization in the brain. The receptor protein was detected in neuronal soma, fibers and primary cilia depending on the brain region, and remarkably, whole-brain mapping revealed a yet unreported layer-4 cortical lamination pattern specifically in sensory processing areas...
November 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106270/the-dark-personality-and-psychopathology-toward-a-brighter-future
#12
Sander Thomaes, Eddie Brummelman, Joshua D Miller, Scott O Lilienfeld
The young field of research on dark personality traits (i.e., socially aversive traits such as psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) is gaining momentum. This Special Section examines the nature, origins, development, and sequelae of dark traits, underscoring their largely unappreciated relevance to abnormal psychology. The articles in this section adopt diverse perspectives (e.g., clinical, developmental, organizational, social personality), use diverse methods (e.g., longitudinal, experience sampling), and sample diverse populations (e...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105071/identification-and-characterization-of-outcome-measures-reported-in-animal-models-of-epilepsy-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-a-task2-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#13
Michele Simonato, Sloka Iyengar, Amy Brooks-Kayal, Stephen Collins, Antoine Depaulis, David W Howells, Frances Jensen, Jing Liao, Malcolm R Macleod, Manisha Patel, Heidrun Potschka, Matthew Walker, Vicky Whittemore, Emily S Sena
Current antiseizure therapy is ineffective in approximately one third of people with epilepsy and is often associated with substantial side effects. In addition, most current therapeutic paradigms offer treatment, but not cure, and no therapies are able to modify the underlying disease, that is, can prevent or halt the process of epileptogenesis or alleviate the cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities. Preclinical research in the field of epilepsy has been extensive, but unfortunately, not all the animal models being used have been validated for their predictive value...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104061/post-weaning-social-isolation-of-rats-leads-to-long-term-disruption-of-the-gut-microbiota-immune-brain-axis
#14
Fionn Dunphy Doherty, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Veronica L Peterson, Orla O'Sullivan, Fiona Crispie, Paul D Cotter, Peter Wigmore, Madeleine V King, John F Cryan, Kevin C F Fone
Early-life stress is an established risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rats produces lasting developmental changes in behavior and brain function that may have translational pathophysiological relevance to alterations seen in schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence supports the premise that gut microbiota influence brain development and function by affecting inflammatory mediators, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotransmission, but there is little knowledge of whether the microbiota-gut-brain axis might contribute to the development of schizophrenia-related behaviors...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102800/hmgb1-il-1%C3%AE-complexes-regulate-neuroimmune-responses-in-alcoholism
#15
Leon G Coleman, Jian Zou, Liya Qin, Fulton T Crews
Neuroimmune activation is a key feature of the pathologies of numerous psychiatric disorders including alcoholism, depression, and anxiety. Both HMGB1 and IL-1β have been implicated in brain disorders. Previous studies find HMGB1 andIL-1β form heterocomplexes in vitro with enhanced immune responses, lead to our hypothesis that HMGB1 and IL-1β heterocomplexes formed in vivo to contribute to the pathology of alcoholism. HMGB1/IL-1β heterocomplexes were prepared in vitro and found to potentiate IL-1β receptor proinflammatory gene induction compared to IL-1β alone in hippocampal brain slice culture...
November 1, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101377/a-high-throughput-model-for-investigating-neuronal-function-and-synaptic-transmission-in-cultured-neuronal-networks
#16
Jasmeet K Virdee, Gabriella Saro, Antoine Fouillet, Jeremy Findlay, Filipa Ferreira, Sarah Eversden, Michael J O'Neill, Joanna Wolak, Daniel Ursu
Loss of synapses or alteration of synaptic activity is associated with cognitive impairment observed in a number of psychiatric and neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore successful development of in vitro methods that can investigate synaptic function in a high-throughput format could be highly impactful for neuroscience drug discovery. We present here the development, characterisation and validation of a novel high-throughput in vitro model for assessing neuronal function and synaptic transmission in primary rodent neurons...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100628/developmental-changes-within-the-genetic-architecture-of-social-communication-behavior-a-multivariate-study-of-genetic-variance-in-unrelated-individuals
#17
Beate St Pourcain, Lindon J Eaves, Susan M Ring, Simon E Fisher, Sarah Medland, David M Evans, George Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: Recent analyses of trait-disorder overlap suggest that psychiatric dimensions may relate to distinct sets of genes that exert maximum influence during different periods of development. This includes analyses of social communication difficulties that share, depending on their developmental stage, stronger genetic links with either autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. We developed a multivariate analysis framework in unrelated individuals to model directly the developmental profile of genetic influences contributing to complex traits, such as social communication difficulties, during an approximately 10-year period spanning childhood and adolescence...
September 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099093/functional-dyspepsia
#18
REVIEW
Paul Enck, Fernando Azpiroz, Guy Boeckxstaens, Sigrid Elsenbruch, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Gerald Holtmann, Jeffrey M Lackner, Jukka Ronkainen, Michael Schemann, Andreas Stengel, Jan Tack, Stephan Zipfel, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Functional dyspepsia comprises three subtypes with presumed different pathophysiology and aetiology: postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and a subtype with overlapping PDS and EPS features. Functional dyspepsia symptoms can be caused by disturbed gastric motility (for example, inadequate fundic accommodation or delayed gastric emptying), gastric sensation (for example, sensations associated with hypersensitivity to gas and bloating) or gastric and duodenal inflammation...
November 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098318/-wilson-s-disease-what-has-been-confirmed-in-diagnostic-and-therapy
#19
REVIEW
E-D Pfister
Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal copper accumulation. Presenting a broad variety of phenotypes and, thus, being a chameleon within the group of metabolic diseases, the manifold clinical symptoms of WD can include hepatologic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations. Early onset presentations in infancy and late-onset manifestations in adults older than 70 years of age have been described. If the typical laboratory blood test values are missing, the diagnosis of WD may be difficult and often involves a combination of different parameters...
November 2, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098186/chronic-adolescent-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-treatment-of-male-mice-leads-to-long-term-cognitive-and-behavioral-dysfunction-which-are-prevented-by-concurrent-cannabidiol-treatment
#20
Michelle Murphy, Sierra Mills, Joanna Winstone, Emma Leishman, Jim Wager-Miller, Heather Bradshaw, Ken Mackie
Introduction: The high prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, the association between this use and later psychiatric disease, and increased access to high-potency cannabis highlight the need for a better understanding of the long-term effects of adolescent cannabis use on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, increasing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in high-potency cannabis is accompanied by a decrease in cannabidiol (CBD), thus an understanding of the interactions between CBD and THC in the neurodevelopmental effects of THC is also important...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
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