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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331709/what-do-the-genetic-association-data-say-about-the-high-risk-of-suicide-in-people-with-depression-a-novel-network-based-approach-to-find-common-molecular-basis-for-depression-and-suicidal-behavior-and-related-therapeutic-targets
#1
Ali Bozorgmehr, Fatemeh Alizadeh, Sattar Norouzi Ofogh, Mohammad Reza Abdollahzadeh Hamzekalayi, Sara Herati, Atefeh Moradkhani, Ali Shahbazi, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi
BACKGROUND: Available sources indicate that the risk of suicide in people with major depression is higher than other psychiatric disorders. Although it seems that these two conditions may have a shared cause in some cases, no studies have been conducted to identify a common basis for them. METHODS: In this study, following an extensive review of literature, we found almost all the genes that are involved in major depression and suicidal behavior, and we isolated genes shared between the two conditions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331698/exploring-metabolic-factors-and-health-behaviors-in-relation-to-suicide-attempts-a-case-control-study
#2
Stefan Perera, Rebecca B Eisen, Meha Bhatt, Brittany B Dennis, Monica Bawor, Wala El-Sheikh, Jane DeJesus, Sumathy Rangarajan, Heather Sholer, Elisabeth Iordan, Pam Mackie, Shofiqul Islam, Mahshid Dehghan, Jennifer Brasch, David Meyre, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts are a serious public health concern with devastating global impact, thereby necessitating the development of an adequate prevention strategy. Few known risk factors of suicide attempts are directly modifiable. This study sought to investigate potential associations between health behaviors and suicide attempts, identifying novel opportunities for clinicians to help prevent suicidal behavior. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to compare body weight, serum total cholesterol, physical activity, tobacco use, and dietary food groups among adults who had made a suicide attempt (n = 84) to psychiatric inpatients (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) without history of suicide attempt...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330487/a-biomarker-characterizing-neurodevelopment-with-applications-in-autism
#3
Di Wu, Jorge V José, John I Nurnberger, Elizabeth B Torres
Despite great advances in neuroscience and genetic studies, our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders is still quite limited. An important reason is not having objective psychiatric clinical tests. Here we propose a quantitative neurodevelopment assessment by studying natural movement outputs. Movement is central to behaviors: It involves complex coordination, temporal alterations, and precise dynamic controls. We carefully analyzed the continuous movement output data, collected with high definition electromagnetic sensors at millisecond time scales...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330067/protein-complexes-as-psychiatric-and-neurological-drug-targets
#4
REVIEW
Akihiko S Kato, Jeffrey M Witkin
The need for improved medications for psychiatric and neurological disorders is clear. Difficulties in finding such drugs demands that all strategic means be utilized for their invention. The discovery of forebrain specific AMPA receptor antagonists, which selectively block the specific combinations of principal and auxiliary subunits present in forebrain regions but spare targets in the cerebellum, was recently disclosed. This discovery raised the possibility that other auxiliary protein systems could be utilized to help identify new medicines...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328008/-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-current-insights-in-diagnostics-treatment-and-prevention
#5
A Lok, J L Frijling, M van Zuiden
- Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may develop after traumatic events.- PTSD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 7%.- Recurrent re-experiencing of the traumatic event is the most characteristic PTSD symptom.- Recognition of PTSD may be hampered by the heterogeneous symptomatology, avoidance to talk about the trauma and highly frequent comorbid psychiatric and somatic comorbidity.- Feelings of guilt and shame may also influence reported trauma history...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324745/proof-of-concept-study-of-an-at-home-engaging-digital-intervention-for-pediatric-adhd
#6
Naomi O Davis, Jeffrey Bower, Scott H Kollins
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have limited impact on the distinct neurocognitive impairments associated with ADHD, and existing cognitive training programs have shown limited efficacy. This proof-of-concept study assessed treatment acceptability and explored outcomes for a novel digital treatment targeting cognitive processes implicated in ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD. Following psychiatric screening, ADHD ratings, and baseline neuropsychological measures, participants completed 28-days of at-home treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#7
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304525/low-self-rated-health-is-related-to-blood-hypercoagulability-in-patients-admitted-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Roland von Känel, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Jean-Paul Schmid, Jürgen Barth, Hansjörg Znoj, Ulrich Schnyder, Mary Princip
Self-rated health (SRH) is independently associated with all-cause mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease. We examined whether SRH relates to haemostatic factors of a hypercoagulable state with prognostic impact in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed 190 patients (median age: 59 years; all Caucasian; 83% men) within 48 hours of an acute coronary intervention in terms of demographic factors, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, health behaviours, cardiac-related variables and psychosocial characteristics...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303950/cns-drug-development-lessons-learned-part-4-the-role-of-brain-circuitry-and-genes-tasimelteon-as-an-example
#9
Sheldon H Preskorn
This is the fourth in a series of columns discussing the rational and targeted development of drugs to affect specific central nervous system (CNS) circuits in specific ways based on knowledge gained by molecular biology and the human genome project. The first column in this series described 6 CNS drugs with novel mechanisms of action developed over the last 25 years. The second column discussed differences between syndromic diagnoses as exemplified by the third through the fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III through DSM-5) and the new approach to psychiatric diagnoses championed by the National Institute of Mental Health in their Research Domain Criteria Initiative...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301639/genetic-testing-as-a-supporting-tool-in-prescribing-psychiatric-medication-design-and-protocol-of-the-impact-study
#10
Deanna Herbert, Maria Neves-Pereira, Ruth Baidya, Sheraz Cheema, Sarah Groleau, Anashe Shahmirian, Arun K Tiwari, Clement C Zai, Nicole King, Daniel J Müller, James L Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy is one of the primary treatments for psychiatric disorders. Given the variation in individual response, a more personalized approach is needed. This paper will discuss methods for user-friendly referrals, recruitment criteria, data storage and dissemination, biological sample and clinical questionnaire collection, and advertising. METHODS: The Individualized Medicine: Pharmacogenetics Assessment and Clinical Treatment (IMPACT) study is one of the first to use pharmacogenetic testing on a large scale in psychiatry as a tool to predict individual drug response and tolerability...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298989/lost-in-translation-how-to-upgrade-fear-memory-research
#11
REVIEW
África Flores, Miquel À Fullana, Carles Soriano-Mas, Raül Andero
We address some of the current limitations of translational research in fear memory and suggest alternatives that might help to overcome them. Appropriate fear responses are adaptive, but disruption of healthy fear memory circuits can lead to anxiety and fear-based disorders. Stress is one of the main environmental factors that can disrupt memory circuits and constitutes as a key factor in the etiopathology of these psychiatric conditions. Current therapies for anxiety and fear-based disorders have limited success rate, revealing a clear need for an improved understanding of their neurobiological basis...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291439/novel-non-sulfonamide-5-ht6-receptor-partial-inverse-agonist-in-a-group-of-imidazo-4-5-b-pyridines-with-cognition-enhancing-properties
#12
David Vanda, Miroslav Soural, Vittorio Canale, Séverine Chaumont-Dubel, Grzegorz Satała, Tomasz Kos, Petr Funk, Veronika Fülöpová, Barbora Lemrová, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Elżbieta Pękala, Andrzej J Bojarski, Piotr Popik, Philippe Marin, Paweł Zajdel
A small library of novel 3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine derivatives was designed and synthesized as non-sulfonamide 5-HT6 receptor ligands. In vitro evaluation allowed to identify compound 17 (2-ethyl-3-(3-fluorobenzyl)-7-(piperazin-1-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) as potent 5-HT6 receptor partial inverse agonist in Gs signaling (Ki = 6 nM, IC50 = 17.6 nM). Compound 17 displayed high metabolic stability, favorable cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (2D6, 3A4) profile, did not affect PgP-protein binding, without evoking mutagenic effects...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287668/development-of-a-novel-integrated-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-co-occurring-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Anka A Vujanovic, Lia J Smith, Charles E Green, Scott D Lane, Joy M Schmitz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. No evidence-based, 'gold standard' treatments for PTSD/SUD comorbidity are currently available. The present pilot randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a novel, integrated cognitive-behavioral treatment approach for PTSD/SUD, entitled Treatment of Integrated Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use (TIPSS), as compared to standard cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for SUD...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285414/deep-brain-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-knowledge-and-concerns-among-psychiatrists-psychotherapists-and-patients
#14
Matilda Naesström, Patric Blomstedt, Marwan Hariz, Owe Bodlund
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under investigation for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) resistant to other therapies. The number of implants worldwide is slowly increasing. Therefore, it is of importance to explore knowledge and concerns of this novel treatment among patients and their psychiatric healthcare contacts. This information is relevant for scientific professionals working with clinical studies for DBS for this indication. Especially, for future study designs and the creation of information targeting healthcare professionals and patients...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283493/the-checklist-of-unit-behaviors-cub-validation-within-a-canadian-outpatient-day-hospital-program
#15
Marlene Taube-Schiff, Christo El Morr, Alyssa Counsell, Aiden Mehak, Jackie Gollan
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the Checklist of Unit Behaviors (CUB) questionnaire in a novel mental health setting: a day hospital within a large acute care general hospital. The CUB measures two factors, Avoidance or Approach, of the patients' engagement with the treatment milieu within the previous 24 hours. AIM: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to validate the CUB's original two factor structure in an outpatient day program. METHOD: Psychiatric outpatients (N=163) completed the CUB daily while participating in a day hospital program in Toronto, Canada...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282075/psychometric-validation-of-a-multi-dimensional-capability-instrument-for-outcome-measurement-in-mental-health-research-oxcap-mh
#16
Francis Vergunst, Crispin Jenkinson, Tom Burns, Paul Anand, Alastair Gray, Jorun Rugkåsa, Judit Simon
BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are widely used in mental healthcare research for quality of life assessment but most fail to capture the breadth of health and non-health domains that can be impacted. We report the psychometric validation of a novel, multi-dimensional instrument based on Amartya Sen's capability approach intended for use as an outcome measure in mental health research. METHODS: The Oxford Capabilities Questionnaire for Mental Health (OxCAP-MH) is a 16-item self-complete capability measure that covers multiple domains of functioning and welfare...
December 28, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279995/type-a-and-b-monoamine-oxidases-distinctly-modulate-signal-transduction-pathway-and-gene-expression-to-regulate-brain-function-and-survival-of-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Wakako Maruyama, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai
Type A and B monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, -B) mediate and modulate intracellular signal pathways for survival or death of neuronal cells. MAO-A is associated with development of neuronal architecture, synaptic activity, and onset of psychiatric disorders, including depression, and antisocial aggressive impulsive behaviors. MAO-B produces hydrogen peroxide and plays a vital role in neuronal loss of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review presents a novel role of MAO-A and B, their substrates and inhibitors, and hydrogen peroxide in brain function and neuronal survival and death...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279228/animal-models-of-excessive-aggression-implications-for-human-aggression-and-violence
#18
REVIEW
Sietse F de Boer
Escalated interpersonal aggression and violence are common symptoms of multiple psychiatric disorders and represent a significant global health issue. Current therapeutic strategies are limited due to a lack of understanding about the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the 'vicious' shift of normal adaptive aggression into violence, and the environmental triggers that cause it. Development of novel animal models that validly capture the salient features of human violent actions combined with newly emerging technologies for mapping, measuring, and manipulating neuronal activity in the brain significantly advance our understanding of the etiology, neuromolecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic interventions of excessive aggressive behaviors in humans...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278806/the-association-of-serum-nesfatin-1-and-ghrelin-levels-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Kubranur Ünal, Rabia Nazik Yüksel, Turan Turhan, Sevilay Sezer, Elif Tatlidil Yaylaci
Nesfatin-1 and ghrelin are two hormones which has opposite effects and play role in food intake. This study was planned on the idea that both metabolic syndrome and psychiatric disorders are associated with nesfatin-1 and ghrelin. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the levels of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in patients with schizophrenia, by taking confounding factor as the metabolic syndrome (MS). 55 patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls were included in the study.11 out of the 55 patients (%20) has MS...
December 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277899/proton-independent-activation-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic3-by-alkaloid-lindoldhamine-from-laurus-nobilis
#20
Dmitry I Osmakov, Sergey G Koshelev, Yaroslav A Andreev, Maxim A Dubinnyi, Vadim S Kublitski, Roman G Efremov, Alexander I Sobolevsky, Sergey A Kozlov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning, as well as in nociception and mechanosensation. ASICs are implicated in pain, neurological and psychiatric diseases but their therapeutic potential is limited by lack of ligands activating them at physiological pH. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Here we report extraction from laurel leaves, purification and structure determination of a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid lindoldhamine (LIN) and characterization of its effect on ASIC3 channels using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus laevis oocytes...
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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