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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635542/gene-expression-study-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-in-schizophrenia-and-paranoid-personality-disorder
#1
Arvin Haghighatfard, Sarah Andalib, Mozhdeh Amini Faskhodi, Soha Sadeghi, Amir Hossein Ghaderi, Shadi Moradkhani, Jalal Rostampour, Zeinab Tabrizi, Ali Mahmoodi, Talie Karimi, Zakieh Ghadimi
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are not yet clarified. The present study aimed to assess the role of mitochondrial complex I and cell bioenergetic pathways in the aetiology and characteristics of SCZ and PPD. METHODS: mRNA levels of all genomic and mitochondrial genes which encode mitochondrial complex I subunits (44 genes) were assessed in blood in 634 SCZ, 340 PPD patients and 528 non-psychiatric subjects using quantitative real-time PCR, and associated comprehensive psychiatric, neurological and biochemical assessments...
February 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629888/development-of-novel-behavioral-interventions-in-an-experimental-therapeutics-world-challenges-and-directions-for-the-future
#2
Kathryn E Lewandowski, Dost Ongur, Matcheri S Keshavan
Recently, the focus of funding mechanisms associated with clinical trials has changed to be consistent with an experimental therapeutics approach. While this approach holds considerable promise, the paradigm shift has presented challenges for behavioral trials in complex psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia, as molecular targets - the classic focus in experimental therapeutics paradigms - may not represent logical targets for many psychosocial interventions designed to treat multifaceted, multiply determined symptoms...
June 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#3
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624464/complex-phenotypes-associated-with-stim1-mutations-in-both-coiled-coil-and-ef-hand-domains
#5
Elizabeth Harris, Umar Burki, Chiara Marini-Bettolo, Marcella Neri, Chiara Scotton, Judith Hudson, Marta Bertoli, Teresinha Evangelista, Bas Vroling, Tuomo Polvikoski, Mark Roberts, Ana Töpf, Kate Bushby, Daniel McArthur, Hanns Lochmüller, Alessandra Ferlini, Volker Straub, Rita Barresi
Dominant mutations in STIM1 are a cause of three allelic conditions: tubular aggregate myopathy, Stormorken syndrome (a complex phenotype including myopathy, hyposplenism, hypocalcaemia and bleeding diathesis), and a platelet dysfunction disorder, York platelet syndrome. Previous reports have suggested a genotype-phenotype correlation with mutations in the N-terminal EF-hand domain associated with tubular aggregate myopathy, and a common mutation at p.R304W in a coiled coil domain associated with Stormorken syndrome...
May 4, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#6
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
June 15, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608356/-the-influence-of-spanish-neuropsychiatry-on-the-improbable-medicine-of-ramon-gomez-de-la-serna
#7
REVIEW
G Delgado-Garcia, C Rodriguez-Navarez, T Corona, B Estanol-Vidal
INTRODUCTION: El doctor inverosimil (The Improbable Doctor) is a novel by Ramon Gomez de la Serna (1888-1963) in which the reader follows, by means of a series of different clinical cases, the adventures of Doctor Vivar. AIMS: To present and discuss, for the first time, the influence that Spanish neuropsychiatry had on this novel, taking the following short stories as study models: 'Casos cerebrales' ('Brain Cases') and 'La risita' ('The Giggles'). DEVELOPMENT: In these two tales, the improbable doctor embodies the three defining elements of Spanish neuropsychiatry...
June 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607170/oxytocin-and-serotonin-brain-mechanisms-in-the-non-human-primate
#8
Lefevre Arthur, Richard Nathalie, Jazayeri Mina, Beuriat Pierre-Aurélien, Fieux Sylvain, Zimmer Luc, Duhamel Jean-René, Sirigu Angela
Oxytocin is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between oxytocin (OT) and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET-scan in humans we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) function is modified after intra-nasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606869/predicting-mental-conditions-based-on-history-of-present-illness-in-psychiatric-notes-with-deep-neural-networks
#9
Tung Tran, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: Applications of natural language processing to mental health notes are not common given the sensitive nature of the associated narratives. The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) changed this scenario by providing the first set of neuropsychiatric notes to participants. This study summarizes our efforts and results in proposing a novel data use case for this dataset as part of the third track in this shared task. OBJECTIVE: We explore the feasibility and effectiveness of predicting a set of common mental conditions a patient has based on the short textual description of patient's history of present illness typically occurring in the beginning of a psychiatric initial evaluation note...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606462/growing-literature-but-limited-evidence-a-systematic-review-regarding-prebiotic-and-probiotic-interventions-for-those-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-or-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Lisa A Brenner, Kelly A Stearns-Yoder, Adam S Hoffberg, Molly E Penzenik, Amy J Starosta, Theresa D Hernández, Daniel A Hadidi, Christopher A Lowry
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly prevalent among a wide-range of populations, including civilians, military personnel, and Veterans. TBI sequelae may be further exacerbated by symptoms associated with frequently occurring co-morbid psychiatric conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is particularly true among the population of military personnel from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan with a history of mild TBI (mTBI) and PTSD. The need for efficacious treatments for TBI and co-morbid PTSD is significant, and evidence-based interventions for these frequently co-occurring conditions are limited...
June 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603586/sleep-health-behaviors-and-behavioral-interventions-reducing-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Jill L Kaar, Christina M Luberto, Kirsti A Campbell, Jeff C Huffman
Numerous health behaviors, including physical activity, diet, smoking, and sleep, play a major role in preventing the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among these behaviors, sleep may play a pivotal role, yet it has been studied somewhat less than other behaviors and there have been few well-designed sleep intervention studies targeting CVD. Furthermore, despite the fact that these behaviors are often interrelated, interventions tend to focus on changing one health behavior rather than concurrently intervening on multiple behaviors...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599949/quetiapine-extended-release-versus-aripiprazole-in-children-and-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-the-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-tea-trial
#12
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Pia Jeppesen, Dea Gowers Klauber, Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Ditte Rudå, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Peter Jantzen, Simone Rasmussen, Eva Ann-Sofie Saldeen, Maj-Britt Glenn Lauritsen, Niels Bilenberg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Louise Nyvang, Sarah Madsen, Thomas M Werge, Theis Lange, Christian Gluud, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Jens Richardt M Jepsen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Christoph U Correll, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable. In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other...
June 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596721/cannabinoid-receptor-signaling-in-central-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Marco Koch
Cannabinoids are lipid messengers that modulate a variety of physiological processes and modify the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoids so far. One main function of central CB1 signaling is to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. Thus, cannabinoids functionally interact with classical neurotransmitters in neural networks that control energy metabolism and feeding behavior. The promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, while blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595657/brain-cox-investigating-and-visualising-gene-co-expression-in-seven-human-brain-transcriptomic-datasets
#14
Saskia Freytag, Rosemary Burgess, Karen L Oliver, Melanie Bahlo
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of neurological and mental health disorders often involves multiple genes, complex interactions, as well as brain- and development-specific biological mechanisms. These characteristics make identification of disease genes for such disorders challenging, as conventional prioritisation tools are not specifically tailored to deal with the complexity of the human brain. Thus, we developed a novel web-application-brain-coX-that offers gene prioritisation with accompanying visualisations based on seven gene expression datasets in the post-mortem human brain, the largest such resource ever assembled...
June 8, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593819/voluntary-exercise-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-female-dominant-negative-disc1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#15
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Ran Barzilay, Ofri Rimoni, Daniel Offen
OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise has gained increasing interest as a treatment modality that improves prognosis in psychiatric patients. The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is a candidate gene for major mental illness. In this study, we aimed to determine whether voluntary wheel running can improve cognitive deficits of dominant-negative DISC1 transgenic mice (DN-DISC1). METHODS: DN-DISC1 and control mice (10-week-old male and female) were placed for 14 days in a cage with or without access to a running wheel...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591067/bergamot-polyphenolic-fraction-supplementation-improves-cognitive-functioning-in-schizophrenia-data-from-an-8-week-open-label-pilot-study
#16
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Clemente Cedro, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
BACKGROUND: Novel treatment strategies for cognitive dysfunctions may prevent long-term disability in patients with schizophrenia, and polyphenolic compounds might be a promising strategy. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia), a citrus fruit characterized by a high amount of flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, may represent a potential nutraceutical approach to cognitive dysfunction. The present study was aimed to explore the efficacy of bergamot polyphenolic fraction (BPF) supplementation on cognitive/executive functioning in a sample of patients with schizophrenia receiving second-generation antipsychotics...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587895/a-novel-operant-task-to-assess-social-reward-and-motivation-in-rodents
#17
Johnathan M Borland, Kyle J Frantz, Lauren M Aiani, Kymberly N Grantham, Zhimin Song, H Elliott Albers
BACKGROUND: Social reward plays a critical role in the development of beneficial social relationships, and disorders of the mechanisms controlling social reward are involved in the etiology of many psychiatric diseases. NEW METHOD: We present a novel operant social preference task to quantify social reward in rodents using an apparatus with three chambers separated by one-way vertical-swing doors. The experimental animal is placed in the larger chamber while the two smaller chambers either remain empty or contain a stimulus animal or other potential reward stimulus...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585932/plasma-rest-a-novel-candidate-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease-is-modified-by-psychological-intervention-in-an-at-risk-population
#18
N J Ashton, A Hye, C A Leckey, A R Jones, A Gardner, C Elliott, J L Wetherell, E J Lenze, R Killick, N L Marchant
The repressor element 1-silencing transcription (REST) factor is a key regulator of the aging brain's stress response. It is reduced in conditions of stress and Alzheimer's disease (AD), which suggests that increasing REST may be neuroprotective. REST can be measured peripherally in blood plasma. Our study aimed to (1) examine plasma REST levels in relation to clinical and biological markers of neurodegeneration and (2) alter plasma REST levels through a stress-reduction intervention-mindfulness training. In study 1, REST levels were compared across the following four well-characterized groups: healthy elderly (n=65), mild cognitive impairment who remained stable (stable MCI, n=36), MCI who later converted to dementia (converter MCI, n=29) and AD (n=65) from the AddNeuroMed cohort...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583103/in-patient-costs-of-agitation-and-containment-in-a-mental-health-catchment-area
#19
Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Maria Rubio-Valera, Ignacio Aznar-Lou, Luisa Baladón Higuera, Karina Gibert, Alfredo Gracia Canales, Lisette Kaskens, José Miguel Ortiz, Luis Salvador-Carulla
BACKGROUND: There is a scarce number of studies on the cost of agitation and containment interventions and their results are still inconclusive. We aimed to calculate the economic consequences of agitation events in an in-patient psychiatric facility providing care for an urban catchment area. METHODS: A mixed approach combining secondary analysis of clinical databases, surveys and expert knowledge was used to model the 2013 direct costs of agitation and containment events for adult inpatients with mental disorders in an area of 640,572 adult inhabitants in South Barcelona (Spain)...
June 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580294/gender-differences-in-the-structural-connectome-of-the-teenage-brain-revealed-by-generalized-q-sampling-mri
#20
Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Jan-Ray Liao, Chao-Yu Shen, Yu-Chieh Lin, Jun-Cheng Weng
The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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