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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816883/cerebral-oxygen-saturation-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#1
Kamath Sriganesh, Tanmay Jadhav, Sudhir Venkataramaiah, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Shyamsundar Armugham, Mariamma Philip, K R Madhusudan Reddy, Jagadisha Thirthalli, G S Umamaheswara Rao
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) causes acute changes in cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a novel, noninvasive technique to assess cerebral oxygen saturation (cSO2). We hypothesized that cSO2 increases during ECT and more so with atropine premedication and decreases when systemic desaturation (peripheral oxygen saturation <90%) occurs during ECT. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of patients undergoing ECT for psychiatric illness during a 6-month period...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812368/how-psychiatrists-recommend-treatment-and-its-relationship-with-patient-uptake
#2
Laura Thompson, Rose McCabe
Consultations for patients with chronic mental health conditions are conceived as meetings of experts: medical and experiential, respectively. Treatment decisions, in these terms, become a joint responsibility rather than handed down ex-cathedra. One resource for constituting decisions as 'shared' is the treatment recommendation - decisional authority can be invoked through its design. There is concern that people diagnosed with schizophrenia are infrequently involved in treatment decisions. However, the methods psychiatrists actually employ remain undefined...
August 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809853/rna-seq-analysis-of-amygdala-tissue-reveals-characteristic-expression-profiles-in-schizophrenia
#3
X Chang, Y Liu, C-G Hahn, R E Gur, P M A Sleiman, H Hakonarson
The amygdala brain region has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through emotion processing. However, transcriptome messages in the amygdala of schizophrenia patients have not been well studied. We used RNA sequencing to investigate gene-expression profiling in the amygdala tissues, and identified 569 upregulated and 192 downregulated genes from 22 schizophrenia patients and 24 non-psychiatric controls. Gene functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the downregulated genes were enriched in pathways such as 'synaptic transmission' and 'behavior', whereas the upregulated genes were significantly over-represented in gene ontology pathways such as 'immune response' and 'blood vessel development'...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#4
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805182/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-research-tool-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
J P Robbins, J Price
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a novel, timely approach for investigating the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we are starting to gain more insight into the specific mechanisms that cause Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, this has not resulted in therapies to slow the pathological processes. Animal models have been paramount in studying the neurobiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, these human conditions cannot be entirely recapitulated in rodents...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804633/fractalkine-c-x3-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-1-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#6
Diego Oliveira Miranda, Elen Anatriello, Lucas Ribeiro Azevedo, Jessica Cristina Santos, Jessica Fernanda Correa Cordeiro, Fernanda Maris Peria, Milena Flória-Santos, Gabriela Pereira-Da-Silva
Fractalkine, a unique chemokine of the CX3C subfamily, is involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancer and also in non-immune mechanisms associated with psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between anxiety, depression and fractalkine serum levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in different stages of antitumor therapy. Four groups of patients undergoing treatment (n=20 per group) were evaluated: Patients with CRC who did not undergo surgical resection of the tumor; patients who underwent resection and who did not start adjuvant therapy; patients undergoing chemotherapy for ~3 months; and patients who had completed adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for ~6 months...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800937/vortioxetine-a-new-alternative-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Estela Salagre, Iria Grande, Brisa Solé, Jose Sanchez-Moreno, Eduard Vieta
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric condition. Its treatment remains a challenge nowadays. Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant with a unique profile, as it acts as a multimodal serotoninergic agent. Its efficacy in MDD has been established in many short- and long-term studies, with 7 positive, 4 negative and 1 failed randomized controlled trials. Moreover, its ability to modulate a wide range of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, histamine, glutamate or GABA) confers vortioxetine pro-cognitive effects...
August 8, 2017: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795565/in-vivo-ambient-serotonin-measurements-at-carbon-fiber-microelectrodes
#8
Aya Abdalla, Christopher Wade Atcherley, Pavithra Pathirathna, Srimal Samaranayake, Beidi Qiang, Edsel A Peña, Stephen L Morgan, Michael L Heien, Parastoo Hashemi
The mechanisms that control extracellular serotonin levels in vivo are not well-defined. This shortcoming makes it very challenging to diagnose and treat the many psychiatric disorders in which serotonin is implicated. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can measure rapid serotonin release and reuptake events, but cannot report critically important ambient serotonin levels. In this paper, we use fast-scan controlled adsorption voltammetry (FSCAV), to measure serotonin's steady-state, extracellular chemistry...
August 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791385/sigma-1-receptor-activation-ameliorates-anxiety-like-behavior-through-nr2a-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-submitted-to-single-prolonged-stress
#9
Li-Li Ji, Jun-Bo Peng, Chang-Hai Fu, Lei Tong, Zhen-Yu Wang
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the σ-1 receptor (σ‑1R) possesses neuroprotective effects and is a potential novel therapeutic target for certain psychiatric diseases, including post‑traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied with anxiety disorder. It has been reported that σ‑1R agonist treatment could be modulated by the brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF and its upstream regulator are mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of σ‑1R in PTSD...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782244/using-the-affective-bias-test-to-predict-drug-induced-negative-affect-implications-for-drug-safety
#10
S A Stuart, C M Wood, E S J Robinson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Predicting the risk of drug-induced adverse psychiatric effects is important but currently not possible in non-human species. This study has investigated whether the affective bias test (ABT) could provide a preclinical method with translational and predictive validity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The ABT is a bowl-digging task which quantifies biases associated with learning and memory. Rats encounter independent learning experiences, on separate days, under either acute manipulations (e...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777493/the-regulation-of-tetraspanin-8-gene-expression-a-potential-new-mechanism-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bipolar-disorder
#11
Christoph Schartner, Claus-Jürgen Scholz, Heike Weber, Antonia Post, Florian Freudenberg, Lena Grünewald, Andreas Reif
In a previous study, we identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4500567, located in the upstream region of tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8), to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Due to its proximal position, the SNP might have an impact on promoter activity, thus on TSPAN8 gene expression. We investigated the impact of rs4500567 on TSPAN8 expression in vitro with luciferase-based promoter assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y), and its effect on expression of downstream associated genes by microarray-based transcriptome analyses...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776431/internet-delivered-acceptance-based-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-social-anxiety-disorder-with-and-without-therapist-support-a-randomized-trial
#12
Marina Gershkovich, James D Herbert, Evan M Forman, Leah M Schumacher, Laura E Fischer
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States. Although evidenced-based behavioral treatments are available, less than 20% of those with SAD receive treatment. Internet-based interventions can address barriers to treatment access, and guided Internet-based treatments have been demonstrated to be effective for SAD. However, the optimal role (if any) of the therapist in such programs remains unclear. We examined the acceptability and efficacy of a novel Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for SAD that utilizes traditional behavioral interventions (e...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766044/analysis-of-gene-expression-and-functional-characterization-of-xpr1-a-pathogenic-gene-for-primary-familial-brain-calcification
#13
Xiang-Ping Yao, Miao Zhao, Chong Wang, Xin-Xin Guo, Hui-Zhen Su, En-Lin Dong, Hai-Ting Chen, Jing-Hui Lai, Yao-Bin Liu, Ning Wang, Wan-Jin Chen
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by bilateral cerebral calcification with diverse neurologic or psychiatric symptoms. Recently, XPR1 variation has accounted for PFBC as another new causative gene. However, little is known about the distribution and basic function of XPR1 and its interaction with the other three pathogenic genes for PFBC (SLC20A2, PDGFRB and PDGFB). The aim of this study was to further clarify the role of XPR1 in PFBC brain pathology. As a result, gene expression profiles showed that XPR1 mRNA was widely expressed throughout the mouse brain...
August 2, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762842/molecular-bases-of-anorexia-nervosa-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-shedding-light-on-the-darkness
#14
Germán Cuesto, Claude Everaerts, Leticia G León, Angel Acebes
Eating-disorders (EDs) consequences to human health are devastating, involving social, mental, emotional, physical and life-threatening aspects, concluding on impairment and death in cases of extreme anorexia nervosa. It also implies that people suffering an ED need to find psychiatric and psychological help as soon as possible to achieve a fully physical and emotional recovery. Unfortunately, to date, there is a crucial lack of efficient clinical treatment to these disorders. In this review, we present an overview concerning the actual pharmacological and psychological treatments, the knowledge of cells, circuits, neuropeptides, neuromodulators and hormones in the human brain- and other organs- underlying these disorders, the studies in animal models and, finally, the genetic approaches devoted to face this challenge...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761414/novel-aspects-of-extracellular-adenosine-dynamics-revealed-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#15
REVIEW
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Mitsuhiro Morita
Adenosine modulates diverse physiological and pathological processes in the brain, including neuronal activities, blood flow, and inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of extracellular adenosine are not fully understood. We have recently developed a novel biosensor, called an adenosine sensor cell, and we have characterized the neuronal and astrocytic pathways for elevating extracellular adenosine. In this review, the physiological implications and therapeutic potential of the pathways revealed by the adenosine sensor cells are discussed...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754072/blockade-of-the-angiotensin-system-improves-mental-health-domain-of-quality-of-life-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#16
Daniel J Brownstein, Estela Salagre, Cristiano Köhler, Brendon Stubbs, João Vian, Ciria Pereira, Victor Chavarria, Chandan Karmakar, Alyna Turner, João Quevedo, André F Carvalho, Michael Berk, Brisa S Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether blockade of the angiotensin system has effects on mental health. Our objective was to determine the impact of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers on mental health domain of quality of life. STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis of published literature. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov databases. The last search was conducted in January 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials comparing any angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or AT1R blocker versus placebo or non-angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or non-AT1R blocker were selected...
July 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753469/nk1-receptor-antagonists-for-depression-why-a-validated-concept-was-abandoned
#17
REVIEW
Nadia M J Rupniak, Mark S Kramer
BACKGROUND: NK1 receptor antagonists were abandoned despite antidepressant efficacy in five randomized clinical trials. The loss of confidence may be attributed to the failure of a Phase III clinical program with the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant in Major Depression. This review examines how PET receptor occupancy was used to select doses for aprepitant and that these may not have achieved adequate exposure. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, and FDA databases were searched for articles concerning NK1 receptor antagonists, human PET receptor occupancy and clinical trials in Major Depression...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750581/rare-genome-wide-copy-number-variation-and-expression-of-schizophrenia-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#18
Anne S Bassett, Chelsea Lowther, Daniele Merico, Gregory Costain, Eva W C Chow, Therese van Amelsvoort, Donna McDonald-McGinn, Raquel E Gur, Ann Swillen, Marianne Van den Bree, Kieran Murphy, Doron Gothelf, Carrie E Bearden, Stephan Eliez, Wendy Kates, Nicole Philip, Vandana Sashi, Linda Campbell, Jacob Vorstman, Joseph Cubells, Gabriela M Repetto, Tony Simon, Erik Boot, Tracy Heung, Rens Evers, Claudia Vingerhoets, Esther van Duin, Elaine Zackai, Elfi Vergaelen, Koen Devriendt, Joris R Vermeesch, Michael Owen, Clodagh Murphy, Elena Michaelovosky, Leila Kushan, Maude Schneider, Wanda Fremont, Tiffany Busa, Stephen Hooper, Kathryn McCabe, Sasja Duijff, Karin Isaev, Giovanna Pellecchia, John Wei, Matthew J Gazzellone, Stephen W Scherer, Beverly S Emanuel, Tingwei Guo, Bernice E Morrow, Christian R Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a more than 20-fold increased risk for developing schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic factors (i.e., "second hits") that may contribute to schizophrenia expression. METHOD: Through an international consortium, the authors obtained DNA samples from 329 psychiatrically phenotyped subjects with 22q11.2DS. Using a high-resolution microarray platform and established methods to assess copy number variation (CNV), the authors compared the genome-wide burden of rare autosomal CNV, outside of the 22q11...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747113/developing-a-metformin-prescribing-tool-for-use-in-adults-with-mental-illness-to-reduce-medication-related-weight-gain-and-cardiovascular-risk
#19
Cassie Smith, Hannah Myles, Cherrie Galletly
OBJECTIVES: There is considerable evidence that metformin reduces weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication. The aim of this study was to develop an easy-to-use metformin prescribing tool in order to enable clinicians to prescribe metformin safely and confidently. METHODS: The authors undertook a survey of clinicians and reviewed the published literature and existing guidelines concerning the use of metformin to reduce weight gain in adults with mental illness...
August 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746715/identification-of-genetic-loci-jointly-influencing-schizophrenia-risk-and-the-cognitive-traits-of-verbal-numerical-reasoning-reaction-time-and-general-cognitive-function
#20
Olav B Smeland, Oleksandr Frei, Karolina Kauppi, W David Hill, Wen Li, Yunpeng Wang, Florian Krull, Francesco Bettella, Jon A Eriksen, Aree Witoelar, Gail Davies, Chun C Fan, Wesley K Thompson, Max Lam, Todd Lencz, Chi-Hua Chen, Torill Ueland, Erik G Jönsson, Srdjan Djurovic, Ian J Deary, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen
Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive impairments. Although cognitive deficits are one of the factors most strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, current treatment strategies largely fail to ameliorate these impairments. To develop more efficient treatment strategies in patients with schizophrenia, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these cognitive deficits is needed. Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic risk of schizophrenia may contribute to cognitive dysfunction...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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