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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918256/transgene-is-specifically-and-functionally-expressed-in-retinal-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-vgat-chr2-eyfp-mouse
#1
Guo-Zhong Xu, Ling-Jie Cui, Ai-Lin Liu, Wei Zhou, Xue Gong, Yong-Mei Zhong, Xiong-Li Yang, Shi-Jun Weng
Ectopic transgene expression in the retina has been reported in various transgenic mice, indicating the importance of characterizing retinal phenotypes. We examined transgene expression in the VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse retina by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology, with special emphasis on enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) localization in retinal neuronal subtypes identified by specific markers. Strong EYFP signals were detected in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In addition, the ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was also expressed in somata of the great majority of inhibitory interneurons, including horizontal cells and GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#2
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894008/genetic-disruption-of-ankyrin-g-in-adult-mouse-forebrain-causes-cortical-synapse-alteration-and-behavior-reminiscent-of-bipolar-disorder
#3
Shanshan Zhu, Zachary A Cordner, Jiali Xiong, Chi-Tso Chiu, Arabiye Artola, Yanning Zuo, Andrew D Nelson, Tae-Yeon Kim, Natalya Zaika, Brian M Woolums, Evan J Hess, Xiaofang Wang, De-Maw Chuang, Mikhail M Pletnikov, Paul M Jenkins, Kellie L Tamashiro, Christopher A Ross
Genome-wide association studies have implicated the ANK3 locus in bipolar disorder, a major human psychotic illness. ANK3 encodes ankyrin-G, which organizes the neuronal axon initial segment (AIS). We generated a mouse model with conditional disruption of ANK3 in pyramidal neurons of the adult forebrain (Ank-G cKO). This resulted in the expected loss of pyramidal neuron AIS voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. There was also dramatic loss of markers of afferent GABAergic cartridge synapses, resembling the cortical microcircuitry changes in brains from psychotic patients, and suggesting disinhibition...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879196/assessment-of-whole-exome-sequence-data-in-attempted-suicide-within-a-bipolar-disorder-cohort
#4
Eric T Monson, Mehdi Pirooznia, Jennifer Parla, Melissa Kramer, Fernando S Goes, Marie E Gaine, Sophia C Gaynor, Kelly de Klerk, Dubravka Jancic, Rachel Karchin, W Richard McCombie, Peter P Zandi, James B Potash, Virginia L Willour
Suicidal behavior is a complex and devastating phenotype with a heritable component that has not been fully explained by existing common genetic variant analyses. This study represents the first large-scale DNA sequencing project designed to assess the role of rare functional genetic variation in suicidal behavior risk. To accomplish this, whole-exome sequencing data for ∼19,000 genes were generated for 387 bipolar disorder subjects with a history of suicide attempt and 631 bipolar disorder subjects with no prior suicide attempts...
July 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878002/combat-a-combined-association-test-for-genes-using-summary-statistics
#5
Minghui Wang, Jianfei Huang, Yiyuan Liu, Li Ma, James B Potash, Shizhong Han
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used for identifying common variants associated with complex diseases. Traditional analysis of GWAS typically examines one marker at a time, usually single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify individual variants associated with a disease. However, due to the small effect sizes of common variants, the power to detect individual risk variants is generally low. As a complementary approach to SNP-level analysis, a variety of gene-based association tests have been proposed...
September 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869599/taxane-mediated-radiosensitization-derives-from-chromosomal-missegregation-on-tripolar-mitotic-spindles-orchestrated-by-aurka-and-tpx2
#6
M Orth, K Unger, U Schoetz, C Belka, K Lauber
Taxane-based radiochemotherapy is a central treatment option for various cancer entities in locally advanced stages. The therapeutic synergism of this combined modality approach due to taxane-mediated radiosensitization of cancer cells is well-known. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive, and mechanism-derived predictive markers of taxane-based radiochemotherapy are currently not available. Here, we show that clinically relevant doses of Paclitaxel, the prototype taxane, stimulate a tripolar mode of mitosis leading to chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidization rather than interfering with cell cycle progression...
September 4, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866299/clinical-experience-using-intranasal-ketamine-in-the-longitudinal-treatment-of-juvenile-bipolar-disorder-with-fear-of-harm-phenotype
#7
Demitri Papolos, Mark Frei, Daniel Rossignol, Steven Mattis, Laura C Hernandez-Garcia, Martin H Teicher
OBJECTIVES: Fear of Harm (FOH) is a pediatric onset phenotype of bipolar disorder (BD) characterized by BD plus treatment resistance, separation anxiety, aggressive obsessions, parasomnias, and thermal dysregulation. Intranasal ketamine (InK) in 12 youths with BD-FOH produced marked improvement during a two-week trial. Here we report on the open effectiveness and safety of InK in maintenance treatment of BD-FOH from the private practice of one author. METHODS: As part of a chart review, patients 18 years or older and parents of younger children responded to a clinical effectiveness and safety survey...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843501/real-time-imaging-reveals-unique-heterogeneous-population-features-in-insect-cell-cultures
#8
David Hidalgo, Enrique Paz, Laura A Palomares, Octavio T Ramírez
Heterogeneity of cellular populations has been frequently observed. We used live cell imaging to follow Sf9 insect cells before and after infection with baculovirus, to understand population dynamics. It was possible to identify in real time cells with distinctive phenotypes. Mobile cells with an elongated bipolar shape were observed. They extended pseudopods and actively moved about the culture surface. The presence of actively moving elongated cells increased when cultures were subjected to oxygen limiting or excessive conditions, suggesting that stress triggered differentiation of cells to the mobile phenotype...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833866/total-sleep-time-and-kynurenine-metabolism-associated-with-mood-symptom-severity-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Dahlia Mukherjee, Venkatesh Bassapa Krishnamurthy, Caitlin E Millett, Aubrey Reider, Adem Can, Maureen Groer, Dietmar Fuchs, Teodor T Postolache, Erika F H Saunders
OBJECTIVE: Chronic, low-level inflammation is associated with symptomatic bipolar disorder (BD) and with chronic insomnia. Disrupted sleep is a feature of episodes of both mania and depression. We examined the effect of neopterin, a marker of cellular immune activation, and kynurenine (KYN), an inflammatory byproduct of the serotonin pathway, on the association between total sleep time and depression severity in BD. METHOD: Twenty-one symptomatic BD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC) were recruited and followed during usual clinical care...
August 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825879/e2f1-mediates-high-glucose-induced-neuronal-death-in-cultured-mouse-retinal-explants
#10
Yujiao Wang, Yi Zhou, Lirong Xiao, Shijie Zheng, Naihong Yan, Danian Chen
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and remains one of the major causes of blindness in the world; infants born to diabetic mothers have higher risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). While hyperglycemia is a major risk factor, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying DR and diabetic ROP are poorly understood. To explore the consequences of retinal cells under high glucose, we cultured wild type or E2f1(-/-) mouse retinal explants from postnatal day 8 with normal glucose, high osmotic or high glucose media...
August 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822116/interactions-between-variation-in-candidate-genes-and-environmental-factors-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Filip Stramecki, Łukasz Gawęda, Katarzyna Prochwicz, Maria M Sąsiadek, Ahmed A Moustafa, Dorota Frydecka
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818668/a-bipolar-role-of-the-transcription-factor-erg-for-cnidarian-germ-layer-formation-and-apical-domain-patterning
#12
Aldine R Amiel, Hereroa Johnston, Taylor Chock, Paul Dahlin, Marta Iglesias, Michael Layden, Eric Röttinger, Mark Q Martindale
Germ layer formation and axial patterning are biological processes that are tightly linked during embryonic development of most metazoans. In addition to canonical WNT, it has been proposed that ERK-MAPK signaling is involved in specifying oral as well as aboral territories in cnidarians. However, the effector and the molecular mechanism underlying latter phenomenon is unknown. By screening for potential effectors of ERK-MAPK signaling in both domains, we identified a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, Nverg that is bi-polarily expressed prior to gastrulation...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815346/unilateral-cancer-associated-retinopathy-diagnosis-serology-and-treatment
#13
Dimitri Roels, Shinji Ueno, Cornelia D Talianu, Dafina Draganova, Mineo Kondo, Bart P Leroy
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) with clinical, serological and electroretinogram (ERG) normalization after aggressive cancer treatment combined with steroids and rituximab. METHODS: Work-up included extensive clinical and electrophysiological testing. Also, serological work-up for antiretinal antibodies and oncological screening was organized. RESULTS: A 45-year-old female presented with progressive photopsias, photophobia and relative central scotoma in the right eye since 6 weeks prior...
August 16, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812143/serotonin-in-psychiatry-in-vitro-disease-modeling-using-patient-derived-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Krishna C Vadodaria, Shani Stern, Maria C Marchetto, Fred H Gage
Several lines of evidence implicate serotonin in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Much of our current understanding of biological mechanisms underlying serotonergic alterations in mood disorders comes from animal studies. Innovation in induced pluripotent stem cell and transdifferentiation technologies for deriving neurons from adult humans has enabled the study of disease-relevant cellular phenotypes in vitro...
August 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#15
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789589/classification-of-cognitive-performance-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Timea Sparding, Katja Silander, Erik Pålsson, Josefin Östlind, Carl Johan Ekman, Carl M Sellgren, Erik Joas, Stefan Hansen, Mikael Landén
OBJECTIVE: To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. METHOD: Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783519/antimanic-activity-of-minocycline-in-a-gbr12909-induced-model-of-mania-in-mice-possible-role-of-antioxidant-and-neurotrophic-mechanisms
#17
Ana Isabelle G de Queiroz, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Tatiane da Silva Araújo, Camila Nayane Carvalho Lima, Michel de Jesus Souza Machado, André F Carvalho, Silvania Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, João Quevedo, Danielle Macedo
BACKGROUND: Mania/hypomania is the cardinal feature of bipolar disorder. Recently, single administration of the dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, GBR12909, was related to mania-like alterations. In the present study we aimed at testing behavioral and brain oxidant/neurotrophic alterations induced by the repeated administration of GBR12909 and its prevention/reversal by the mood stabilizing drugs, lithium (Li) and valproate (VAL) as well as by the neuroprotective drug, minocycline (Mino)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750540/electrochromic-sensor-for-multiplex-detection-of-metabolites-enabled-by-closed-bipolar-electrode-coupling
#18
Wei Xu, Kaiyu Fu, Paul W Bohn
Biosensors based on converting electrochemical signals into optical readouts are attractive candidates as low-cost, high-throughput sensor platforms. Here, we described a closed bipolar electrode (CBE)-based two-cell electrochromic device for sensing multiple metabolites, using the simultaneous detection of lactate, glucose, and uric acid as a model system. In the two-cell configuration, an analytical cell contains a redox mediator combined with a specific oxidase, e.g., lactate oxidase, glucose oxidase, or uricase, to form an electrochemical mediator-electrocatalyst pair that supports redox cycling...
July 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731778/a-pharmacologic-algorithm-for-youth-who-are-at-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#19
Christopher D Schneck, Kiki D Chang, Manpreet K Singh, Melissa P DelBello, David J Miklowitz
OBJECTIVE: Depression and brief periods of manic symptoms are linked to a significant risk of progression to bipolar disorder (BD) in children who have a first-degree relative with BD I or II. However, little evidence exists to guide the pharmacologic management of children with these high-risk phenotypes. We propose a pharmacological treatment algorithm for high-risk youth and present results on its use in a study of children with a first-degree relative with BD. METHODS: Subjects were 40 youth (mean 12...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728937/the-impact-of-machine-learning-techniques-in-the-study-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Diego Librenza-Garcia, Bruno Jaskulski Kotzian, Jessica Yang, Benson Mwangi, Bo Cao, Luiza Nunes Pereira Lima, Mariane Bagatin Bermudez, Manuela Vianna Boeira, Flávio Kapczinski, Ives Cavalcante Passos
Machine learning techniques provide new methods to predict diagnosis and clinical outcomes at an individual level. We aim to review the existing literature on the use of machine learning techniques in the assessment of subjects with bipolar disorder. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for articles published in any language up to January 2017. We found 757 abstracts and included 51 studies in our review. Most of the included studies used multiple levels of biological data to distinguish the diagnosis of bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders or healthy controls...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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