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Kelly Aubertin, Vincent Quoc Trinh, Michael Jermyn, Paul Baksic, Andrée-Anne Grosset, Joannie Desroches, Karl St-Arnaud, Mirela Birlea, Maria Claudia Vladoiu, Mathieu Latour, Roula Albadine, Fred Saad, Frédéric Leblond, Dominique Trudel
OBJECTIVE: To test if Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for the diagnosis and possibly the grading of prostate cancer. PATIENTS & METHODS: Between 20 and 50 Raman spectra were acquired on 32 fresh and non-processed post-prostatectomy specimens using a macroscopic hand-held Raman spectroscopy probe. Each measured area was characterized and categorized following histopathological criterions like tissue type (extra-prostatic or prostatic), tissue malignancy (benign or malignant), cancer grade (Grade Groups (GG) 1-5), and tissue glandular level...
March 15, 2018: BJU International
Galina Gheihman, Tomi Jun, Grace J Young, Daniel Liebman, Krishan Sharma, Eileen Brandes, Barbara Ogur, David A Hirsh
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal clinical experiences are a common component of undergraduate medical curricula, yet these programs have not been systematically characterized in US medical schools. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to identify and characterize longitudinal clinical programs (LCPs) in US medical schools and measure associations between programs' structures and goals. DESIGN: Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from publicly available websites...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Julian Cespedes-Guevara, Tuomas Eerola
Basic Emotion theory has had a tremendous influence on the affective sciences, including music psychology, where most researchers have assumed that music expressivity is constrained to a limited set of basic emotions. Several scholars suggested that these constrains to musical expressivity are explained by the existence of a shared acoustic code to the expression of emotions in music and speech prosody. In this article we advocate for a shift from this focus on basic emotions to a constructionist account. This approach proposes that the phenomenon of perception of emotions in music arises from the interaction of music's ability to express core affects and the influence of top-down and contextual information in the listener's mind...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Giulia Orioli, Maria Laura Filippetti, Walter Gerbino, Danica Dragovic, Teresa Farroni
The ability to discriminate the trajectories of moving objects is highly adaptive and fundamental for physical and social interactions. Therefore, we could reasonably expect sensitivity to different trajectories already at birth, as a precursor of later communicative and defensive abilities. To investigate this possibility, we measured newborns' looking behavior to evaluate their ability to discriminate between visual stimuli depicting motion along different trajectories happening within the space surrounding their body...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Gitanjali Narayanan, Shaima Naaz
Recent research points to a shift from categorical diagnoses to a dimensional understanding of psychopathology and mental health disorders. In parallel, there has been a rise in newer psychosocial treatment modalities, which are inherently transdiagnostic. Transdiagnostic approaches are those that identify core vulnerabilities and apply universal principles to therapeutic treatment. As treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) must invariably accommodate such vulnerabilities, clinicians are finding such interventions useful...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Belinda M Craig, Ottmar V Lipp
Young adult participants are faster to detect young adult faces in crowds of infant and child faces than vice versa. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for more efficient attentional capture by own-age than other-age faces, but could alternatively reflect faster rejection of other-age than own-age distractors, consistent with the previously reported other-age categorization advantage: faster categorization of other-age than own-age faces. Participants searched for own-age faces in other-age backgrounds or vice versa...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Jenna Anderson, Thorunn A Olafsdottir, Sven Kratochvil, Paul F McKay, Malin Östensson, Josefine Persson, Robin J Shattock, Ali M Harandi
Systems biology approaches have recently provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of human vaccines and adjuvants. Here, we investigated early transcriptional signatures induced in whole blood of healthy subjects following vaccination with a recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein subunit CN54gp140 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) and correlated signatures to CN54gp140-specific serum antibody responses. Fourteen healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years were immunized intramuscularly three times at 1-month intervals and whole blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 h, and 1, 3, and 7 days post first immunization...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mathis Jording, Arne Hartz, Gary Bente, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Kai Vogeley
Humans substantially rely on non-verbal cues in their communication and interaction with others. The eyes represent a "simultaneous input-output device": While we observe others and obtain information about their mental states (including feelings, thoughts, and intentions-to-act), our gaze simultaneously provides information about our own attention and inner experiences. This substantiates its pivotal role for the coordination of communication. The communicative and coordinative capacities - and their phylogenetic and ontogenetic impacts - become fully apparent in triadic interactions constituted in its simplest form by two persons and an object...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Justyna Aszyk, Paweł Kubica, Mateusz Kacper Woźniak, Jacek Namieśnik, Andrzej Wasik, Agata Kot-Wasik
Many flavour compounds that are present in e-liquids for e-cigarettes are responsible for specific tastes and smoking sensations for users. Data concerning content and specific types of flavours is often limited and unknown to users. The aim of the research was to define and compare flavour profiles of e-liquids with the same group taste from different manufacturers. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to separate and identify 90 popular compounds (98, including isomers) of interest...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Samantha Mellen, Maria de Ferrars, Claire Louise Chapman, Sarah Bevan, James Turvill, Daniel Charles Turnock
BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is increasingly being used to triage symptomatic patients for suspected colorectal cancer. However, there are limited data on the effect of pre-analytical factors on faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) when measured by FIT. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of f-Hb in faeces and to compare two methods of f-Hb sampling for FIT. METHODS: Six patients provided faeces for f-Hb measurement which were transferred into specialised collection devices at baseline and at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after storage at either room temperature or 4°C...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
C Deng, W D Ni, S Q Guo, G Luo, W Shui, B Qiao
Objective: To discuss the clinical outcomes of treating delayed acetabular fractures by combined anterior and posterior approach. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 31 delayed acetabular fractures from February 2012 to February 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, including 18 males and 13 females with age of 48.5 years(23 to 67 years) .The injury to the operation time was 35.9 days(22 to 183 days). Of these 31 cases, there were 6 cases of transverse and posterior wall fracture, 8 cases with anterior column+ posterior half transverse fracture, 12 cases with double column fracture and 5 cases of "T" type fracture according to Letournel-Judet classification...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Wei Li, Zhichao Jiang, Zhi Geng, Xiao-Hua Zhou
In this paper, we discuss the identifiability and estimation of causal effects of a continuous treatment on a binary response when the treatment is measured with errors and there exists a latent categorical confounder associated with both treatment and response. Under some widely used parametric models, we first discuss the identifiability of the causal effects and then propose an approach for estimation and inference. Our approach can eliminate the biases induced by latent confounding and measurement errors by using only a single instrumental variable...
March 13, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Ricardo Dos Reis, Carlos E M C Andrade, Michael Frumovitz, Mark Munsell, Pedro T Ramirez
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study is to compare outcomes of radical hysterectomy (RH) across age groups based on surgical approach. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. CANADIAN TASK FORCE CLASSIFICATION: II-2 SETTING: Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. PATIENTS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent RH at a tertiary cancer center from 1990 to 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Isabelle Beuchat, Daria Solari, Jan Novy, Mauro Oddo, Andrea O Rossetti
INTRODUCTION: Standardized EEG patterns according to the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) ("highly malignant", "malignant" and "benign") demonstrated good correlation with outcome after cardiac arrest (CA). However, this approach relates to EEGs after target temperature management (TTM), and correlation to other recognized outcome predictors remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between categorized EEG and other outcome predictors, during and after TTM, at different temperatures...
March 9, 2018: Resuscitation
Paolo Vercellini, Laura Buggio, Maria Pina Frattaruolo, Alessandra Borghi, Dhouha Dridi, Edgardo Somigliana
Available medical treatments for symptomatic endometriosis act by inhibiting ovulation, reducing serum oestradiol levels, and suppressing uterine blood flows. For this, several drugs can be used with a similar magnitude of effect, in terms of pain relief, independently of the mechanism of action. Conversely, safety, tolerability, and cost differ. Medications for endometriosis can be categorized into low-cost drugs including oral contraceptives (OCs) and most progestogens, and high-cost drugs including dienogest and GnRH agonists...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Kate M Richmond, Katharine G Warburton, Simon J Finney, Sachin Shah, Benjamin A J Reddi
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive clinical examination can be compromised in patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Adjunctive diagnostic imaging strategies range from bedside imaging only to routine computed tomography (CT). The risk-benefit of either approach remains to be evaluated. Patients retrieved to the Royal Brompton Hospital (RBH) on VV-ECMO routinely undergo admission CT imaging of head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. This study aimed to identify how frequently changes in therapy or adverse events could be attributed to routine CT scanning...
March 1, 2018: Perfusion
X Zhang, S Tsuruta, S Andonov, D A L Lourenco, R L Sapp, C Wang, I Misztal
Four performance-related traits [growth trait (GROW), feed efficiency trait 1 (FE1) and trait 2 (FE2), and dissection trait (DT)] and 4 categorical traits [mortality (MORT) and 3 disorder traits (DIS1, DIS2, and DIS3)] were analyzed using linear and threshold single- and multi-trait models. Field data included 186,596 records of commercial broilers from Cobb-Vantress, Inc. Average-information restricted maximum likelihood and Gibbs sampling-based methods were used to obtain estimates of the (co)variance components, heritabilities, and genetic correlations in a traditional approach using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP)...
February 24, 2018: Poultry Science
Xinhua Yu, Frank Petersen
Autoimmune disorders are characterized by a loss of immune tolerance and consequent autoimmunity-mediated disease manifestation. Experimental models are invaluable research tools helping us to understand disease pathogenesis and to search for novel therapeutics. Animal models of autoimmune diseases consist of two groups, spontaneous and induced models. In this review article, we focus on the induced models of autoimmune diseases. Due to the complex nature of autoimmune disorders, many strategies have been applied for the induction of corresponding experimental models in animals like monkeys, rabbits, rats, and mice...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
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