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Loren Fields, Alison Hathaway
Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) is a descriptive term for when a woman with a positive pregnancy test has a transvaginal ultrasound that cannot determine the site of the pregnancy. While the majority of women with PUL are subsequently diagnosed with a spontaneous abortion or viable intrauterine pregnancy, 7% to 20% of these women have an ectopic pregnancy. The potential for morbidity and mortality related to an ectopic pregnancy means that considerable care is necessary in the evaluation and management of women with PUL...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo, Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Rebeca Ramis, Nuria Aragonés, Karl T Kelsey, Consuelo Carballeira Roca, Alberto Fernández-Villar, Gonzalo López-Abente, Juan M Barros-Dios
PURPOSE: Radon is a human lung carcinogen but it might be linked with other respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between residential radon exposure and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) prevalence and hospital admissions at a municipal level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed an ecological study where we included those municipalities with at least 3 radon measurements. Using mixed Poisson regression models we calculated the relative risk (RR) for COPD for each 100 Bq/m(3) of increase in radon concentration and also the relative risk for COPD using a cutpoint of 50 Bq/m(3)...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Samantha G Bromfield, Daichi Shimbo, John N Booth, Adolfo Correa, Gbenga Ogedegbe, April P Carson, Paul Muntner
Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Raminta Daniulaityte, Lu Chen, Francois R Lamy, Robert G Carlson, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit Sheth
BACKGROUND: To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid-related tweets...
October 24, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Chad Swank, Staci Shearin, Samantha Cleveland, Simon Driver
Motor and non-motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) place individuals at greater risk of sedentary behaviors and comorbidities. Physical activity is one modifiable means to improving health and reducing risk of morbidity. We applied a behavioral framework to classify existing research on physical activity and PD to describe the current evolution and inform knowledge gaps in this area. Research placed in Phase 1 establishes links between physical activity and health-related outcomes; Phase 2 develops approaches to quantify physical activity behavior; Phase 3 identifies factors associated with implementation of physical activity behaviors; Phase 4 assesses the effectiveness of interventions to promote activity; Phase 5 disseminates evidence-based recommendations...
October 21, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Lindsay Steele, Emma Orefuwa, Petra Dickmann
BACKGROUND: Early detection of infectious disease outbreaks can reduce the ultimate size of the outbreak with lower overall morbidity and mortality due to the disease. Numerous approaches exist with the aim of detecting outbreaks earlier, and methods have been developed to measure progress on timeliness. Understanding why these surveillance approaches work and don't work will elucidate key drivers of early detection, and can guide interventions to achieve earlier detection. Without clarity about necessary conditions for earlier detection and their influencing factors, attempts to improve surveillance will be ad-hoc and unsystematic...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kun Qian, Christoph Janott, Vedhas Pandit, Zixing Zhang, Clemens Heiser, Winfried Hohenhorst, Michael Herzog, Werner Hemmert, Bjoern Schuller
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a serious chronic disease and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Snoring is a typical symptom of OSA patients. Knowledge of the origin of obstruction and vibration within the upper airways is essential for a targeted surgical approach. Aim of this paper is to systematically compare different acoustic features, and classifiers for their performance in the classification of the excitation location of snore sounds. METHODS: Snore sounds from 40 male patients have been recorded during Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy, and categorized by ENT experts...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Mieke Decuyper, Fien Gistelinck, Jasmine Vergauwe, Gina Pancorbo, Filip De Fruyt
Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
Rosemarie Forstner, Isabelle Thomassin-Naggara, Teresa Margarida Cunha, Karen Kinkel, Gabriele Marselli, Rahel Kubik-Huch, John A Spencer, Andrea Rockall
: An update of the 2010 published ESUR recommendations of MRI of the sonographically indeterminate adnexal mass integrating functional techniques is provided. An algorithmic approach using sagittal T2 and a set of transaxial T1 and T2WI allows categorization of adnexal masses in one of the following three types according to its predominant signal characteristics. T1 'bright' masses due to fat or blood content can be simply and effectively determined using a combination of T1W, T2W and FST1W imaging...
October 21, 2016: European Radiology
Ruifeng Liu, Xueping Yu, Anders Wallqvist
Chemical toxicity is conventionally evaluated in animal models. However, animal models are resource intensive; moreover, they face ethical and scientific challenges because the outcomes obtained by animal testing may not correlate with human responses. To develop an alternative method for assessing chemical toxicity, we investigated the feasibility of using chemical-induced genome-wide expression changes in cultured human cells to predict the potential of a chemical to cause specific organ injuries in humans...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Eric Smart, Adeeta Aulakh, Carolyn McDougall, Patty Rigby, Gillian King
PURPOSE: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Edna Ruiz Magpantay-Monroe
The military and veteran populations in the U. S. state of Hawaii have a strong presence in the local communities. It was this substantial presence that provided the impetus to integrate military and veteran health into a Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN) curriculum. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between the integration of military and veteran health into a psychiatric mental health BSN curriculum and nursing students' understanding of the many facets of military veterans' health...
October 6, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Sivakumar Sanjeev, Deepti Zutshi, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Aashit Shah
Marijuana-based treatment for refractory epilepsy shows promise in surveys, case series and clinical trials. However, literature on their electroencephalography (EEG) effects is sparse. Our objective is to analyze the effect of marijuana on EEG in a 24-year-old patient with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) treated with cannabis. We blindly reviewed three long-term EEGs-a 24-hour study while only on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a 72-hour EEG with Cannabis indica smoked on days one and three in addition to AEDs and a 48-hour EEG with combination C...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Angela Barriga, José M Conejero, Juan Hernández, Elena Jurado, Enrique Moguel, Fernando Sánchez-Figueroa
In the last few years, telerehabilitation and telecare have become important topics in healthcare since they enable people to remain independent in their own homes by providing person-centered technologies to support the individual. These technologies allows elderly people to be assisted in their home, instead of traveling to a clinic, providing them wellbeing and personalized health care. The literature shows a great number of interesting proposals to address telerehabilitation and telecare scenarios, which may be mainly categorized into two broad groups, namely wearable devices and context-aware systems...
October 18, 2016: Sensors
Behdin Nowrouzi, Christine Nguyen, Jennifer Casole, Behnam Nowrouzi-Kia
This study determined the impact and influence of published articles on the field of occupational stress. A transdisciplinary approach was used to identify the 50 work-related stress articles with the most lifetime citations and the 50 work-related stress articles with the highest annual citation rates. Studies were categorized based on their primary focus: (a) etiology, (b) predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is the outcome or predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is an independent variable, (c) management/intervention, (d) theory/model/framework, or (e) methodologies...
October 6, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Toshihiro Ogiwara, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Alhusain Nagm, Tetsuya Goto, Kazuhiro Hongo
PURPOSE: It is generally accepted that dopamine agonists (DA) represent the first-line treatment for most patients with prolactinoma, and patients become candidates for surgical intervention when DA is contraindicated. Surgical indication for cystic prolactinoma remains controversial. This study was performed to investigate the significance of surgery for cystic prolactinoma. METHODS: A total of 28 patients that underwent transsphenoidal resection of prolactinoma between February 2004 and May 2016 were reviewed...
October 18, 2016: Pituitary
Handan Ankarali, Sengul Cangur, Seyit Ankarali
In this study, when the assumptions of linearity and homogeneity of regression slopes of conventional ANCOVA are not met, a new approach named as SEYHAN has been suggested to use conventional ANCOVA instead of robust or nonlinear ANCOVA. The proposed SEYHAN's approach involves transformation of continuous covariate into categorical structure when the relationship between covariate and dependent variable is nonlinear and the regression slopes are not homogenous. A simulated data set was used to explain SEYHAN's approach...
October 18, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Henry Zakumumpa, Modupe Oladunni Taiwo, Alex Muganzi, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009...
October 19, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Bridget Lee, Luis G Cuervo, Pablo Rodríguez-Feria, Silvana Luciani
Objective To characterize cancer clinical trials in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), with a focus on registration and enrollment trends. Methods Data were collected from 1 285 active cancer clinical trials registered up until 31 May 2014 in the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). The trials were categorized by six characteristics of the continuum of cancer control and care: 1) control and planning, 2) prevention, 3) detection and screening, 4) diagnosis, 5) treatment, and 6) survivorship and palliative care...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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