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Lithium ion battery

Guk-Tae Kim, Tadhg Kennedy, Michael Brandon, Hugh Geaney, Kevin M Ryan, Stefano Passerini, Giovanni Battista Appetecchi
The electrochemical behavior of binder-free, germanium and silicon nanowires as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery systems are investigated in an ionic liquid electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry, cycling tests and impedance spectroscopy reveal a highly reversible lithium alloying / de-alloying process, as well as promising compatibility between the Ge and Si materials and the electrolyte components. Reversible capacities of 1,400 and 2,200 mA h g-1 are delivered by the Ge and Si anodes, respectively, matching the values exhibited in conventional organic solutions...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Yihang Liu, Anyi Zhang, Chenfei Shen, Qingzhou Liu, Xuan Cao, Yuqiang Ma, Liang Chen, Christian Lau, Tian-Chi Chen, Fei Wei, Chongwu Zhou
Sodium-ion batteries offer an attractive option for potential low cost and large scale energy storage due to the earth abundance of sodium. Red phosphorus is considered as a high capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries with a theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. However, similar to silicon in lithium-ion batteries, several limitations such as large volume expansion upon sodiation/de-sodiation and low electronic conductance have severely limited the performance of red phosphorus anodes. In order to address the above challenges, we have developed a method to deposit red phosphorus nano-dots densely and uniformly onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (P@RGO) to minimize the sodium ion diffusion length and the sodiation/de-sodiation stresses, and the RGO network also serves as electron pathway and creates free space to accommodate the volume variation of phosphorus particles...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Qing Zhang, Andrea M Bruck, David C Bock, Jing Li, Varun Sarbada, Robert Hull, Eric A Stach, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Esther S Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok
Li1+nV3O8 (n = 0-0.2) has been extensively investigated as a cathode material for Li ion batteries because of its superior electrochemical properties including high specific energy and good rate capability. In this paper, a synchrotron based energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) technique was employed to profile the phase transitions and the spatial phase distribution of a Li1.1V3O8 electrode during electrochemical (de)lithiation in situ and operando. As annealing temperature during the preparation of the Li1...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yifan Chen, Yangfan Lin, Ning Du, Yaguang Zhang, Hui Zhang, Deren Yang
A novel Si/SiOx porous structure with a SiOx coating layer of varying thicknesses was prepared via a simple annealing and acid washing process. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the Si/SiOx porous structure with an ∼9 nm SiOx coating layer demonstrates significantly improved electrochemical performance with a high reversible discharge capacity of over 915 mA h g(-1) after 500 long cycles at 1 A g(-1). The lithiation mechanism of a SiOx layer of different thicknesses has also been investigated...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Wenli Wei, Pengcheng Du, Dong Liu, Hongxing Wang, Peng Liu
Facile one-step ultrasonic-assisted chemical precipitation strategy has been developed for the mass production of SnO2 nanomaterials with different morphologies. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the nanoporous SnO2 nanosheets exhibited an extremely high initial specific capacity of 2231mAh/g in comparison with 1242mAh/g of the SnO2 microcrystals and 1244mAh/g of the nanoporous SnO2 nanoflowers. Meanwhile the nanoporous SnO2 nanosheet electrode displayed a specific capacity of 688mAh/g after 60 cycles at 0...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ting Xiang, Qi Fang, Hui Xie, Chuanqiang Wu, Changda Wang, Yu Zhou, Daobin Liu, Shuangming Chen, Adnan Khalil, Shi Tao, Qin Liu, Li Song
Vertical 1T-MoS2 nanosheets with an expanded interlayer spacing of 9.8 Å were successfully grown on a graphene surface via a one-step solvothermal method. Such unique hybridized structures provided strong electrical and chemical coupling between the vertical nanosheets and graphene layers by means of C-O-Mo bonding. The merits are very beneficial for a high-efficiency electron/ion transport pathway and structural stability. As a proof of concept, the lithium ion battery with the as-obtained hybrid's electrode exhibited excellent rate performance with a 666 mA h g(-1) capacity at a high current density of 3500 mA g(-1)...
May 19, 2017: Nanoscale
Qiuyan Li, Shuhong Jiao, Langli Luo, Michael S Ding, Jianming Zheng, Samuel S Cartmell, Chong-Min Wang, Kang Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Wu Xu
Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extending the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, we report such wide temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the ternary solvent system of EC, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from -40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hong Yu, Haosen Fan, Jiong Wang, Yun Zheng, Zhengfei Dai, Yizhong Lu, Junhua Kong, Xin Wang, Young Jin Kim, Qingyu Yan, Jong-Min Lee
3D ordered porous structures of MoxC are prepared with different Mo to C ratios and tested for two possible promising applications: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) through water splitting and lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Mo2C and MoC with 3D periodic ordered structures are prepared with a similar process but different precursors. The 3D ordered porous MoC exhibits excellent cycling stability and rate performance as an anode material for LIBs. A discharge capacity of 450.9 mA h g(-1) is maintained up to 3000 cycles at 10...
May 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Jae-Hyun Shim, Young-Min Kim, Miji Park, Jongsik Kim, Sanghun Lee
The encapsulation of Ni-rich cathode materials (LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2) for lithium ion batteries in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets is introduced to improve electrochemical performances. Using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, the active materials are completely wrapped with several rGO layers of ~2 nm thickness. By virtue of the great electrical conductivity of graphene, the rGO-coated cathode materials exhibit much enhanced electrochemical performances of cycling property and rate capability. In addition, it is shown that the structural degradation of the active materials, which is from the rhombohedral layered structure (R-3 m) to the spinel (Fd-3 m) or rock-salt phase (Fm-3 m), is significantly reduced as well as delayed due to the protection of the active materials in the rGO layers from direct contact with electrolytes and the consequent suppression of side reactions...
May 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hendrik Helge Helge Heenen, Christoph Scheurer, Karsten Reuter
Lithium-titanium-oxide (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) is unique among battery materials due to its exceptional cyclability and high rate capability. This performance is believed to derive at least partly from the occupational disorder introduced via mixed Li/Ti occupancy in the LTO spinel-like structure. We explore the vast configuration space accessible during high-temperature LTO synthesis by Monte Carlo sampling and indeed find lowest-energy structures to be characterized by a high degree of microscopic inhomogeneity...
May 17, 2017: Nano Letters
S S Shinde, Dong-Hyung Kim, Jin-Young Yu, Jung-Ho Lee
The rational design of stable, inexpensive catalysts with excellent hydrogen dynamics and sorption characteristics under realistic environments for reversible hydrogen storage remains a great challenge. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to fabricate a monodispersed, air-stable, magnesium hydride embedded in three-dimensional activated carbon with periodic synchronization of transition metals (MHCH). The high surface area, homogeneous distribution of MgH2 nanoparticles, excellent thermal stability, high energy density, steric confinement by carbon, and robust architecture of the catalyst resulted in a noticeable enhancement of the hydrogen storage performance...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Huigang Zhang, Hailong Ning, John Busbee, Zihan Shen, Chadd Kiggins, Yuyan Hua, Janna Eaves, Jerome Davis, Tan Shi, Yu-Tsun Shao, Jian-Min Zuo, Xuhao Hong, Yanbin Chan, Shuangbao Wang, Peng Wang, Pengcheng Sun, Sheng Xu, Jinyun Liu, Paul V Braun
Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility...
May 2017: Science Advances
M N Moura, R V Barrada, J R Almeida, T F M Moreira, M A Schettino, J C C Freitas, S A D Ferreira, M F F Lelis, M B J G Freitas
In this study, cobalt (Co) was recycled from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and used to synthesize cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4-LIBs), which was applied as a catalyst for heterogeneous photo Fenton reactions that discolored methylene blue (MB) dye. The co-precipitation method was used to synthesize CoFe2O4-LIBs and CoFe2O4-R nanoparticles with spinel structures using as raw materials of the LIB cathodes and commercial reagents. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified the formation of spinel-type CoFe2O4, which formed clusters that could be seen under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and nanometric particles seen under transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
May 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Jin Sun, Chunxiao Lv, Fan Lv, Shuai Chen, Daohao Li, Ziqi Guo, Wei Han, Dongjiang Yang, Shaojun Guo
Searching the long-life transition metal oxide (TMOs)-based materials for future lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is still a great challenge because of the mechanical strain resulted from volume change of TMO anodes during the lithiation/delithiation process. To well address this challenging issue, we demonstrate a controlled method for making the multi-shelled TMOs hollow microfibers with tunable shell numbers to achieve the optimal void for efficient lithium ion storage. Such particularly designed void can lead to a short diffusion distance for fast diffusion of Li+ ions and also withstand large volume variation upon cycling, both of which are the key for high-performance LIBs...
May 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Joong-Kwon Kim, Do Hyeong Kim, Se Hun Joo, Byeongwook Choi, Aming Cha, Kwang Min Kim, Tae-Hyuk Kwon, Sang Kyu Kwak, Seok Ju Kang, Jungho Jin
Here, we introduce a regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the 2(nd) most abundant biopolymer only after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. The Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically-aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O2 and Na-O2 cells...
May 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Shan Fang, Zhenkun Tong, Ping Nie, Gao Liu, Xiaogang Zhang
Adjusting the particle size and nanostructure or applying carbon materials as the coating layers are promising to hold the volume expansion of Si in order for its practical application in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, the mild carbon-coating combined with a molten salt reduction is precisely designed to synthesize a raspberry-like hollow Silicon spheres coated with carbon shells (HSi@C) as the anode materials for LIBs. The HSi@C exhibits a remarkable electrochemical performance, a high reversible specific capacity of 886...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meng-Meng Wang, Cong-Cong Zhang, Fu-Shen Zhang
In the present study, cathode materials (C/LiCoO2) of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were co-processed via an innovative mechanochemical method, i.e. LiCoO2/PVC/Fe was co-grinded followed by water-leaching. This procedure generated recoverable LiCl from Li by the dechlorination of PVC and also generated magnetic CoFe4O6 from Co. The effects of different additives (e.g. alkali metals, non-metal oxides, and zero-valent metals) on (i) the conversion rates of Li and Co and (ii) the dechlorination rate of PVC were investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were explored...
May 11, 2017: Waste Management
Wangda Li, Un-Hyuck Kim, Andrei Dolocan, Yang-Kook Sun, Arumugam Manthiram
The formation of metallic lithium microstructures in the form of dendrites or mosses at the surface of anode electrodes (e.g., lithium metal, graphite, and silicon) leads to rapid capacity fade and poses grave safety risks in rechargeable lithium batteries. We present here a direct, relative quantitative analysis of lithium deposition on graphite anodes in pouch cells under normal operating conditions, paired with a model cathode material, the layered nickel-rich oxide LiNi0.61Co0.12Mn0.27O2, over the course of 3000 charge-discharge cycles...
May 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Daniela Treitl, Rachele Solomon, Dafney L Davare, Rafael Sanchez, Chauniqua Kiffin
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has increased worldwide. Most electronic nicotine delivery systems use rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which are relatively safe, but in rare cases these batteries can spontaneously combust, leading to serious full and partial thickness burn injuries. Explosions from lithium-ion batteries can cause a flash fire and accelerant-related burn injuries. CASE REPORT: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 3 patients with lithium-ion battery burns seen at our Level I community-based trauma center...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Grace Flynn, Kumaranand Palaniappan, Martin Sheehan, Tadhg Kennedy, Kevin Ryan
Herein, we report the high density growth of lead seeded germanium nanowires (NWs) and their development into branched nanowire networks suitable for application as lithium ion battery anodes. The synthesis of the nanowires from lead seeds occurs simultaneously in both the liquid zone (SLS growth) and solvent rich vapor zone (VLS growth) of a high boiling point solvent growth system. The reaction is sufficiently versatile to allow for the growth of nanowires directly from either an evaporated catalyst layer or from pre-defined nanoparticle seeds and can be extended to allowing extensive branched nanowire formation in a secondary reaction where these seeds are coated onto existing wires...
May 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
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