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Lithium ion battery

Lina Wang, Qinyu Li, Huijun Yang, Jun Yang, Yanna Nuli, Jiulin Wang
Lithium sulfur batteries (Li-S) have a 3-5 fold higher theoretical energy density than state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. In this work, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is reported for the first time as an effective electrolyte additive to enhance the electrochemical performance of a Li-S battery. With 1% TMSB additive, the sulfur composite cathodes show good cycling stability and outstanding rate capability, and deliver a highly reversible capacity of 1423 mA h g(-1) even at 10C. TMSB participates in the formation of a surface layer on sulfur-pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile (S@pPAN) cathodes, which accelerates lithium ion diffusion and stabilizes the interface...
November 30, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
M J Loveridge, M J Lain, I D Johnson, A Roberts, S D Beattie, R Dashwood, J A Darr, R Bhagat
Lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (LFP) has demonstrated promising performance as a cathode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), by overcoming the rate performance issues from limited electronic conductivity. Nano-sized vanadium-doped LFP (V-LFP) was synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal process using supercritical water as a reagent. The atomic % of dopant determined the particle shape. 5 at. % gave mixed plate and rod-like morphology, showing optimal electrochemical performance and good rate properties vs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mengting Jin, L C Yu, W M Shi, J G Deng, Y N Zhang
Systematic first-principles calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Li on different graphene layers with B/N-doping and/or C-vacancy, so as to understand why doping heteroatoms in graphene anode could significantly improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. We found that the formation of single or double carbon vacancies in graphene are critical for the adsorption of Li atoms. While the N-doping facilitates the formation of vacancies, it introduces over binding issue and hinders the Li diffusion...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shaohui Li, Jingwei Chen, Mengqi Cui, Guofa Cai, Jiangxin Wang, Peng Cui, Xuefei Gong, Pooi See Lee
Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are promising electrical energy storage systems for mid-to-large-scale applications due to the high energy and large power output without sacrificing long cycle stability. However, due to the different energy storage mechanisms between anode and cathode, the energy densities of LICs often degrade noticeably at high power density, because of the sluggish kinetics limitation at the battery-type anode side. Herein, a high-performance LIC by well-defined ZnMn2 O4 -graphene hybrid nanosheets anode and N-doped carbon nanosheets cathode is presented...
November 28, 2016: Small
A Rajkamal, E Mathan Kumar, V Kathirvel, Noejung Park, Ranjit Thapa
First-principles calculations are performed to identify the pristine and Si doped 3D metallic T6 carbon structure (having both sp(2) and sp(3) type hybridization) as a new carbon based anode material. The π electron of C2 atoms (sp(2) bonded) forms an out of plane network that helps to capture the Li atom. The highest Li storage capacity of Si doped T6 structure with conformation Li1.7Si1C5 produces theoretical specific capacity of 632 mAh/g which substantially exceeding than graphite. Also, open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to Li metal shows large negative when compared to the pristine T6 structure...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Song Liu, Hongying Hou, Xianxi Liu, Jixiang Duan, Yuan Yao, Qishu Liao, Jing Li, Yunzhen Yang
Hierarchical CuCl with high economic value added (EVA) was successfully recycled with 85% recovery from the acid Cu printed circuit board (Cu-PCB) waste etchant via facile liquid chemical reduction. The micro-structure and morphology of the recycled hierarchical CuCl were systematically characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Furthermore, the corresponding electrochemical performances as lithium ion battery (LIB) anode were also investigated in terms of galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xingzhu Chen, Zhouzhou Kong, Neng Li, Xiujian Zhao, Chenghua Sun
A two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbonitride (MXenes) with a formula of Ti3CN as an anode of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been proposed in this work. The mechanism of Li(+) adsorption and diffusion on the surface of Ti3CN and Ti3CNT2 (T = F, O, and OH functional groups) was studied to estimate the potential application of Ti3CN as an anode material by density functional theory (DFT) and DFT+U computations. For Ti3CNT2 (T = O, F, OH), the value of Li diffusion barriers is from 0.2 eV to 0.3 eV. On the basis of our results, we can know that Li prefers adsorption on the nitrogen side for Ti3CN in the absence of functional groups and tends to adsorb on the carbon side for Ti3CNT2 (T = O, F, OH)...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Han Zhou, Lusi Zhang, Dongyang Zhang, Shuangqiang Chen, Paul R Coxon, Xiong He, Mike Coto, Hyun-Kyung Kim, Kai Xi, Shujiang Ding
We report a simple synthetic approach to coaxially grow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanostructures on carbon nanotubes (CNT) with ready control of phase and morphology. A thin (~4 nm) sulfonated-polystyrene (SPS) pre-coating is essential for the deposition of transition metal based materials. This layer has abundant sulfonic groups (-SO3(-)) that can effectively attract Ni(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+) ions through electrostatic interaction and induce them via hydrolysis, dehydration and recrystallization to form coaxial (NiO, Co3O4, NiCoO2 and ZnCo2O4) shells and a nanosheet-like morphology around CNT...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sangryun Kim, Woosuk Cho, Xiaobin Zhang, Yoshifumi Oshima, Jang Wook Choi
Lithium ion batteries are encountering ever-growing demand for further increases in energy density. Li-rich layered oxides are considered a feasible solution to meet this demand because their specific capacities often surpass 200 mAh g(-1) due to the additional lithium occupation in the transition metal layers. However, this lithium arrangement, in turn, triggers cation mixing with the transition metals, causing phase transitions during cycling and loss of reversible capacity. Here we report a Li-rich layered surface bearing a consistent framework with the host, in which nickel is regularly arranged between the transition metal layers...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Wenlong Cai, Gaoran Li, Kailong Zhang, Jianbin Zhou, Yitai Qian, Jin Du
A novel MnO/graphene composite, used as an anode for lithium ion intercalation, was prepared via an in situ surfactant-free facile method by taking advantage of the byproduct Mn ion in the conventional fabrication of graphene oxide. The as-fabricated lithium ion batteries exhibited a long-term stable reversible capacity (603 mA h g(-1) after 350 cycles at 1 A g(-1) based on the composite, hereinafter the same) and superior rate performance (400 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1)).
November 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Md Mokhlesur Rahman, Irin Sultana, Tianyu Yang, Zhiqiang Chen, Neeraj Sharma, Alexey M Glushenkov, Ying Chen
A simple, cost-effective, and easily scalable molten salt method for the preparation of Li2 GeO3 as a new type of high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries is reported. The Li2 GeO3 exhibits a unique porous architecture consisting of micrometer-sized clusters (secondary particles) composed of numerous nanoparticles (primary particles) and can be used directly without further carbon coating which is a common exercise for most electrode materials. The new anode displays superior cycling stability with a retained charge capacity of 725 mAh g(-1) after 300 cycles at 50 mA g(-1) ...
November 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Fazel Shojaei, Hong Seok Kang
Based on the first-principles calculations, we predict that the monoclinic GeP can be exfoliated into two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. In fact, the interlayer van der Waals interactions are found to be comparable to those in black phosphorus. For the first time, we also elaborate mechanical and electronic properties of the monolayer for possible applications in optoelectronics. Although the monolayer is an indirect-gap semiconductor, it turns into a direct-gap material under appropriate strain. Namely, the material exhibits a direct gap of 2...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yifei Yuan, Chun Zhan, Kun He, Hungru Chen, Wentao Yao, Soroosh Sharifi-Asl, Boao Song, Zhenzhen Yang, Anmin Nie, Xiangyi Luo, Hao Wang, Stephen M Wood, Khalil Amine, M Saiful Islam, Jun Lu, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar
Metal oxides with a tunnelled structure are attractive as charge storage materials for rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors, since the tunnels enable fast reversible insertion/extraction of charge carriers (for example, lithium ions). Common synthesis methods can introduce large cations such as potassium, barium and ammonium ions into the tunnels, but how these cations affect charge storage performance is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of tunnel cations in governing the electrochemical properties of electrode materials by focusing on potassium ions in α-MnO2...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Britta Vortmann-Westhoven, Constantin Lürenbaum, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
In this work we present a novel electrophoretic method that was developed for the determination of lithium and transition metals in LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NCM) cathode material after microwave digestion. The cations in the digested NCM material was separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the element content was determined by UV/Vis detection. To characterize the precision of the measurements, the relative standard deviations (RSD) and concentrations were calculated and compared to those obtained with inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
November 21, 2016: Electrophoresis
Teng Gong, Xiaobing Lou, Jia-Jia Fang, En-Qing Gao, Bingwen Hu
A novel Co(ii) coordination polymer, [Co(H2O)6][Co6(bpybdc)2(N3)10(H2O)4]·8H2O (bpybdc(2-) = 1,1'-bis(3,5-dicarboxylatophenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium), has been synthesized from a rigid zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand and azide. In this compound, hexacobalt clusters with mixed μ-1,1-azide, μ3-1,1,1-azide and μ-1,3-carboxylate bridges are linked into chains by μ-1,3-azide bridges, and the chains are interlinked into 2-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional frameworks through the organic ligand and hydrogen bonds mediated by hexaaquacobalt(ii) complex ions...
November 21, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Andreas Heckmann, Manuel Krott, Benjamin Streipert, Sven Uhlenbruck, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke
Batteries based on cathode materials that operate at high cathode potentials, such as LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) in lithium ion batteries or graphitic carbons in dual-ion batteries suffer from anodic dissolution of the aluminum (Al) current collector in organic solvent-based electrolytes based on imide salts, such as lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In this work, we developed a protective surface modification for the Al current collector by ceramic coatings of chromium nitride (CrxN) and studied the anodic Al dissolution behavior...
November 14, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Xianjun Tan, Chuanfeng Cui, Shiqun Wu, Bocheng Qiu, Lingzhi Wang, Jinlong Zhang
N-doped mesoporous carbon capped MoO2 nanobelts (donated as MoO2@NC) were synthesized and applied to lithium ion storage. Thanks to the stable core-shell structured framework and conductive mesoporous carbon matrix, the as-prepared MoO2@NC show high specific capacity of around 700 mA h g-1 at a current of 0.5 A g-1, excellent cycling stability up to 100 cycles, and superior rate performance. The N-doped mesoporous carbon can greatly improve the conductivity and provide uninhibited conducting pathways for fast charge transfer and transport...
November 18, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Sergej Rothermel, Marco Evertz, Johannes Kasnascheetw, Xin Qi, Martin Grützke, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) - an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a liquid carbon dioxide-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment...
November 15, 2016: ChemSusChem
Yuxin Zhao, Shanjun Mu, Wanfu Sun, Quanzhen Liu, Yanpeng Li, Zifeng Yan, Ziyang Huo, Wenjie Liang
A rational integration of 1D metallic nanotubes and oxide nanoparticles has been demonstrated as a viable strategy for the production of both highly stable and efficient anodes for lithium ion batteries. We encapsulated copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles in ultra-long metallic copper nanotubes with engineered interspaces, and explored their electrochemical properties. Such a hierarchical architecture provides three important features: (i) a continuous nanoscale metallic Cu shell to minimize electronic/ionic transmitting impedance; (ii) a unique quasi-one-dimensional structure with a large aspect ratio to reduce self-aggregation; (iii) free space for volume expansion of CuO nanoparticles and stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation...
November 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Landon Oakes, Rachel Carter, Cary L Pint
For lithium-sulfur batteries to surpass the energy density of lithium-ion batteries, sulfur-containing cathodes require high sulfur loading (>70 wt%) relative to all inactive components, anchoring sites to prevent polysulfide shuttling, high capacity (>1000 mA h g(-1)), and stable cycling performance. Here we demonstrate a nanomanufacturing route to produce low-density hybrid nanomaterial electrodes that synergize the mechanical and electrical integrity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with the chemical defect properties of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) to produce carefully optimized properties for binder-free lithium-sulfur battery cathodes...
November 15, 2016: Nanoscale
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