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Aging brain fmri cognition

Stephanie S G Brown, Shinjini Basu, Heather C Whalley, Peter C Kind, Andrew C Stanfield
The FMR1 premutation confers a 40-60% risk for males of developing a neurodegenerative disease called the Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a late-onset disease that primarily involves progressive symptoms of tremor and ataxia, as well as cognitive decline that can develop into dementia in some patients. At present, it is not clear whether changes to brain function are detectable in motor regions prior to the onset of frank symptomatology. The present study therefore aimed to utilize an fMRI motor task for the first time in an asymptomatic premutation population...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Synthia Guimond, Shezal Padani, Olivia Lutz, Shaun Eack, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan
Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Takahiro Ezaki, Michiko Sakaki, Takamitsu Watanabe, Naoki Masuda
Executive functions, a set of cognitive processes that enable flexible behavioral control, are known to decay with aging. Because such complex mental functions are considered to rely on the dynamic coordination of functionally different neural systems, the age-related decline in executive functions should be underpinned by alteration of large-scale neural dynamics. However, the effects of age on brain dynamics have not been firmly formulated. Here, we investigate such age-related changes in brain dynamics by applying "energy landscape analysis" to publicly available functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy younger and older human adults...
March 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Kwun Kei Ng, Yingwei Qiu, June Chi-Yan Lo, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Woon-Puay Koh, Michael Wei-Liang Chee, Juan Zhou
We investigated the influence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) on longitudinal age-related changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) and cognition, in view of mixed cross-sectional findings. One hundred and twenty-two healthy older adults (aged 58-79; 25 APOE-ɛ4 carriers) underwent task-free fMRI scans at baseline. Seventy-eight (16 carriers) had at least one follow-up (every 2 years). Changes in intra- and internetwork FCs among the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN), and salience (SN) networks, as well as cognition, were quantified using linear mixed models...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Shruti G Vij, Jason S Nomi, Dina R Dajani, Lucina Q Uddin
Development and aging are associated with functional changes in the brain across the lifespan. These changes manifest in a variety of spatial and temporal features of resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) but have seldom been explored exhaustively. We present a comprehensive study assessing age-related changes in spatial and temporal features of blind-source separated components identified by independent vector analysis (IVA) in a cross-sectional lifespan sample (ages 6-85 years). We show that while large-scale network configurations remain consistent throughout the lifespan, changes persist in both local and global organization of these networks...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Zachariah M Reagh, Jessica A Noche, Nicholas J Tustison, Derek Delisle, Elizabeth A Murray, Michael A Yassa
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is among the earliest brain areas to deteriorate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which functional properties of the EC are altered in the aging brain, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, is not understood. Recent human fMRI studies have identified a functional dissociation within the EC, similar to what is found in rodents. Here, we used high-resolution fMRI to identify a specific hypoactivity in the anterolateral EC (alEC) commensurate with major behavioral deficits on an object pattern separation task in asymptomatic older adults...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Marcus A Gray, Che-Yung Chao, Heidi M Staudacher, Natasha A Kolosky, Nicholas J Talley, Gerald Holtmann
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), immune activation with increased circulating TNF-α is linked to the intensity of gastrointestinal symptoms and depression or anxiety. A central feature of depression is cognitive biases linked to negative attributions about self, the world and the future. We aimed to assess the effects of anti-TNFα therapy on the central processing of self-attribution biases and visceral afferent information in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: We examined 9 patients with Crohn's disease (age 26...
2018: PloS One
Nicolai Franzmeier, Julia Hartmann, Alexander N W Taylor, Miguel Á Araque-Caballero, Lee Simon-Vermot, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Katharina Bürger, Cihan Catak, Daniel Janowitz, Claudia Müller, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Robert Stahl, Martin Dichgans, Marco Duering, Michael Ewers
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests that functional hubs (i.e., highly connected brain regions) are important for mental health. We found recently that global connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex (LFC connectivity) is associated with relatively preserved memory abilities and higher levels of protective factors (education, IQ) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that LFC connectivity supports reserve capacity, alleviating memory decline...
March 6, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Panlong Li, Han Shan, Shengxiang Liang, Binbin Nie, Hua Liu, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Guanglong Dong, Yulin Guo, Jin Du, Hongkai Gao, Lin Ma, Demin Li, Baoci Shan
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery could recover regional dysfunction of cerebral cortex. However, it is unknown whether bariatric surgery could recover the global-level dysfunction in subjects with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bariatric surgery on global-level dysfunction in subjects with obesity by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Resting-state fMRI was used to investigate dysfunction of whole-brain in 34 subjects with obesity and 34 age-and gender-matched normal-weight subjects, in which 17 subjects with obesity received sleeve gastrectomy...
March 2, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Antoine Bernas, Evelien M Barendse, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Frans M J Willems, Peter H N de With, Svitlana Zinger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, Srujana Kathi, Vamsi Krishna Vadla
The aim of this article is to highlight current approaches for imaging elderly brain, indispensable for cognitive neuroscience research with emphasis on the basic physical principles of various non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The first part of this article presents a quick overview of the primary non-invasive neuroimaging modalities used by cognitive neuroscientists such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), Profusion imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with tractography and connectomics...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Sharna D Jamadar, Francesco Sforazzini, Parnesh Raniga, Nicholas J Ferris, Bryan Paton, Michael J Bailey, Amy Brodtmann, Paul A Yates, Geoffrey A Donnan, Stephanie A Ward, Robyn L Woods, Elsdon Storey, John J McNeil, Gary F Egan
Objectives: The onset of many illnesses is confounded with age and sex. Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of many illnesses, and sexual dimorphism influences brain anatomy, function, and cognition. Here, we examine frequency-specific connectivity in resting-state networks in a large sample (n = 406) of healthy aged adults. Method: We quantify frequency-specific connectivity in three resting-state networks known to be implicated in age-related decline: the default mode, dorsal attention, and salience networks, using multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Chun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu, Xue-Qi Zhu, Ji-Liang Fang, Shun-Li Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Chuan-Yue Wang, Qing-Quan Liu
Insomnia is characterized by sensory hypersensitivity and cognitive impairments. Recent work has identified the insula as a central brain region involved in both bottom-up gating of sensory information and top-down cognitive control. However, the specific relationships between insular subregion connectivity and emotional and cognitive functions remain unclear. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 25 healthy participants with sleep complaints (HPS) and 25 age-, gender- and educational level-matched healthy participants without insomnia complaints (HP)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ryouhei Ishii, Leonides Canuet, Yasunori Aoki, Masahiro Hata, Masao Iwase, Shunichiro Ikeda, Keiichiro Nishida, Manabu Ikeda
Healthy aging is associated with impairment in cognitive information processing. Several neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy have been used to explore healthy and pathological aging by relying on hemodynamic or metabolic changes that occur in response to brain activity. Since electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are able to measure neural activity directly with a high temporal resolution of milliseconds, these neurophysiological techniques are particularly important to investigate the dynamics of brain activity underlying neurocognitive aging...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Andrea B Goldschmidt, Daniel P Dickstein, Annmarie E MacNamara, K Luan Phan, Setareh O'Brien, Daniel Le Grange, Jennifer O Fisher, Sarah Keedy
Objective: Neural substrates of loss of control (LOC) eating are undercharacterized. We aimed to model intermittent access to food to elicit disinhibited eating in youth undergoing neuroimaging, given evidence that restricted food access may increase subsequent food intake via enhancing reward value of food and diminishing eating-related self-control. Methods: Participants were 18 preadolescents (aged 9-12 years) who were overweight/obese with recent LOC eating (OW-LOC; n = 6); overweight/obese with no history of LOC eating (OW-CON; n = 5); or non-overweight with no history of LOC eating (NW-CON; n = 7)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Adriane M Soehner, Tina R Goldstein, Sarah M Gratzmiller, Mary L Phillips, Peter L Franzen
OBJECTIVES: Adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display aberrant activation in fronto-limbic neural circuitry during cognitive control. However, fronto-limbic response to cognitive control, and factors destabilizing this circuitry, remain under-studied during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood in BD. Sleep patterns are disturbed in BD, undergo change in adolescence, and support brain function. Among transitional age youth, BD diagnosis and sleep (duration and variability) were tested as predictors of fronto-limbic response to a stressful cognitive control task...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Haiqing Huang, Jared Tanner, Hari Parvataneni, Mark Rice, Ann Horgas, Mingzhou Ding, Catherine Price
 Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), we explored: 1) pre- to post-operative changes in functional connectivity in default mode, salience, and central executive networks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia, and 2) the contribution of cognitive/brain reserve metrics these resting state functional declines. Individuals age 60 and older electing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA; n = 48) and non-surgery peers with osteoarthritis (n = 45) completed baseline cognitive testing and baseline and post-surgery (post-baseline, 48-h post-surgery) brain MRI...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anna R Egbert, Bharat Biswal, Keerthana Karunakaran, Suril Gohel, Agnieszka Pluta, Tomasz Wolak, Bogna Szymańska, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Marta Sobańska, Natalia Gawron, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska, Robert Bornstein, Stephen Rao, Emilia Łojek
This study examined the effects of age and HIV infection on the resting state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) of the brain and cognitive functioning. The objective was to evaluate the moderating role of age and HIV on the relationship between RS-FC and cognition. To examine RS-FC we implemented the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Regional Homogeneity (ReHo). Neurocognition was evaluated with comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests. Age and HIV were entered as the independent variables...
February 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lixia Tian, Qizhuo Li, Chaomurilige Wang, Jian Yu
Despite numerous studies on age-related changes in static functional connections (FCs), the available literature on the changes in dynamic FCs with aging is lacking. This study investigated the changes in dynamic FCs with aging based on resting state fMRI data of 61 healthy adults aged 30-85 years. The time-resolved FCs among 160 pre-defined regions of interest (ROIs) were first estimated using sliding-window correlation. Based on the dynamic FC matrices, we then analyzed the dynamic switches between different FC states using k-means clustering, and correlated age with the dwell time of each FC state across subjects...
January 27, 2018: NeuroImage
Kaoru Nashiro, Shuo Qin, Margaret A O'Connell, Chandramallika Basak
It is well documented that older adults recruit additional brain regions compared to those recruited by younger adults while performing a wide variety of cognitive tasks. However, it is unclear how such age-related over-recruitment interacts with different types of cognitive control, and whether this over-recruitment is compensatory. To test this, we used a multitasking paradigm, which allowed us to examine age-related over-activation associated with three types of cognitive costs (i.e., global switch, local switch, compatibility-switch costs)...
January 29, 2018: NeuroImage
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