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Aging brain fmri cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528773/apoe-moderates-compensatory-recruitment-of-neuronal-resources-during-working-memory-processing-in-healthy-older-adults
#1
Elisa Scheller, Jessica Peter, Lena V Schumacher, Jacob Lahr, Irina Mader, Christoph P Kaller, Stefan Klöppel
The APOE ε4 allele increases the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease and modifies brain activation patterns of numerous cognitive domains. We assessed cognitively intact older adults with a letter n-back task to determine if previously observed increases in ε4 carriers' working-memory-related brain activation are compensatory such that they serve to maintain working memory function. Using multiple regression models, we identified interactions of APOE variant and age in bilateral hippocampus independently from task performance: ε4 carriers only showed a decrease in activation with increasing age, suggesting high sensitivity of fMRI data for detecting changes in Alzheimer's disease-relevant brain areas before cognitive decline...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522971/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Hui Li, Xiuqin Jia, Zhigang Qi, Xiang Fan, Tian Ma, Hong Ni, Chiang-Shan R Li, Kuncheng Li
Background: Cholinergic dysfunction plays an important role in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies have characterized structural changes of the cholinergic basal forebrain in individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how functional connectivity of the BNM (BNM-FC) is altered in MCI remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify alterations in BNM-FC in individuals with MCI as compared to healthy controls (HCs), and to examine the relationship between these alterations with neuropsychological measures in individuals with MCI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488352/how-do-individual-differences-in-children-s-domain-specific-and-domain-general-abilities-relate-to-brain-activity-within-the-intraparietal-sulcus-during-arithmetic-an-fmri-study
#3
Anna A Matejko, Daniel Ansari
Previous research has demonstrated that children recruit the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during arithmetic, which has largely been attributed to domain-specific processes such as quantity manipulations. However, the IPS has also been found to be important for domain-general abilities, such as visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Based on the current literature it is unclear whether individual differences in domain-specific skills, domain-general skills, or a combination of the two, are related to the recruitment of the IPS during arithmetic...
May 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484386/the-integrity-of-the-corpus-callosum-mitigates-the-impact-of-blood-pressure-on-the-ventral-attention-network-and-information-processing-speed-in-healthy-adults
#4
Nichol M L Wong, Ernie Po-Wing Ma, Tatia M C Lee
Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older age. However, evidence of the neural basis of the relationship between the deterioration of cognitive function and elevated blood pressure is sparse. Based on previous research, we speculate that variations in brain connectivity are closely related to elevated blood pressure even before the onset of clinical conditions and apparent cognitive decline in individuals over 60 years of age. Forty cognitively healthy adults were recruited. Each received a blood pressure test before and after the cognitive assessment in various domains...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470553/intrinsic-functional-organization-of-putative-language-networks-in-the-brain-following-left-cerebral-hemispherectomy
#5
Anna Ivanova, Eran Zaidel, Noriko Salamon, Susan Bookheimer, Lucina Q Uddin, Stella de Bode
In rare cases of severe and intractable epilepsy, cerebral hemispherectomy is performed to arrest seizure activity and improve quality of life. The remaining hemisphere is often capable of supporting many cognitive functions post-surgery, although the outcome depends on the underlying etiology, hemisphere removed, and age of resection. The mechanisms underlying this massive reorganization are at present unknown. Here we examined intrinsic functional connectivity of putative language brain networks in four children after left cerebral hemispherectomy using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI)...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467520/transdiagnostic-associations-between-functional-brain-network-integrity-and-cognition
#6
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Carol A Tamminga, Godfrey D Pearlson, Matcheri S Keshavan, John A Sweeney, Brett A Clementz, Dov B Lerman-Sinkoff, S Kristian Hill, Deanna M Barch
Importance: Cognitive impairment occurs across the psychosis spectrum and is associated with functional outcome. However, it is unknown whether these shared manifestations of cognitive dysfunction across diagnostic categories also reflect shared neurobiological mechanisms or whether the source of impairment differs. Objective: To examine whether the general cognitive deficit observed across psychotic disorders is similarly associated with functional integrity of 2 brain networks widely implicated in supporting many cognitive domains...
May 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#7
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461057/age-related-functional-brain-changes-in-young-children
#8
Xiangyu Long, Alina Benischek, Deborah Dewey, Catherine Lebel
Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458636/individual-differences-in-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-predicted-by-neuronal-selectivity-at-corresponding-brain-regions
#9
Xiong Jiang, Jessica R Petok, Darlene V Howard, James H Howard
Relating individual differences in cognitive abilities to neural substrates in older adults is of significant scientific and clinical interest, but remains a major challenge. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cognitive aging have mainly focused on the amplitude of fMRI response, which does not measure neuronal selectivity and has led to some conflicting findings. Here, using local regional heterogeneity analysis, or Hcorr , a novel fMRI analysis technique developed to probe the sparseness of neuronal activations as an indirect measure of neuronal selectivity, we found that individual differences in two different cognitive functions, episodic memory and letter verbal fluency, are selectively related to Hcorr -estimated neuronal selectivity at their corresponding brain regions (hippocampus and visual-word form area, respectively)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440813/instability-of-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-major-depression-a-two-sample-confirmation-study
#10
T Wise, L Marwood, A M Perkins, A Herane-Vives, R Joules, D J Lythgoe, W-M Luh, S C R Williams, A H Young, A J Cleare, D Arnone
Major depression is associated with altered static functional connectivity in various brain networks, particularly the default mode network (DMN). Dynamic functional connectivity is a novel tool with little application in affective disorders to date, and holds the potential to unravel fluctuations in connectivity strength over time in major depression. We assessed stability of connectivity in major depression between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), key nodes in the DMN that are implicated in ruminative cognitions...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439672/altered-intra-and-interregional-synchronization-in-the-absence-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Long Zuo, Shuangkun Wang, Junliang Yuan, Hua Gu, Yang Zhou, Tao Jiang
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) can result in subtle to severe cognitive deficits. Individuals with impaired cognition often show abnormalities on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). This study used rs-fMRI to investigate changes in regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) among individuals with AgCC. AgCC individuals (n = 10) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control subjects (n = 19) were included in this study. The ReHo values were calculated to represent spontaneous brain activity...
April 24, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433446/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-assess-the-neurobehavioral-impact-of-dysphotopsia-with-multifocal-intraocular-lenses
#12
Andreia M Rosa, Ângela C Miranda, Miguel Patrício, Colm McAlinden, Fátima L Silva, Joaquim N Murta, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between dysphotopsia and neural responses in visual and higher-level cortical regions in patients who recently received multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients 3 to 4 weeks after bilateral cataract surgery with diffractive IOL implantation and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed when participants viewed low-contrast grating stimuli...
April 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424611/modafinil-induced-changes-in-functional-connectivity-in-the-cortex-and-cerebellum-of-healthy-elderly-subjects
#13
Miriam Punzi, Tommaso Gili, Laura Petrosini, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta, Stefano L Sensi
In the past few years, cognitive enhancing drugs (CEDs) have gained growing interest and the focus of investigations aimed at exploring their use to potentiate the cognitive performances of healthy individuals. Most of this exploratory CED-related research has been performed on young adults. However, CEDs may also help to maintain optimal brain functioning or compensate for subtle and or subclinical deficits associated with brain aging or early-stage dementia. In this study, we assessed effects on resting state brain activity in a group of healthy elderly subjects undergoing acute administration of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420985/mapping-dorsal-and-ventral-caudate-in-older-adults-method-and-validation
#14
Haiqing Huang, Peter T Nguyen, Nadine A Schwab, Jared J Tanner, Catherine C Price, Mingzhou Ding
The caudate nucleus plays important roles in cognition and affect. Depending on associated connectivity and function, the caudate can be further divided into dorsal and ventral aspects. Dorsal caudate, highly connected to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is implicated in executive function and working memory; ventral caudate, more interconnected with the limbic system, is implicated in affective functions such as pain processing. Clinically, certain brain disorders are known to differentially impact dorsal and ventral caudate...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415142/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-processing-in-monolinguals-and-bilinguals
#15
REVIEW
John G Grundy, John A E Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
Here, we review the neural correlates of cognitive control associated with bilingualism. We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both the structure and function of the brain. Compared with monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor regions, greater white matter integrity, and greater functional connectivity between gray matter regions. These changes complement electroencephalography findings showing that bilinguals devote neural resources earlier than monolinguals...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402574/hard-to-look-on-the-bright-side-neural-correlates-of-impaired-emotion-regulation-in-depressed-youth
#16
Katerina Stephanou, Christopher G Davey, Rebecca Kerestes, Sarah Whittle, Ben J Harrison
The cognitive regulation of emotion is impaired in major depressive disorder and has been linked to an imbalance of prefrontal-subcortical brain activity. Despite suggestions that this relationship represents a neurodevelopmental marker of depression, few studies have examined the neural correlates of emotion regulation in depressed youth. We combined a 'cognitive reappraisal' paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the neural correlates of emotional regulation in a large sample of non-medicated depressed adolescents and young adults (n = 53), and healthy controls (n = 64)...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401835/brain-activity-and-infant-attachment-history-in-young-men-during-loss-and-reward-processing
#17
Karina Quevedo, Theodore E A Waters, Hannah Scott, Glenn I Roisman, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes
There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan)...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401670/adolescents-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-e-cigarette-advertising
#18
Yvonnes Chen, Carina H Fowler, Vlad B Papa, Rebecca J Lepping, Morgan G Brucks, Andrew T Fox, Laura E Martin
Although adolescents are a group heavily targeted by the e-cigarette industry, research in cue-reactivity has not previously examined adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e-cigarette advertising. This study addressed this gap through two experiments. In Experiment One, adult traditional cigarette smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 41) answered questions about e-cigarette and neutral advertising images. The 40 e-cigarette advertising images that most increased desire to use the product were matched to 40 neutral advertising images with similar content...
April 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392763/activation-in-context-differential-conclusions-drawn-from-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analyses-of-adolescents-cognitive-control-related-neural-activity
#19
Ethan M McCormick, Yang Qu, Eva H Telzer
Although immature cognitive control, subserved by late-developing prefrontal regions, has been proposed to underlie increased risk taking during adolescence, it remains unclear what patterns of PFC activation represent mature brain states: more or less activation? One challenge to drawing cogent conclusions from extant work stems from its reliance on single-time point neuroimaging and cross-sectional comparisons, which are ill-suited for assessing the complex changes that characterize adolescence. This necessitates longitudinal fMRI work to track within-subject changes in PFC function and links to risk-taking behavior, which can serve as an external marker for maturation of neural systems involved in cognitive control...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390824/resting-state-networks-associated-with-cognitive-processing-show-more-age-related-decline-than-those-associated-with-emotional-processing
#20
Kaoru Nashiro, Michiko Sakaki, Meredith N Braskie, Mara Mather
Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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