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Aging brain fmri cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909405/classifying-cognitive-profiles-using-machine-learning-with-privileged-information-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Hanin H Alahmadi, Yuan Shen, Shereen Fouad, Caroline Di B Luft, Peter Bentham, Zoe Kourtzi, Peter Tino
Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a "Learning with privileged information" approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896939/a-multimodal-study-of-impulsivity-and-body-weight-integrating-behavioral-cognitive-and-neuroimaging-approaches
#2
Francesca M Filbey, Uma S Yezhuvath
OBJECTIVE: Dimensions of impulsivity are related to obesity. Accordingly, characterization of impulsivity in individuals with overweight and obesity holds promise for more targeted and effective intervention. METHODS: Forty-five individuals (13 males, mean age = 32.6, mean body mass index [BMI] = 30.7) were recruited to determine the role of impulsivity in elevated body weight by evaluating: (1) trait impulsivity via impulsive sensation-seeking scale (ImpSS), (2) state impulsivity via continuous performance test, and (3) activation and integration of brain cognitive control regions via functional magnetic resonance imaging during a response inhibition task (i...
November 29, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#3
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880785/individual-differences-in-dynamic-functional-brain-connectivity-across-the-human-lifespan
#4
Elizabeth N Davison, Benjamin O Turner, Kimberly J Schlesinger, Michael B Miller, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett, Jean M Carlson
Individual differences in brain functional networks may be related to complex personal identifiers, including health, age, and ability. Dynamic network theory has been used to identify properties of dynamic brain function from fMRI data, but the majority of analyses and findings remain at the level of the group. Here, we apply hypergraph analysis, a method from dynamic network theory, to quantify individual differences in brain functional dynamics. Using a summary metric derived from the hypergraph formalism-hypergraph cardinality-we investigate individual variations in two separate, complementary data sets...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873557/face-processing-in-adolescents-with-positive-and-negative-threat-bias
#5
C M Sylvester, S E Petersen, J L Luby, D M Barch
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit a 'vigilance-avoidance' pattern of attention to threatening stimuli when threatening and neutral stimuli are presented simultaneously, a phenomenon referred to as 'threat bias'. Modifying threat bias through cognitive retraining during adolescence reduces symptoms of anxiety, and so elucidating neural mechanisms of threat bias during adolescence is of high importance. We explored neural mechanisms by testing whether threat bias in adolescents is associated with generalized or threat-specific differences in the neural processing of faces...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866154/the-correlation-between-cognitive-and-movement-shifting-and-brain-activity-in-children-with-adhd
#6
Kyoung Doo Kang, Doug Hyun Han, Sun Mi Kim, Sujin Bae, Perry F Renshaw
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the correlation between the deficits of cognition, movement, and brain activity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactvity Disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We recruited 15 children with ADHD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Clinical symptoms, cognitive shifting, movement shifting, and brain activity were assessed using the Korean ADHD Rating Scale, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the 7- and 14-ring drill test with hop jumps (7 HJ and 14 HJ), and 3...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859960/cognitive-phenotypes-in-parkinson-s-disease-differ-in-terms-of-brain-network-organization-and-connectivity
#7
Renaud Lopes, Christine Delmaire, Luc Defebvre, Anja J Moonen, Annelien A Duits, Paul Hofman, Albert F G Leentjens, Kathy Dujardin
Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease and we suspect that dysfunctions of connected brain regions can be the source of these deficits. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity according to differences in cognitive profiles in Parkinson's disease. 119 participants were enrolled and divided into four groups according to their cognitive phenotypes (determined by a cluster analysis): (i) 31 cognitively intact patients (G1), (ii) 31 patients with only slight mental slowing (G2), (iii) 43 patients with mild to moderate deficits mainly in executive functions (G3), (iv) 14 patients with severe deficits in all cognitive domains (G4-5)...
November 17, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859903/corticostriatal-connectivity-fingerprints-probability-maps-based-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Ellen Jaspers, Joshua H Balsters, Pegah Kassraian Fard, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Over the last decade, structure-function relationships have begun to encompass networks of brain areas rather than individual structures. For example, corticostriatal circuits have been associated with sensorimotor, limbic, and cognitive information processing, and damage to these circuits has been shown to produce unique behavioral outcomes in Autism, Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and healthy ageing. However, it remains an open question how abnormal or absent connectivity can be detected at the individual level...
November 12, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857686/novelty-seeking-harm-avoidance-and-cerebral-responses-to-conflict-anticipation-an-exploratory-study
#9
Jianping Hu, Sien Hu, Julianna R Maisano, Herta H Chao, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851842/estimating-the-heritability-of-structural-and-functional-brain-connectivity-in-families-affected-by-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Gustavo Sudre, Saadia Choudhuri, Eszter Szekely, Teighlor Bonner, Elanda Goduni, Wendy Sharp, Philip Shaw
Importance: Despite its high heritability, few risk genes have been identified for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain-based phenotypes could aid gene discovery. There is a myriad of structural and functional connections that support cognition. Disruption of such connectivity is a key pathophysiologic mechanism for ADHD, and identifying heritable phenotypes within these connections could provide candidates for genomic studies. Objective: To identify the structural and functional connections that are heritable and pertinent to ADHD...
November 16, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847486/enhancing-executive-function-and-neural-health-in-bipolar-disorder-through-reasoning-training
#11
Erin E Venza, Sandra B Chapman, Sina Aslan, Jennifer E Zientz, David L Tyler, Jeffrey S Spence
Cognitive deficits in executive function and memory among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are well-documented; however, only recently have efforts begun to address whether such cognitive deficits can be ameliorated through cognitive training. This pilot study examined the effects of a top-down, cognitive reasoning training program in adults with BD on both brain and cognitive measures. Twenty-seven participants (11 males, 16 females), aged 21-70 years old, completed the study. Participants completed neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training, consisting of 8 h (2 h/week) of training in small groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843705/altered-local-spontaneous-activity-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#12
Li Dong, Hechun Li, Zhongqiong He, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Lin Chen, Pu Wang, Song Tan, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHOD: Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states)...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829086/altered-brain-activity-in-unipolar-depression-revisited-meta-analyses-of-neuroimaging-studies
#13
Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Ilinca Serbanescu, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff
Importance: During the past 20 years, numerous neuroimaging experiments have investigated aberrant brain activation during cognitive and emotional processing in patients with unipolar depression (UD). The results of those investigations, however, vary considerably; moreover, previous meta-analyses also yielded inconsistent findings. Objective: To readdress aberrant brain activation in UD as evidenced by neuroimaging experiments on cognitive and/or emotional processing...
November 9, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813284/functional-connectivity-alterations-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-multimodal-mri-study
#14
S Kharabian Masouleh, S Herzig, L Klose, E Roggenhofer, H Tenckhoff, T Kaiser, A Thöne-Otto, M Wiese, T Berg, M L Schroeter, D S Margulies, A Villringer
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with fatigue and depression. Cognitive impairments are also reported in a smaller number of HCV-positive patients. Recent studies linked HCV to low-grade inflammation in brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that chronic HCV is associated with 3T-neuroimaging-derived grey matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity alterations in a sample of chronic HCV (1b), without severe liver disease. Regional GMV and resting-state fMRI-derived eigenvector centrality (EC) were compared between 19 HCV-positive patients and 23 healthy controls (all females, 50-69 and 52-64 years, respectively), controlling for white matter hyperintensities and age...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812160/development-of-the-intrinsic-language-network-in-preschool-children-from-ages-3-to-5-years
#15
Yaqiong Xiao, Jens Brauer, Mark Lauckner, Hongchang Zhai, Fucang Jia, Daniel S Margulies, Angela D Friederici
Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809791/the-parkin-play-study-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-trial-to-assess-the-effects-of-a-health-game-on-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Sjors C F van de Weijer, Annelien A Duits, Bastiaan R Bloem, Roy P Kessels, Jacobus F A Jansen, Sebastian Köhler, Gerrit Tissingh, Mark L Kuijf
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive impairment is an important non-motor symptom heralding the development of dementia. Effective treatments to slow down the rate of cognitive decline in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment are lacking. Here, we describe the design of the Parkin'Play study, which assesses the effects of a cognitive health game intervention on cognition in PD. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a multicentre, phase-II, open-randomized clinical trial that aims to recruit 222 PD patients with mild cognitive impairment...
November 3, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807030/aging-affects-dopaminergic-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-flexibility
#17
Anne S Berry, Vyoma D Shah, Suzanne L Baker, Jacob W Vogel, James P O'Neil, Mustafa Janabi, Henry D Schwimmer, Shawn M Marks, William J Jagust
: Aging is accompanied by profound changes in the brain's dopamine system that affect cognitive function. Evidence of powerful individual differences in cognitive aging has sharpened focus on identifying biological factors underlying relative preservation versus vulnerability to decline. Dopamine represents a key target in these efforts. Alterations of dopamine receptors and dopamine synthesis are seen in aging, with receptors generally showing reduction and synthesis demonstrating increases...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803662/real-time-fmri-in-neuroscience-research-and-its-use-in-studying-the-aging-brain
#18
REVIEW
Mohit Rana, Andrew Q Varan, Anis Davoudi, Ronald A Cohen, Ranganatha Sitaram, Natalie C Ebner
Cognitive decline is a major concern in the aging population. It is normative to experience some deterioration in cognitive abilities with advanced age such as related to memory performance, attention distraction to interference, task switching, and processing speed. However, intact cognitive functioning in old age is important for leading an independent day-to-day life. Thus, studying ways to counteract or delay the onset of cognitive decline in aging is crucial. The literature offers various explanations for the decline in cognitive performance in aging; among those are age-related gray and white matter atrophy, synaptic degeneration, blood flow reduction, neurochemical alterations, and change in connectivity patterns with advanced age...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798143/development-of-neural-sensitivity-to-face-identity-correlates-with-perceptual-discriminability
#19
Vaidehi S Natu, Michael A Barnett, Jake Hartley, Jesse Gomez, Anthony Stigliani, Kalanit Grill-Spector
: Face perception is subserved by a series of face-selective regions in the human ventral stream, which undergo prolonged development from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown how neural development of these regions relates to the development of face-perception abilities. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain responses of ventral occipitotemporal regions in children (ages, 5-12 years) and adults (ages, 19-34 years) when they viewed faces that parametrically varied in dissimilarity...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792961/effectiveness-of-cognitive-coping-therapy-and-alteration-of-resting-state-brain-function-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Hong-Zeng Zhao, Chang-Hong Wang, Zhong-Zhan Gao, Jian-Dong Ma, Ping Huang, Heng-Fen Li, De-En Sang, Xiao-Wen Shan, Shao-Jie Kou, Zhi-Rong Li, Li Ma, Zhao-Hui Zhang, Jian-Hong Zhang, Hua Ouyang, Hong-Kai Lian, Yu-Feng Zang, Xian-Zhang Hu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-coping therapy (CCT), integrating cognitive theory with stress-coping theory, is an efficacious therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the potential brain mediation for the effectiveness remains unclear. We sought to investigate differences of resting-state brain function between OCD and healthy controls and if such differences would be changed by a four-week CCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one OCD patients were recruited and randomized into CCT (n=15) and pharmacotherapy plus CCT (pCCT, n=16) groups, together with 25 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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