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Aging brain fmri cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221821/enhanced-neural-activation-with-blueberry-supplementation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Erin L Boespflug, James C Eliassen, Jonathan A Dudley, Marcelle D Shidler, Wilhelmina Kalt, Suzanne S Summer, Amanda L Stein, Amanda N Stover, Robert Krikorian
OBJECTIVES: Preclinical studies have shown that blueberry supplementation can improve cognitive performance and neural function in aged animals and have identified associations between anthocyanins and such benefits. Preliminary human trials also suggest cognitive improvement in older adults, although direct evidence of enhancement of brain function has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effect of blueberry supplementation on regional brain activation in older adults at risk for dementia...
February 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216431/optimizing-fmri-preprocessing-pipelines-for-block-design-tasks-as-a-function-of-age
#2
Nathan W Churchill, Pradeep Raamana, Robyn Spring, Stephen C Strother
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a powerful neuroimaging tool, which is often hampered by significant noise confounds. There is evidence that our ability to detect activations in task fMRI is highly dependent on the preprocessing steps used to control noise and artifact. However, the vast majority of studies examining preprocessing pipelines in fMRI have focused on young adults. Given the widespread use of fMRI for characterizing the neurobiology of aging, it is critical to examine how the impact of preprocessing choices varies as a function of age...
February 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215391/childhood-trauma-related-alterations-in-brain-function-during-a-theory-of-mind-task-in-schizophrenia
#3
Yann Quidé, Xin H Ong, Sebastian Mohnke, Knut Schnell, Henrik Walter, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia that affects brain functions associated with higher cognitive processes, including social cognition. Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM), or mentalizing skills, are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and are also evident in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. However, the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear. We thus examined the association between childhood trauma and brain function during the performance of a ToM task in 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
February 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213439/tau-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-are-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-structure-function-and-memory-encoding-in-normal-aging
#4
Shawn M Marks, Samuel N Lockhart, Suzanne L Baker, William J Jagust
Normal aging is associated with decline in episodic memory, and also with aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins and atrophy of medial temporal lobe structures crucial to memory formation. While some evidence suggests that Aβ is associated with aberrant neural activity, the relationships between these two aggregated proteins, neural function, and brain structure are poorly understood. Using in vivo human Aβ and tau imaging, we demonstrate that increased Aβ and tau are both associated with aberrant functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the medial temporal lobes during memory encoding in cognitively normal older adults...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185093/altered-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-adolescent-boys-with-pure-conduct-disorder-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity-analysis
#5
Qiong Wu, Xiaocui Zhang, Daifeng Dong, Xiang Wang, Shuqiao Yao
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
February 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179464/increased-default-mode-network-centrality-in-cognitively-impaired-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#6
Anand J C Eijlers, Kim A Meijer, Thomas M Wassenaar, Martijn D Steenwijk, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Alle M Wink, Jeroen J G Geurts, Menno M Schoonheim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how changes in functional network hierarchy determine cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort consisting of 332 patients with MS (age 48.1 ± 11.0 years, symptom duration 14.6 ± 8.4 years) and 96 healthy controls (HCs; age 45.9 ± 10.4 years) underwent structural MRI, fMRI, and extensive neuropsychological testing. Patients were divided into 3 groups: cognitively impaired (CI; n = 87), mildly cognitively impaired (MCI; n = 65), and cognitively preserved (CP; n = 180)...
February 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176262/modifications-in-resting-state-functional-anticorrelation-between-default-mode-network-and-dorsal-attention-network-comparison-among-young-adults-healthy-elders-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#7
Roberto Esposito, Filippo Cieri, Piero Chiacchiaretta, Nicoletta Cera, Mariella Lauriola, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Armando Tartaro, Antonio Ferretti
Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients...
February 7, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169883/compensatory-functional-reorganization-may-precede-hypertension-related-brain-damage-and-cognitive-decline-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
Patrycja Naumczyk, Agnieszka Sabisz, Marta Witkowska, Beata Graff, Krzysztof Jodzio, Dariusz Gąsecki, Edyta Szurowska, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at exploring structural and functional differences in the brain during higher cognitive processing between middle-aged hypertensive patients and controls matched for sex, age and years of education. METHODS: Two groups of 20 patients took part in MRI examinations. This article reports the results of functional MRI during a Stroop color interference task and structural evaluations based on a modified Fazekas scale. RESULTS: No intergroup differences were found in regards to the severity of white matter lesions (Mann-Whitney U test = 150...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157095/functional-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network-is-reduced-in-association-with-nocturnal-awakening-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Andrew C McKinnon, Shantel L Duffy, Nathan E Cross, Zoe Terpening, Ron R Grunstein, Jim Lagopoulos, Jennifer Batchelor, Ian B Hickie, Simon J G Lewis, James M Shine, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is prevalent in MCI, and is a risk factor for cognitive deterioration. OBJECTIVE: To identify functional connectivity deficits in the default mode network (DMN) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to MCIs with intact sleep. METHODS: Participants comprised 47 adults aged 55 years and over, recruited from the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, Australia...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151495/greater-brain-response-to-emotional-expressions-of-their-own-children-in-mothers-of-preterm-infants-an-fmri-study
#10
R Montirosso, F Arrigoni, E Casini, A Nordio, P De Carli, F Di Salle, S Moriconi, M Re, G Reni, R Borgatti
OBJECTIVE: The birth of a preterm infant and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit hospitalization constitute a potentially traumatic experience for mothers. Although behavioral studies investigated the parenting stress in preterm mothers, no study focused on the underlying neural mechanisms. We examined the effect of preterm births in mothers, by comparing brain activation in mothers of preterm and full-term infants. STUDY DESIGN: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral response of 10 first-time mothers of preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500) and 11 mothers of full-term infants, viewing happy-, neutral- and distress-face images of their own infant, along with a matched unknown infant...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144401/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-the-brain-a-brief-review
#11
REVIEW
Maggie S M Chow, Sharon L Wu, Sarah E Webb, Katie Gluskin, D T Yew
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is employed in many behavior analysis studies, with blood oxygen level dependent- (BOLD-) contrast imaging being the main method used to generate images. The use of BOLD-contrast imaging in fMRI has been refined over the years, for example, the inclusion of a spin echo pulse and increased magnetic strength were shown to produce better recorded images. Taking careful precautions to control variables during measurement, comparisons between different specimen groups can be illustrated by fMRI imaging using both quantitative and qualitative methods...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143774/disentangling-resting-state-bold-variability-and-pcc-functional-connectivity-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#12
Daniela Zöller, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Maria Carmela Padula, Stephan Eliez, Dimitri Van De Ville
Although often ignored in fMRI studies, moment-to-moment variability of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals reveals important information about brain function. Indeed, higher brain signal variability has been associated with better cognitive performance in young adults compared to children and elderly adults. Functional connectivity, a very common approach in resting-state fMRI analysis, is scaled for variance. Thus, alterations might be confounded or driven by BOLD signal variance alterations...
January 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130193/spatial-distribution-of-resting-state-bold-regional-homogeneity-as-a-predictor-of-brain-glucose-uptake-a-study-in-healthy-aging
#13
Michaël Bernier, Etienne Croteau, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Stephen C Cunnane, Kevin Whittingstall
Positron emission tomography using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) is the primary imaging modality used to measure glucose metabolism in the brain (CMRGlu). CMRGlu has been used as a biomarker of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, but the complexity and invasive nature of PET often limits its use in research. There is therefore great interest in developing non-invasive metrics for estimating brain CMRGlu. We therefore investigated resting state fMRI metrics such as regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and regional global connectivity (Closeness) with multiple analytical approaches to determine their relationship to CMRGlu...
January 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126500/systemic-inflammation-and-resting-state-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network
#14
Anna L Marsland, Dora C-H Kuan, Lei K Sheu, Katarina Krajina, Thomas E Kraynak, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J Gianaros
The default mode network (DMN) encompasses brain systems that exhibit coherent neural activity at rest. DMN brain systems have been implicated in diverse social, cognitive, and affective processes, as well as risk for forms of dementia and psychiatric disorders that associate with systemic inflammation. Areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) within the DMN have been implicated specifically in regulating autonomic and neuroendocrine processes that relate to systemic inflammation via bidirectional signaling mechanisms...
January 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117515/multimodal-investigation-of-triple-network-connectivity-in-patients-with-22q11ds-and-association-with-executive-functions
#15
Maria C Padula, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Johanna Maeder, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Large-scale brain networks play a prominent role in cognitive abilities and their activity is impaired in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing schizophrenia and present similar cognitive impairments, including executive functions deficits. Thus, 22q11DS represents a model for the study of neural biomarkers associated with schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated structural and functional connectivity within and between the Default Mode (DMN), the Central Executive (CEN), and the Saliency network (SN) in 22q11DS using resting-state fMRI and DTI...
January 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116548/the-interactive-effects-of-age-and-picalm-rs541458-polymorphism-on-cognitive-performance-brain-structure-and-function-in-non-demented-elderly
#16
Zhen Liu, Xiangwei Dai, Junying Zhang, Xin Li, Yaojing Chen, Chao Ma, Kewei Chen, Dantao Peng, Zhanjun Zhang
The PICALM rs541458 T allele has been recognized as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and age might modulate the effects that genetic factors have on cognitive functions and brain. Thus, the current study intended to examine whether the effects of rs541458 on cognitive functions, brain structure, and function were modulated by age in non-demented Chinese elderly. We enrolled 638 subjects aged 50 to 82 years and evaluated their cognitive functions through a series of neuropsychological tests...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111190/increased-sensitivity-to-age-related-differences-in-brain-functional-connectivity-during-continuous-multiple-object-tracking-compared-to-resting-state
#17
Erlend S Dørum, Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Ole A Andreassen, Geneviève Richard, Knut K Kolskår, Jan Egil Nordvik, Lars T Westlye
Age-related differences in cognitive agility vary greatly between individuals and cognitive functions. This heterogeneity is partly mirrored in individual differences in brain network connectivity as revealed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting potential imaging biomarkers for age-related cognitive decline. However, although convenient in its simplicity, the resting state is essentially an unconstrained paradigm with minimal experimental control. Here, based on the conception that the magnitude and characteristics of age-related differences in brain connectivity is dependent on cognitive context and effort, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally increasing cognitive load boosts the sensitivity to age and changes the discriminative network configurations...
January 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100735/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-6-year-old-children
#18
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that children as young as 3-4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#19
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096364/bilateral-recruitment-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-task-demand-but-not-with-age
#20
Melanie S Höller-Wallscheid, Peter Thier, Jörn K Pomper, Axel Lindner
Elderly adults may master challenging cognitive demands by additionally recruiting the cross-hemispheric counterparts of otherwise unilaterally engaged brain regions, a strategy that seems to be at odds with the notion of lateralized functions in cerebral cortex. We wondered whether bilateral activation might be a general coping strategy that is independent of age, task content and brain region. While using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we pushed young and old subjects to their working memory (WM) capacity limits in verbal, spatial, and object domains...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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