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Aging brain fmri cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794976/general-and-emotion-specific-alterations-to-cognitive-control-in-women-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Roselinde H Kaiser, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
BACKGROUND: Although limited, the literature suggests alterations in activation of cognitive control regions in adults and adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. The current study examined whether such alterations are increased in the face of emotionally-distracting as compared to emotionally neutral information, and whether such alterations occur in brain regions that exert cognitive control in a more top-down sustained manner or a more bottom-up transient manner. METHODS: Participants were young adult women (ages 23-30): one group with a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse (N = 15) and one with no trauma exposure (N = 17), as assessed through the Trauma History Questionnaire and a two-stage interview adapted from the National Crime Victims Survey...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777996/neural-connectivity-moderates-the-association-between-sleep-and-impulsivity-in-adolescents
#2
Sarah M Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is characterized by chronic insufficient sleep and extensive brain development, but the relation between adolescent sleep and brain function remains unclear. We report the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate functional connectivity as a moderator between sleep and impulsivity, a problematic behavior during this developmental period. Naturalistic differences in sleep have not yet been explored as treatable contributors to adolescent impulsivity. Although public and scientific attention focuses on sleep duration, we report individual differences in sleep quality, not duration, in fifty-five adolescents (ages 14-18) yielded significant differences in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and default mode network...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759710/functional-integrity-in-children-with-anoxic-brain-injury-from-drowning
#3
Mariam Ishaque, Janessa H Manning, Mary D Woolsey, Crystal G Franklin, Elizabeth W Tullis, Christian F Beckmann, Peter T Fox
Drowning is a leading cause of accidental injury and death in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) is a common consequence of drowning and can cause severe neurological morbidity in survivors. Assessment of functional status and prognostication in drowning victims can be extremely challenging, both acutely and chronically. Structural neuroimaging modalities (CT and MRI) have been of limited clinical value. Here, we tested the utility of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) for assessing brain functional integrity in this population...
July 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759619/fmri-to-probe-sex-related-differences-in-brain-function-with-multitasking
#4
Melanie Tschernegg, Christa Neuper, Reinhold Schmidt, Guilherme Wood, Martin Kronbichler, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger, Marisa Koini
BACKGROUND: Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related differences in activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756237/distinct-resting-state-functional-connections-associated-with-episodic-and-visuospatial-memory-in-older-adults
#5
Sana Suri, Anya Topiwala, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Claire E Sexton, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Clare E Mackay, Stephen Smith, Klaus P Ebmeier
Episodic and spatial memory are commonly impaired in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest a preferential involvement of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), particularly the hippocampus, in episodic and spatial memory processing. The present study examined how these two memory types were related in terms of their associated resting-state functional architecture. 3T multiband resting state fMRI scans from 497 participants (60-82 years old) of the cross-sectional Whitehall II Imaging sub-study were analysed using an unbiased, data-driven network-modelling technique (FSLNets)...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755870/use-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-investigation-of-brain-activation-during-cognitive-aging-a-systematic-review-of-an-emerging-area-of-research
#6
REVIEW
Nounagnon F Agbangla, Michel Audiffren, Cédric T Albinet
The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field...
September 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749455/primary-biliary-cholangitis-alters-functional-connections-of-the-brain-s-deep-gray-matter
#7
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. METHODS: Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748572/let-s-chat-developmental-neural-bases-of-social-motivation-during-real-time-peer-interaction
#8
Katherine Rice Warnell, Eleonora Sadikova, Elizabeth Redcay
Humans are motivated to interact with each other, but the neural bases of social motivation have been predominantly examined in non-interactive contexts. Understanding real-world social motivation is of special importance during middle childhood (ages 8-12), a period when social skills improve, social networks grow, and social brain networks specialize. To assess interactive social motivation, the current study used a novel fMRI paradigm in which children believed they were chatting with a peer. The design targeted two phases of interaction: (1) Initiation, in which children engaged in a social bid via sharing a like or hobby, and (2) Reply, in which children received either an engaged ("Me too") or non-engaged ("I'm away") reply from the peer...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740870/reduced-ventral-tegmental-area-hippocampal-connectivity-in-children-and-adolescents-exposed-to-early-threat
#9
Hilary A Marusak, Joshua R B Hatfield, Moriah E Thomason, Christine A Rabinak
BACKGROUND: Preclinical data suggest that early life stress has detrimental effects on the brain's dopaminergic system, particularly the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Altered dopamine function is thought to contribute to the development of stress-related pathologies; yet, little is known about the impact of early stress on dopamine systems during childhood and adolescence, when stress-related disorders frequently emerge. Here, we evaluate the impact of early threat exposure (violence, abuse) on functional connectivity of putative dopaminergic midbrain regions, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), giving rise to mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways, respectively...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736755/risky-decision-making-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-an-exploratory-study
#10
Rachel K Jonas, EunJi Roh, Caroline A Montojo, Laura A Pacheco, Tena Rosser, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic disorder affecting cognitive function. About one third of children with NF1 have attentional disorders, and the cognitive phenotype is characterized by impairment in prefrontally-mediated functions. Mouse models of NF1 show irregularities in GABA release and striatal dopamine metabolism. We hypothesized that youth with NF1 would show abnormal behavior and neural activity on a task of risk-taking reliant on prefrontal-striatal circuits...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734059/localized-reductions-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#11
Jia Fan, Paul A Taylor, Sandra W Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Suril Gohel, Bharat B Biswal, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain...
July 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#12
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719854/clinically-silent-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-pathologies-influence-brain-networks-supporting-executive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#13
Brian T Gold, Christopher A Brown, Jonathan G Hakun, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Charles D Smith
Aging is associated with declines in executive function. We examined how executive functional brain systems are influenced by clinically silent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Twenty-nine younger adults and 34 cognitively normal older adults completed a working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Older adults further underwent lumbar cerebrospinal fluid draw for the assessment of AD pathology and FLAIR imaging for the assessment of WMHs...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707959/interactions-of-the-salience-network-and-its-subsystems-with-the-default-mode-and-the-central-executive-networks-in-normal-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Ganesh B Chand, Junjie Wu, Ihab Hajjar, Deqiang Qiu
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations suggest that the intrinsically organized large-scale networks and the interaction between them might be crucial for cognitive activities. A triple network model, which consists of the default-mode network, salience network, and central-executive network, has been recently used to understand the connectivity patterns of the cognitively normal brains versus the brains with disorders. This model suggests that the salience network dynamically controls the default-mode and central-executive networks in healthy young individuals...
August 10, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706728/effects-of-ageing-and-alzheimer-disease-on-haemodynamic-response-function-a-challenge-for-event-related-fmri
#15
Davud Asemani, Hassan Morsheddost, Mahsa Alizadeh Shalchy
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can generate brain images that show neuronal activity due to sensory, cognitive or motor tasks. Haemodynamic response function (HRF) may be considered as a biomarker to discriminate the Alzheimer disease (AD) from healthy ageing. As blood-oxygenation-level-dependent fMRI signal is much weak and noisy, particularly for the elderly subjects, a robust method is necessary for HRF estimation to efficiently differentiate the AD. After applying minimum description length wavelet as an extra denoising step, deconvolution algorithm is here employed for HRF estimation, substituting the averaging method used in the previous works...
June 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698644/cognitive-performance-in-healthy-older-adults-relates-to-spontaneous-switching-between-states-of-functional-connectivity-during-rest
#16
Joana Cabral, Diego Vidaurre, Paulo Marques, Ricardo Magalhães, Pedro Silva Moreira, José Miguel Soares, Gustavo Deco, Nuno Sousa, Morten L Kringelbach
Growing evidence has shown that brain activity at rest slowly wanders through a repertoire of different states, where whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) temporarily settles into distinct FC patterns. Nevertheless, the functional role of resting-state activity remains unclear. Here, we investigate how the switching behavior of resting-state FC relates with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. We analyse resting-state fMRI data from 98 healthy adults previously categorized as being among the best or among the worst performers in a cohort study of >1000 subjects aged 50+ who underwent neuropsychological assessment...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695791/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-influence-brain-function-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Cutter A Lindbergh, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, Douglas P Terry, Catherine M Mewborn, Antonio N Puente, L Stephen Miller
OBJECTIVES: The present study constitutes the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the relation of lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) to brain function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). It was hypothesized that L and Z supplementation in older adults would enhance neural efficiency (i.e., reduce activation) and cognitive performance on a verbal learning task relative to placebo. METHODS: A total of 44 community-dwelling older adults (mean age=72 years) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or L+Z supplementation (12 mg/daily) for 1 year...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689258/differences-in-dynamic-and-static-functional-connectivity-between-young-and-elderly-healthy-adults
#18
Ji Eun Park, Seung Chai Jung, Kyeoung Hwa Ryu, Joo Young Oh, Ho Sung Kim, Choong-Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim, Woo Hyun Shim
PURPOSE: Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. METHODS: Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN])...
August 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687473/brain-functional-alterations-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-fmri-studies
#19
REVIEW
Helen Macpherson, Melissa Formica, Elizabeth Harris, Robin M Daly
Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is emerging as a major global health issue. T2DM can adversely affect cognition and increase dementia risk. This systematic review aimed to examine the functional brain changes that may underlie cognitive dysfunction in adults with T2DM. Studies were restricted to those which used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen independent studies were identified, mostly comprised of middle aged or older adults. Resting-state studies demonstrated that compared to controls, connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) was reduced and the majority of task-based studies identified reduced activation in T2DM patients in regions relevant to task performance...
July 4, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678703/enforcing-co-expression-within-a-brain-imaging-genomics-regression-framework
#20
Pascal Zille, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
Among the challenges arising in brain imaging genetic studies, estimating the potential links between neurological and genetic variability within a population is key. In this work, we propose a multivariate, multimodal formulation for variable selection that leverages co-expression patterns across various data modalities. Our approach is based on an intuitive combination of two widely used statistical models: sparse regression and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). While the former seeks multivariate linear relationships between a given phenotype and associated observations, the latter searches to extract co-expression patterns between sets of variables belonging to different modalities...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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