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Exercise cognition older brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844505/using-resting-state-fmri-to-assess-the-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-dlpfc-in-older-overweight-adults
#1
Kristin Prehn, Anne Lesemann, Georgia Krey, A Veronica Witte, Theresa Köbe, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Cardiovascular fitness is thought to exert beneficial effects on brain function and might delay the onset of cognitive decline. Empirical evidence of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement, however, has not been conclusive, possibly due to short intervention times in clinical trials. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been proposed asan early indicator for intervention-induced changes. Here, we conducted a study in which healthy older overweight subjects took either part in a moderate aerobic exercise program over 6months (AE group; n=11) or control condition of non-aerobic stretching and toning (NAE group; n=18)...
August 23, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815019/therapeutic-potential-of-systemic-brain-rejuvenation-strategies-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#2
REVIEW
Alana M Horowitz, Saul A Villeda
Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#3
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#4
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628597/integrating-health-promotion-into-physical-therapy-practice-to-improve-brain-health-and-prevent-alzheimer-disease
#5
Ellen McGough, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#6
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598841/effects-of-exercise-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-cognitive-impairment-and%C3%A2-dementia
#7
Michele Callisaya, Kazunori Nosaka
Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558817/effects-of-exercise-on-brain-activity-during-walking-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Hiroyuki Shimada, Kenji Ishii, Hyuma Makizako, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Megumi Suzukawa
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487648/regional-brain-volumes-moderate-but-do-not-mediate-the-effects-of-group-based-exercise-training-on-reductions-in-loneliness-in-older-adults
#9
Diane K Ehlers, Ana M Daugherty, Agnieszka Z Burzynska, Jason Fanning, Elizabeth A Awick, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Arthur F Kramer, Edward McAuley
Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473767/multiple-neuroimaging-measures-for-examining-exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-in-older-adults-a-quasi-experimental-study
#10
Lanxin Ji, Han Zhang, Guy G Potter, Yu-Feng Zang, David C Steffens, Hua Guo, Lihong Wang
Physical exercise can improve physical and mental health. A number of imaging studies have examined the role of neuroplasticity in improving cognition with physical exercise; however, such neuroplasticity changes are not consistent across the reports partly due to small sample sizes in some studies. We thought to explore the concept that identifying consistent findings across multi-modality imaging measures would provide relatively reliable results. We designed a 6-week quasi-experiment with Wii-fitness exercise program in 24 healthy adults older than 60, and then examined the changes on neuroimaging measures including brain volume, the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation function (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), seed-based functional connectivity (FC), and the global efficiency of nodal connectivity during resting state...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443006/cognitive-resources-necessary-for-motor-control-in-older-adults-are-reduced-by-walking-and-coordination-training
#11
Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63-79 years of age) participated in either a walking (n = 17) or a motor coordination (n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group (n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#12
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432077/aerobic-exercise-promotes-executive-functions-and-impacts-functional-neural-activity-among-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Shirley Wang, Lara A Boyd, Gy Robin Hsiung, Michelle W Voss, Janice Jennifer Eng, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) results from cerebrovascular disease, and worldwide, it is the second most common type of cognitive dysfunction. While targeted aerobic training is a promising approach to delay the progression of VCI by reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, few randomised controlled trials to date have specifically assessed the efficacy of aerobic training on cognitive and brain outcomes in this group at risk for functional decline. AIM: To examine the effect of moderate-intensity aerobic training on executive functions and functional neural activity among older adults with mild subcortical ischaemic VCI (SIVCI)...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422707/factors-underlying-cognitive-decline-in-old-age-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-the-hippocampus
#14
Wafa Jaroudi, Julia Garami, Sandra Garrido, Michael Hornberger, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
There are many factors that strongly influence the aetiology, development, and progression of cognitive decline in old age, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These factors include not only different personality traits and moods but also lifestyle patterns (e.g. exercise and diet) and awareness levels that lead to cognitive decline in old age. In this review, we discuss how personality traits, mood states, and lifestyle impact brain and behaviour in older adults. Specifically, our review shows that these lifestyle and personality factors affect several brain regions, including the hippocampus, a region key for memory that is affected by cognitive decline in old age as well as AD...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329359/larger-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-volume-predicts-better-exercise-adherence-among-older-women-evidence-from-two-exercise-training-studies
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
John R Best, Bryan K Chiu, Peter A Hall, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Background: Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. Methods: We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline...
June 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293467/relationships-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-hippocampal-volume-and-episodic-memory-in-a-population-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Laura D Ellingson, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie Van Riper, Aaron J Stegner, Dorothy F Edwards, Jennifer M Oh, Jean Einerson, Claudia E Korcarz, Rebecca L Koscik, Maritza N Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Howard A Rowley, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, James H Stein, Sterling C Johnson, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be related to brain health in older adults. In individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), CRF may be a modifiable risk factor that could attenuate anticipated declines in brain volume and episodic memory. The objective of this study was to determine the association between CRF and both hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a cohort of cognitively healthy older adults with familial and/or genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163795/mindful-aging-the-effects-of-regular-brief-mindfulness-practice-on-electrophysiological-markers-of-cognitive-and-affective-processing-in-older-adults
#17
Peter Malinowski, Adam W Moore, Bethan R Mead, Thomas Gruber
There is growing interest in the potential benefits of mindfulness meditation practices in terms of counteracting some of the cognitive effects associated with aging. Pursuing this question, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of mindfulness training on executive control and emotion regulation in older adults, by means of studying behavioral and electrophysiological changes. Participants, 55 to 75 years of age, were randomly allocated to an 8-week mindful breath awareness training group or an active control group engaging in brain training exercises...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075038/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cancer-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-proof-of-concept-rct
#18
K L Campbell, J W Y Kam, S E Neil-Sztramko, T Liu Ambrose, T C Handy, H Lim, S Hayden, L Hsu, A A Kirkham, C C Gotay, D C McKenzie, L A Boyd
BACKGROUND: Change in cognitive ability is a commonly reported side effect by breast cancer survivors (BCS). The underlying etiology of cognitive complaints is unclear and to date there is limited evidence for effective intervention strategies. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and animal models treated with chemotherapy. This proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested the effect of aerobic exercise versus usual lifestyle on cognitive function in postmenopausal BCS...
January 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067610/the-efficacy-of-a-computer-assisted-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits-a-pilot-study
#19
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace, Kristen M Clark
Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039287/vascular-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-exercise-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-study-protocol
#20
Danni Li, Robin Thomas, Michael Y Tsai, Ling Li, David M Vock, Susan Greimel, Fang Yu
INTRODUCTION: Exercise interventions are a promising treatment for improving cognition in persons with Alzheimer's disease. This is similar to Alzheimer's disease pharmacotherapies in which only 18-48% of treated patients demonstrate improvement in cognition. Aerobic exercise interventions positively affect brain structure and function through biologically sound pathways. However, an under-studied mechanism of aerobic exercise's effects is n-3 fatty acids in plasma. The objective of this pilot study is to inform a future large-scale study to develop n-3 fatty acids-based prediction of cognitive responses to aerobic exercise treatment in Alzheimer's disease...
December 30, 2016: BMJ Open
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