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Exercise cognition older brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487648/regional-brain-volumes-moderate-but-do-not-mediate-the-effects-of-group-based-exercise-training-on-reductions-in-loneliness-in-older-adults
#1
Diane K Ehlers, Ana M Daugherty, Agnieszka Z Burzynska, Jason Fanning, Elizabeth A Awick, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Arthur F Kramer, Edward McAuley
Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473767/multiple-neuroimaging-measures-for-examining-exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-in-older-adults-a-quasi-experimental-study
#2
Lanxin Ji, Han Zhang, Guy G Potter, Yu-Feng Zang, David C Steffens, Hua Guo, Lihong Wang
Physical exercise can improve physical and mental health. A number of imaging studies have examined the role of neuroplasticity in improving cognition with physical exercise; however, such neuroplasticity changes are not consistent across the reports partly due to small sample sizes in some studies. We thought to explore the concept that identifying consistent findings across multi-modality imaging measures would provide relatively reliable results. We designed a 6-week quasi-experiment with Wii-fitness exercise program in 24 healthy adults older than 60, and then examined the changes on neuroimaging measures including brain volume, the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation function (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), seed-based functional connectivity (FC), and the global efficiency of nodal connectivity during resting state...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443006/cognitive-resources-necessary-for-motor-control-in-older-adults-are-reduced-by-walking-and-coordination-training
#3
Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63-79 years of age) participated in either a walking (n = 17) or a motor coordination (n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group (n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442274/sex-differences-in-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-in-older-humans
#4
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Jennifer C Davis, Ryan S Falck, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Exercise is a non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. Sex of participants and exercise type are two possible factors contributing to this variation. To better understand this, we conducted a concurrent systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitively healthy older adults. Executive functions, episodic memory, visuospatial function, word fluency, processing speed and global cognitive function were examined for exercise- and sex-dependent effects...
April 22, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432077/aerobic-exercise-promotes-executive-functions-and-impacts-functional-neural-activity-among-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#5
Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Shirley Wang, Lara A Boyd, Gy Robin Hsiung, Michelle W Voss, Janice Jennifer Eng, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) results from cerebrovascular disease, and worldwide, it is the second most common type of cognitive dysfunction. While targeted aerobic training is a promising approach to delay the progression of VCI by reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, few randomised controlled trials to date have specifically assessed the efficacy of aerobic training on cognitive and brain outcomes in this group at risk for functional decline. AIM: To examine the effect of moderate-intensity aerobic training on executive functions and functional neural activity among older adults with mild subcortical ischaemic VCI (SIVCI)...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422707/factors-underlying-cognitive-decline-in-old-age-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-the-hippocampus
#6
Wafa Jaroudi, Julia Garami, Sandra Garrido, Michael Hornberger, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
There are many factors that strongly influence the aetiology, development, and progression of cognitive decline in old age, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). These factors include not only different personality traits and moods but also lifestyle patterns (e.g. exercise and diet) and awareness levels that lead to cognitive decline in old age. In this review, we discuss how personality traits, mood states, and lifestyle impact brain and behaviour in older adults. Specifically, our review shows that these lifestyle and personality factors affect several brain regions, including the hippocampus, a region key for memory that is affected by cognitive decline in old age as well as AD...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329359/larger-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-volume-predicts-better-exercise-adherence-among-older-women-evidence-from-two-exercise-training-studies
#7
John R Best, Bryan K Chiu, Peter A Hall, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Background: Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. Methods: We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline...
June 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293467/relationships-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-hippocampal-volume-and-episodic-memory-in-a-population-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Laura D Ellingson, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie Van Riper, Aaron J Stegner, Dorothy F Edwards, Jennifer M Oh, Jean Einerson, Claudia E Korcarz, Rebecca L Koscik, Maritza N Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Howard A Rowley, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, James H Stein, Sterling C Johnson, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be related to brain health in older adults. In individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), CRF may be a modifiable risk factor that could attenuate anticipated declines in brain volume and episodic memory. The objective of this study was to determine the association between CRF and both hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a cohort of cognitively healthy older adults with familial and/or genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163795/mindful-aging-the-effects-of-regular-brief-mindfulness-practice-on-electrophysiological-markers-of-cognitive-and-affective-processing-in-older-adults
#9
Peter Malinowski, Adam W Moore, Bethan R Mead, Thomas Gruber
There is growing interest in the potential benefits of mindfulness meditation practices in terms of counteracting some of the cognitive effects associated with aging. Pursuing this question, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of mindfulness training on executive control and emotion regulation in older adults, by means of studying behavioral and electrophysiological changes. Participants, 55 to 75 years of age, were randomly allocated to an 8-week mindful breath awareness training group or an active control group engaging in brain training exercises...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075038/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cancer-associated-cognitive-impairment-a-proof-of-concept-rct
#10
K L Campbell, J W Y Kam, S E Neil-Sztramko, T Liu Ambrose, T C Handy, H Lim, S Hayden, L Hsu, A A Kirkham, C C Gotay, D C McKenzie, L A Boyd
BACKGROUND: Change in cognitive ability is a commonly reported side effect by breast cancer survivors (BCS). The underlying etiology of cognitive complaints is unclear and to date there is limited evidence for effective intervention strategies. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and animal models treated with chemotherapy. This proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested the effect of aerobic exercise versus usual lifestyle on cognitive function in postmenopausal BCS...
January 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067610/the-efficacy-of-a-computer-assisted-cognitive-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits-a-pilot-study
#11
William E Mansbach, Ryan A Mace, Kristen M Clark
Background/Study Context: Whereas computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CR) programs show promise as tools for improving cognition in certain populations, there is not a consensus regarding their efficacy. This study focuses on restorative CR, a treatment designed to improve cognitive functioning affected by progressive brain changes due to disease or aging, through computer-assisted cognitive exercises. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer-assisted restorative CR intervention for improving cognitive functioning in older rehabilitation patients with relatively mild cognitive deficits...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039287/vascular-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-exercise-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-study-protocol
#12
Danni Li, Robin Thomas, Michael Y Tsai, Ling Li, David M Vock, Susan Greimel, Fang Yu
INTRODUCTION: Exercise interventions are a promising treatment for improving cognition in persons with Alzheimer's disease. This is similar to Alzheimer's disease pharmacotherapies in which only 18-48% of treated patients demonstrate improvement in cognition. Aerobic exercise interventions positively affect brain structure and function through biologically sound pathways. However, an under-studied mechanism of aerobic exercise's effects is n-3 fatty acids in plasma. The objective of this pilot study is to inform a future large-scale study to develop n-3 fatty acids-based prediction of cognitive responses to aerobic exercise treatment in Alzheimer's disease...
December 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031038/using-a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-cognitive-vulnerability-and-mild-depressive-symptoms-study-protocol-of-an-exploratory-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Cezar Giosan, Cristina Mogoaşe, Oana Cobeanu, Aurora Szentágotai Tătar, Vlad Mureşan, Rareș Boian
BACKGROUND: Depression is a major challenge worldwide, with significant increasing personal, economic, and societal costs. Although empirically supported treatments have been developed, they are not always available for patients in routine clinical care. Therefore, we need effective and widely accessible strategies to prevent the onset of the very first depressive symptoms. Mental health apps could prove a valuable solution for this desideratum. Although preliminary research has indicated that such apps can be useful in treating depression, no study has attempted to test their utility in preventing depressive symptoms...
December 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999771/validation-of-evidence-based-fall-prevention-programs-for-adults-with-intellectual-and-or-developmental-disorders-a-modified-otago-exercise-program
#14
Mindy Renfro, Donna B Bainbridge, Matthew Lee Smith
INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP) programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD) such as Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, cerebral vascular accident, or traumatic brain injury. BACKGROUND: Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997604/physical-activity-in-community-dwelling-older-people-a-systematic-review-of-reviews-of-interventions-and-context
#15
Olawale Olanrewaju, Sarah Kelly, Andy Cowan, Carol Brayne, Louise Lafortune
BACKGROUND: The promotion and maintenance of higher physical activity (PA) levels in the older population is an imperative for cognitive and healthy ageing but it is unclear what approaches are best suited to achieve this for the increasing number of older people living in the community. Effective policies should be informed by robust, multi-disciplinary and multi-dimensional evidence, which not only seeks what works, but in 'what context? In addition to evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of PA for maintaining cognitive health, social contexts such as 'how do we actually get older people to partake in PA?' and 'how do we sustain that activity long-term?' also need highlighting...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986412/hippocampal-response-to-a-24-month-physical-activity-intervention-in-sedentary-older-adults
#16
Caterina Rosano, Jack Guralnik, Marco Pahor, Nancy W Glynn, Anne B Newman, Tamer S Ibrahim, Kirk Erickson, Ronald Cohen, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Rebecca L MacCloud, Howard J Aizenstein
BACKGROUND: Greater hippocampal volume is observed in healthy older adults after short-term structured exercise. Whether long-term exposure to real-world physical activity (PA) programs has similar effects for sedentary older adults with impaired mobility and comorbid conditions is not known. HYPOTHESIS: A long-term moderate intensity regimen of PA is related to larger volume of the hippocampus in older adults at risk for mobility disability. We further explore whether these associations are modified by factors known to be related to dementia...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965570/combining-exergame-training-with-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-study-assessing-the-effect-on-neuronal-structure-function-in-the-elderly-brain
#17
Alexandra Schättin, Eling D de Bruin
A common problem in the older population is the risk of falling and related injury, immobility, and reduced survival. Age-related neuronal changes, e.g., decline in gray-and white-matter, affect neuronal, cognitive, and motor functioning. The improvement of these factors might decrease fall events in elderly. Studies showed that administration of video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) may improve motor and/or cognitive functioning through neuronal changes in the brain of older adults...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942158/changes-of-heart-rate-variability-and-prefrontal-oxygenation-during-tai-chi-practice-versus-arm-ergometer-cycling
#18
Xi Lu, Christina Wan-Ying Hui-Chan, William Wai-Nam Tsang
[Purpose] Exercise has been shown to improve cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Whether the inclusion of mind over exercise would increase parasympathetic control of the heart and brain activities more than general exercise at a similar intensity is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi (mind-body exercise) versus arm ergometer cycling (body-focused exercise) on the heart rate variability and prefrontal oxygenation level. [Subjects and Methods] A Tai Chi master was invited to perform Tai Chi and arm ergometer cycling with similar exercise intensity on two separate days...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932975/adaptations-of-prefrontal-brain-activity-executive-functions-and-gait-in-healthy-elderly-following-exergame-and-balance-training-a-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Alexandra Schättin, Rendel Arner, Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP) of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF), and gait performance...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864047/apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-impacts-up-regulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-a-six-month-stretch-and-aerobic-exercise-intervention-in-mild-cognitively-impaired-elderly-african-americans-a-pilot-study
#20
Joanne S Allard, Oyonumo Ntekim, Steven P Johnson, Julius S Ngwa, Vernon Bond, Dynell Pinder, Richard F Gillum, Thomas V Fungwe, John Kwagyan, Thomas O Obisesan
Possession of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that APOE genotype differentially affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Notably, aerobic exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF is well documented; and exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function. As BDNF is known for its role in neuroplasticity and survival, its upregulation is a proposed mechanism for the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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