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Exercise cognition older brain

Joanne S Allard, Oyonumo Ntekim, Steven P Johnson, Julius S Ngwa, Vernon Bond, Dynell Pinder, Richard F Gillum, Thomas V Fungwe, John Kwagyan, Thomas O Obisesan
Possession of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that APOE genotype differentially affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Notably, aerobic exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF is well documented; and exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function. As BDNF is known for its role in neuroplasticity and survival, its upregulation is a proposed mechanism for the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Renae L Smith-Ray, Cheryl Irmiter, Kristin Boulter
BACKGROUND: Emerging literature suggests that mobility and cognition are linked. Epidemiological data support a negative association between cognition and falls among cognitively intact older adults. A small number of intervention studies found that regimented cognitive training (CT) improves mobility among this population, suggesting that CT may be an under-explored approach toward reducing falls. To date, no studies have examined the impact of CT on balance among those who are cognitively impaired...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Krister Håkansson, Aurélie Ledreux, Kirk Daffner, Yvonne Terjestam, Patrick Bergman, Roger Carlsson, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul Kadir H Mohammed
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Philippa A Jackson, Vincent Pialoux, Dale Corbett, Lauren Drogos, Kirk I Erickson, Gail A Eskes, Marc J Poulin
The rise in incidence of age-related cognitive impairment is a global health concern. Ageing is associated with a number of changes in the brain that, collectively, contribute to the declines in cognitive function observed in older adults. Structurally, the ageing brain atrophies as white and grey matter volumes decrease. Oxidative stress and inflammation promote endothelial dysfunction thereby hampering cerebral perfusion and thus delivery of energy substrates and nutrients. Further, the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles contributes to neuronal loss...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Shannon Halloway, JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E Schoeny, Konstantinos Arfanakis
Physical activity intervention studies that focus on improving cognitive function in older adults have increasingly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in addition to neurocognitive measures to assess effects on the brain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the effects of endurance-focused physical activity randomized controlled trial (RCT) interventions on the brain as measured by MRI in community-dwelling middle-aged or older adults without cognitive impairment. Five electronic databases were searched...
July 29, 2016: Biological Research for Nursing
Katelyn N Wood, Robert Nikolov, J Kevin Shoemaker
Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi
The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
B Gwen Windham, Steven R Wilkening, Seth T Lirette, Iftikhar J Kullo, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between inflammation and physical function and potential mediation by white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using linear and logistic models with generalized estimating equations to account for family clustering, reporting results as regression coefficients (β) and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for education, alcohol, exercise, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cognition, ankle-brachial index, race (site), and supported interactions...
July 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Erick Lohan Rodrigues Abud, Ana Elisa Mendes Montalvão Braga, Maria Lage Barca, Knut Engedal, Osvaldo José M Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes, Jerson Laks
BACKGROUND: Improvements on balance, gait and cognition are some of the benefits of exergames. Few studies have investigated the cognitive effects of exergames in institutionalized older persons. AIMS: To assess the acute effect of a single session of exergames on cognition of institutionalized older persons. METHODS: Nineteen institutionalized older persons were randomly allocated to Wii (WG, n = 10, 86 ± 7 year, two males) or control groups (CG, n = 9, 86 ± 5 year, one male)...
June 3, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Glenn E Smith
Behavioral prevention strategies can help maintain high levels of cognition and functional integrity, and can reduce the social, medical, and economic burden associated with cognitive aging and age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Interventions involving physical exercise and cognitive training have consistently shown positive effects on cognition in older adults. "Brain fitness" interventions have now been shown to have sustained effects lasting 10 years or more. A meta-analysis suggests these physical exercise and brain fitness exercises produce nearly identical impact on formal measures of cognitive function...
May 2016: American Psychologist
Patrick Eggenberger, Martin Wolf, Martina Schumann, Eling D de Bruin
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lutz Schega, Beate Peter, Tanja Brigadski, Volkmar Leßmann, Berend Isermann, Dennis Hamacher, Alexander Törpel
OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise, especially aerobic training, improves physical performance and cognitive function of older people. Furthermore, it has been speculated that age-associated deteriorations in physical performance and cognitive function could be counteracted through exposures to passive intermittent normobaric hypoxia (IH). Thus, the present investigation aimed at investigating the effect of passive IH combined with subsequent aerobic training on hematological parameters and aerobic physical performance (V˙O2max) as well as peripheral levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function...
April 26, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jeremy C Young, Nicholas G Dowell, Peter W Watt, Naji Tabet, Jennifer M Rusted
While there is evidence that age-related changes in cognitive performance and brain structure can be offset by increased exercise, little is known about the impact on these of long-term high-effort endurance exercise. In a cross-sectional design with 12-month follow-up, we recruited older adults engaging in high-effort endurance exercise over at least twenty years, and compared their cognitive performance and brain structure with a non-sedentary control group similar in age, sex, education, IQ, and lifestyle factors...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Camila Vieira Ligo Teixeira, Thiago J R Rezende, Marina Weiler, Mateus H Nogueira, Brunno M Campos, Luiz F L Pegoraro, Jessica E Vicentini, Gabriela Scriptore, Fernando Cendes, Marcio L F Balthazar
Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker...
June 2016: Age (2005-)
Ted Ruffman, Julie Zhang, Mele Taumoepeau, Sheila Skeaff
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Aging is characterized by a well-documented worsening of general cognition, and also a decline in social understanding such as the ability to recognize emotions or detect socially inappropriate behavior (faux pas). Several studies have demonstrated that lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, social integration, smoking) tend to offset general cognitive decline, and we examined whether they also help to offset age-related declines in social cognition. METHODS: There were 56 participants aged 60 years or over...
2016: Experimental Aging Research
Guohua Zheng, Maomao Huang, Shuzhen Li, Moyi Li, Rui Xia, Wenji Zhou, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia characterised by a reduction in memory and/or other cognitive processes. An increasing number of studies have indicated that regular physical activity/exercise may have beneficial association with cognitive function of older adults with or without cognitive impairment. As a traditional Chinese Qigong exercise, Baduanjin may be even more beneficial in promoting cognitive ability in older adults with MCI, but the evidence is still insufficient...
2016: BMJ Open
Sonya Kaur, Mitzi M Gonzales, Takashi Tarumi, Astrid Villalpando, Mohammed Alkatan, Martha Pyron, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley
OBJECTIVES: Excessive adipose tissue, especially in the abdominal area, is associated with increased risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. As increased adiposity is also associated with lower circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key molecule modulating brain plasticity and neuronal regeneration, we hypothesized that the changes in cognition that occur as a result of excessive abdominal adiposity would be driven by lower levels of circulating BDNF...
May 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Vijay R Varma, Xiaoying Tang, Michelle C Carlson
Hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease pathology, and a target biomarker region for testing intervention efficacy. Over the last few decades, a growing body of evidence from animal and human models suggests that physical activity (PA) is associated with structural benefits to the hippocampus in older adults. Very few human studies, however have explored hippocampal sub-regional specificity of PA; this is significant considering that sub-regions of the hippocampus are associated with distinct cognitive tasks and are differentially affected by disease pathology...
August 2016: Hippocampus
C Suo, M F Singh, N Gates, W Wen, P Sachdev, H Brodaty, N Saigal, G C Wilson, J Meiklejohn, N Singh, B T Baune, M Baker, N Foroughi, Y Wang, Y Mavros, A Lampit, I Leung, M J Valenzuela
Physical and cognitive exercise may prevent or delay dementia in later life but the neural mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits are largely unknown. We examined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain changes after 6 months of progressive resistance training (PRT), computerized cognitive training (CCT) or combined intervention. A total of 100 older individuals (68 females, average age=70.1, s.d.±6.7, 55-87 years) with dementia prodrome mild cognitive impairment were recruited in the SMART (Study of Mental Activity and Resistance Training) Trial...
March 22, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Songming He, Lijun Li, Juying Hu, Qiaoli Chen, Weiqun Shu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesion (WML) is a pathological change of the white matter which is considered an early sign of brain impairment in elderly individuals, so it is reasonable to administer early dementia prevention programs to individuals with WML.Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has developed several approaches to prevent or delay the onset of dementia that have, as yet, not been formally tested. AIM: Evaluate the effects of a 6-month TCM intervention for elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment and WML...
October 2015: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
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