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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124115/study-protocol-of-the-intense-physical-activity-and-cognition-study-the-effect-of-high-intensity-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#1
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon M Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph N Martins, Jeremiah J Peiffer
Introduction: Inconsistent results from previous studies of exercise and cognitive function suggest that rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Here, we describe the design of the Intense Physical Activity and Cognition (IPAC) study, which will assess the impact of a 6-month high-intensity exercise intervention on cognitive function and biomarkers of dementia risk, compared with a 6-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention and control group (no study-related exercise)...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096630/trajectories-of-physical-function-prior-to-death-and-brain-neuropathology-in-a-community-based-cohort-the-act-study
#2
Andrea Z LaCroix, Rebecca A Hubbard, Shelly L Gray, Melissa L Anderson, Paul K Crane, Joshua A Sonnen, Oleg Zaslavsky, Eric B Larson
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms linking cognitive and physical functioning in older adults are unclear. We sought to determine whether brain pathological changes relate to the level or rate of physical performance decline. METHODS: This study analyzed data from 305 participants in the autopsy subcohort of the prospective Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study. Participants were aged 65+ and free of dementia at enrollment. Physical performance was measured at baseline and every two years using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)...
November 2, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070481/examining-internet-and-ehealth-practices-and-preferences-survey-study-of-australian-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia
#3
Haley M LaMonica, Amelia English, Ian B Hickie, Jerome Ip, Catriona Ireland, Stacey West, Tim Shaw, Loren Mowszowski, Nick Glozier, Shantel Duffy, Alice A Gibson, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: Interest in electronic health (eHealth) technologies to screen for and treat a variety of medical and mental health problems is growing exponentially. However, no studies to date have investigated the feasibility of using such e-tools for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe patterns of Internet use, as well as interest in and preferences for eHealth technologies among older adults with varying degrees of cognitive impairment...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067335/sedentary-behavior-as-a-risk-factor-for-cognitive-decline-a-focus-on-the-influence-of-glycemic-control-in-brain-health
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Wheeler, Paddy C Dempsey, Megan S Grace, Kathryn A Ellis, Paul A Gardiner, Daniel J Green, David W Dunstan
Cognitive decline leading to dementia represents a global health burden. In the absence of targeted pharmacotherapy, lifestyle approaches remain the best option for slowing the onset of dementia. However, older adults spend very little time doing moderate to vigorous exercise and spend a majority of time in sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior has been linked to poor glycemic control and increased risk of all-cause mortality. Here, we explore a potential link between sedentary behavior and brain health. We highlight the role of glycemic control in maintaining brain function and suggest that reducing and replacing sedentary behavior with intermittent light-intensity physical activity may protect against cognitive decline by reducing glycemic variability...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062276/enhancing-innovation-and-underlying-neural-mechanisms-via-cognitive-training-in-healthy-older-adults
#5
Sandra B Chapman, Jeffrey S Spence, Sina Aslan, Molly W Keebler
Non-invasive interventions, such as cognitive training (CT) and physical exercise, are gaining momentum as ways to augment both cognitive and brain function throughout life. One of the most fundamental yet little studied aspects of human cognition is innovative thinking, especially in older adults. In this study, we utilize a measure of innovative cognition that examines both the quantity and quality of abstracted interpretations. This randomized pilot trial in cognitively normal adults (56-75 years) compared the effect of cognitive reasoning training (SMART) on innovative cognition as measured by Multiple Interpretations Measure (MIM)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037162/feasibility-of-a-multi-modal-exercise-program-on-cognition-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
M L Callisaya, R M Daly, J E Sharman, D Bruce, T M E Davis, T Greenaway, M Nolan, R Beare, M G Schultz, T Phan, L C Blizzard, V K Srikanth
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of dementia. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of exercise on cognition and brain structure in people with T2D. METHODS: A 6-month pilot parallel RCT of a progressive aerobic- and resistance-training program versus a gentle movement control group in people with T2D aged 50-75 years (n = 50) at the University of Tasmania, Australia...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986925/cerebral-blood-flow-in-normal-aging-adults-cardiovascular-determinants-clinical-implications-and-aerobic-fitness
#8
REVIEW
Takashi Tarumi, Rong Zhang
Senescence is a leading cause of mortality, disability, and non-communicable chronic diseases in older adults. Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors elevates the incidence of both vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related declines in cardiovascular function may impair cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, leading to the disruption of neuronal micro-environmental homeostasis. The brain is the most metabolically active organ with limited intracellular energy storage and critically depends on CBF to sustain neuronal metabolism...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934191/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-brain-metabolism-and-grey-matter-volume-in-older-adults-results-of-the-randomised-controlled-smart-trial
#9
S Matura, J Fleckenstein, R Deichmann, T Engeroff, E Füzéki, E Hattingen, R Hellweg, B Lienerth, U Pilatus, S Schwarz, V A Tesky, L Vogt, W Banzer, J Pantel
There is mounting evidence that aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions in older adults. To date, little is known about the neurometabolic and molecular mechanisms underlying this positive effect. The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantitative MRI to systematically explore the effects of physical activity on human brain metabolism and grey matter (GM) volume in healthy aging. This is a randomised controlled assessor-blinded two-armed trial (n=53) to explore exercise-induced neuroprotective and metabolic effects on the brain in cognitively healthy older adults...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844505/using-resting-state-fmri-to-assess-the-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-functional-connectivity-of-the-dlpfc-in-older-overweight-adults
#10
Kristin Prehn, Anne Lesemann, Georgia Krey, A Veronica Witte, Theresa Köbe, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Cardiovascular fitness is thought to exert beneficial effects on brain function and might delay the onset of cognitive decline. Empirical evidence of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement, however, has not been conclusive, possibly due to short intervention times in clinical trials. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been proposed asan early indicator for intervention-induced changes. Here, we conducted a study in which healthy older overweight subjects took either part in a moderate aerobic exercise program over 6months (AE group; n=11) or control condition of non-aerobic stretching and toning (NAE group; n=18)...
August 23, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815019/therapeutic-potential-of-systemic-brain-rejuvenation-strategies-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
REVIEW
Alana M Horowitz, Saul A Villeda
Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#12
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#13
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628597/integrating-health-promotion-into-physical-therapy-practice-to-improve-brain-health-and-prevent-alzheimer-disease
#14
Ellen McGough, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#15
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
July 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598841/effects-of-exercise-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-cognitive-impairment-and%C3%A2-dementia
#16
Michele Callisaya, Kazunori Nosaka
Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558817/effects-of-exercise-on-brain-activity-during-walking-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Hiroyuki Shimada, Kenji Ishii, Hyuma Makizako, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Megumi Suzukawa
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487648/regional-brain-volumes-moderate-but-do-not-mediate-the-effects-of-group-based-exercise-training-on-reductions-in-loneliness-in-older-adults
#18
Diane K Ehlers, Ana M Daugherty, Agnieszka Z Burzynska, Jason Fanning, Elizabeth A Awick, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Arthur F Kramer, Edward McAuley
Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473767/multiple-neuroimaging-measures-for-examining-exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-in-older-adults-a-quasi-experimental-study
#19
Lanxin Ji, Han Zhang, Guy G Potter, Yu-Feng Zang, David C Steffens, Hua Guo, Lihong Wang
Physical exercise can improve physical and mental health. A number of imaging studies have examined the role of neuroplasticity in improving cognition with physical exercise; however, such neuroplasticity changes are not consistent across the reports partly due to small sample sizes in some studies. We thought to explore the concept that identifying consistent findings across multi-modality imaging measures would provide relatively reliable results. We designed a 6-week quasi-experiment with Wii-fitness exercise program in 24 healthy adults older than 60, and then examined the changes on neuroimaging measures including brain volume, the amplitude of low-frequency oscillation function (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), seed-based functional connectivity (FC), and the global efficiency of nodal connectivity during resting state...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443006/cognitive-resources-necessary-for-motor-control-in-older-adults-are-reduced-by-walking-and-coordination-training
#20
Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63-79 years of age) participated in either a walking (n = 17) or a motor coordination (n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group (n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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