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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815019/therapeutic-potential-of-systemic-brain-rejuvenation-strategies-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alana M Horowitz, Saul A Villeda
Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806762/a-becn1-mutation-mediates-hyperactive-autophagic-sequestration-of-amyloid-oligomers-and-improved-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Altea Rocchi, Soh Yamamoto, Tabitha Ting, Yuying Fan, Katherine Sadleir, Yigang Wang, Weiran Zhang, Sui Huang, Beth Levine, Robert Vassar, Congcong He
Impairment of the autophagy pathway has been observed during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular and intracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. Yet the role of autophagy in Aβ production and AD progression is complex. To study whether increased basal autophagy plays a beneficial role in Aβ clearance and cognitive improvement, we developed a novel genetic model to hyperactivate autophagy in vivo. We found that knock-in of a point mutation F121A in the essential autophagy gene Beclin 1/Becn1 in mice significantly reduces the interaction of BECN1 with its inhibitor BCL2, and thus leads to constitutively active autophagy even under non-autophagy-inducing conditions in multiple tissues, including brain...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806713/activity-groups-for-persons-with-dementia-personal-predictors-of-participation-engagement-and-mood
#3
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield
This study examined the relationship between personal characteristics and attendance, engagement, sleep, and mood outcomes of persons with dementia participating in group activities. The purpose of this study is to examine which persons with dementia benefit most from group interventions. Sixty-nine persons with dementia were observed by research and therapeutic recreation staff during 10 types of group activities (reading aloud with discussion, choral-singing, baking, creative storytelling, brain games, active games, exercise, reminiscence poetry, holiday newsletter, and holiday discussions) on multiple outcomes (attendance duration, sleep, engagement, active participation, attitude, and positive mood)...
July 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800081/autonomic-dysfunction-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Dmitry Esterov, Brian D Greenwald
A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a complex pathophysiologic process that has a systemic effect on the body aside from solely an impairment in cognitive function. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been found to induce abnormalities in organ systems throughout the body, and may contribute to cardiovascular dysregulation and increased mortality. Autonomic dysfunction, also known as dysautonomia, has been studied in moderate and severe TBI, and has emerged as a major contributing factor in the symptomatology in mTBI as well...
August 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782695/analgesics-and-sport-performance-beyond-the-pain-modulating-effects
#5
REVIEW
Darias Holgado, James Hopker, Daniel Sanabria, Mikel Zabala
Analgesics are widely used in sport to treat pain and inflammation associated with injury. However, there is growing evidence that some athletes might be taking these substances in an attempt to enhance performance. While the pharmacological action of analgesics and their use in treating pain with and without anti-inflammatory effect is well established, their effect on sport performance is debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence of whether analgesics are capable of enhancing exercise performance, and if so, to what extent...
August 3, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780602/executive-function-after-exhaustive-exercise
#6
Mizuki Sudo, Takaaki Komiyama, Ryo Aoyagi, Toshiya Nagamatsu, Yasuki Higaki, Soichi Ando
PURPOSE: Findings concerning the effects of exhaustive exercise on cognitive function are somewhat equivocal. The purpose of this study was to identify physiological factors that determine executive function after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Thirty-two participants completed the cognitive tasks before and after an incremental exercise until exhaustion (exercise group: N = 18) or resting period (control group N = 14). The cognitive task was a combination of a Spatial Delayed-Response (Spatial DR) task and a Go/No-Go task, which requires executive function...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764939/exercise-related-cognitive-effects-on-sensory-motor-control-in-athletes-and-drummers-compared-to-non-athletes-and-other-musicians
#7
V Bianco, M Berchicci, R L Perri, F Quinzi, F Di Russo
Both playing a musical instrument and playing sport produce brain adaptations that might affect sensory-motor functions. While the benefits of sport practice have traditionally been attributed to aerobic fitness, it is still unknown whether playing an instrument might induce similar brain adaptations, or if a specific musical instrument like drums might be associated to specific benefits because of its high energy expenditure. Since the aerobic costs of playing drums was estimated to be comparable to those of average sport activities, we hypothesized that these two groups might show both behavioral and neurocognitive similarities...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757245/long-term-voluntary-exercise-prevents-post-weaning-social-isolation-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#8
Nilsel Okudan, Muaz Belviranlı
This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on locomotion, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory in socially isolated post-weaning rats, as well as the correlation between exercise and the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group; the social isolation group; the social isolation plus exercise (SIE) group. Social isolation conditions, with or without exercise were maintained for 90d, and then multiple behavioral tests, including the open-field test, elevated plus maze test, and Morris water maze (MWM) test were administered...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757160/mitochondrial-impairments-contribute-to-spatial-learning-and-memory-dysfunction-induced-by-chronic-tramadol-administration-in-rat-protective-effect-of-physical-exercise
#9
Hajar Mehdizadeh, Jalal Pourahmad, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Ali Yoonessi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Despite the worldwide use of tramadol, few studies have been conducted about its effects on memory and mitochondrial function, and controversial results have been reported. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in physical exercise as a protective approach to neuronal and cognitive impairments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on spatial learning and memory and brain mitochondrial function in tramadol-treated rats. After completion of 2-week (short-term) and 4-week (long-term) treadmill exercise regimens, male Wistar rats received tramadol (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 30days...
July 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756215/treadmill-running-prevents-age-related-memory-deficit-and-alters-neurotrophic-factors-and-oxidative-damage-in-the-hippocampus-of-wistar-rats
#10
Cláudia Vanzella, Juliana Dalibor Neves, Adriana Fernanda Vizuete, Dirceu Aristimunha, Janaína Kolling, Aline Longoni, Carlos Alberto Saraiva Gonçalves, Angela T S Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
Clinical and pre-clinical studies indicate that exercise is beneficial to many aspects of brain function especially during aging. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3month-old) and aged (22month-old) male Wistar rats, on: I) cognitive function, as assessed by spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze; II) oxidative stress parameters and the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, NT-3, IGF-1 and VEGF in the hippocampus. Animals of both ages were assigned to sedentary (non-exercised) and exercised (20min of daily running sessions, 3 times per week for 4weeks) groups...
July 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752318/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-damage-cognitive-impairment-and-trophic-factor-expression-in-an-animal-model-of-an-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Mark E Maynard, Emily A Barton, Caleb R Robinson, Jessica I Wooden, J Leigh Leasure
Compared to men, women disproportionally experience alcohol-related organ damage, including brain damage, and while men remain more likely to drink and to drink heavily, there is cause for concern because women are beginning to narrow the gender gap in alcohol use disorders. The hippocampus is a brain region that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol damage, due to cell loss and decreased neurogenesis. In the present study, we examined sex differences in hippocampal damage following binge alcohol. Consistent with our prior findings, we found a significant binge-induced decrement in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons in the female DG...
July 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735824/effect-of-qigong-exercise-on-cognitive-function-blood-pressure-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-healthy-middle-aged-subjects
#12
Suphannika Ladawan, Kultida Klarod, Marc Philippe, Verena Menz, Inga Versen, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of Qigong exercise on cognitive function, blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy middle-aged subjects. METHODS: Study part 1 examined the effects of Qigong exercise in 12 subjects (5 males, 7 females, aged 52.2±7.1years) who performed Qigong for 8 weeks (60min sessions, 3 times/week). Study part 2 evaluated the detraining effects 12 weeks after cessation of Qigong. Cognitive function (Digit Span Forward and Backward Test, Trail Making Tests part A and B), blood pressure, and exercise performance were determined at baseline, immediately after the training programme, and after the detraining period...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724914/enhanced-learning-through-multimodal-training-evidence-from-a-comprehensive-cognitive-physical-fitness-and-neuroscience-intervention
#13
N Ward, E Paul, P Watson, G E Cooke, C H Hillman, N J Cohen, A F Kramer, A K Barbey
The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#14
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720898/balance-training-improves-memory-and-spatial-cognition-in-healthy-adults
#15
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Volker Nagel, Karsten Hollander, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19-65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, memory, spatial cognition, and executive functions...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715593/physical-exercise-improves-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-gene-expression-in-rat-hippocampal-tissue
#16
F Franzoni, G Federighi, J Fusi, E Cerri, R Banducci, A Petrocchi, A Innocenti, C Pruneti, S Daniele, S Pellegrini, C Martini, R Scuri, F Galetta
Exercise may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions and play an important role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Such effects seem to be mediated by changes in anti-oxidative status, but limited information is available on the nature of molecular pathways supporting the antioxidant effects of exercise in the brain. In this study 3-5-month-old male Wistar albino rats were subjected to three times/week moderate intensity exercise on a rodent treadmill for a period of 6 weeks. The tissue antioxidant activity towards various reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in the hippocampus...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713263/the-frequency-dependent-aerobic-exercise-effects-of-hypothalamic-gabaergic-expression-and-cardiovascular-functions-in-aged-rats
#17
Yan Li, Ziqi Zhao, Jiajia Cai, Boya Gu, Yuanyuan Lv, Li Zhao
A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711394/exercise-prevents-ifn-%C3%AE-induced-mood-and-cognitive-dysfunction-and-increases-bdnf-expression-in-the-rat
#18
Charlotte K Callaghan, Jennifer Rouine, Shane M O'Mara
Aerobic exercise has marked effects on mood and cognition. Here, we used an interferon-alpha (IFN-α) induced depression model to evaluate the potential efficacy of chronic treadmill running on mood and cognition in the rat. IFN-α treatment induces behavioral deficits in the forced swim test (FST), open field test and object exploration task. Male han Wistar rats (n=8 per group, 3month old) were injected 3 times weekly with recombinant human IFN-α or saline (control) for 4weeks. One group was exercised 3 times (1h treadmill running) per week while the other remained sedentary...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#19
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702436/paternal-physical-exercise-improves-spatial-learning-ability-by-enhancing-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-male-pups-born-from-obese-maternal-rats
#20
Hye-Sang Park, Tae-Woon Kim
Maternal obesity exerts negative effects on cognitive function and behavior of the offspring. In the present study, we assessed the effects of paternal physical exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with hippocampal neuroplasticity in the rat pups born from the obese maternal rats. There were four experimental groups: paternal nonexercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal exercised male pups from normal maternal rats, paternal nonexercised male pups from obese maternal rats, and paternal exercised male pups from obese maternal rats...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
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