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Exercise cognition brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#1
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904656/the-berlin-treatment-algorithm-recommendations-for-tailored-innovative-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis-related-fatigue
#2
REVIEW
Christian Veauthier, Helge Hasselmann, Stefan M Gold, Friedemann Paul
More than 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffer from fatigue. Despite this, there are few therapeutic options and evidence-based pharmacological treatments are lacking. The associated societal burden is substantial (MS fatigue is a major reason for part-time employment or early retirement), and at least one out of four MS patients view fatigue as the most burdensome symptom of their disease. The mechanisms underlying MS-related fatigue are poorly understood, and objective criteria for distinguishing and evaluating levels of fatigue and tiredness have not yet been developed...
2016: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889837/exercise-training-effects-on-memory-and-hippocampal-viscoelasticity-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-novel-application-of-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#3
Brian M Sandroff, Curtis L Johnson, Robert W Motl
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS...
November 26, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875496/exercise-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-disease-progression-in-3xtg-ad-mice
#4
Donghyun Kim, Jinkyung Cho, Inhwan Lee, Youngyun Jin, Li Li Ji, Hyunsik Kang
PURPOSE: Little is known regarding the therapeutic role of exercise against the risk of a high-fat diet (HFD) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD-like cognitive deficits. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of treadmill running against HFD-induced progression in AD neuropathology and cognitive impairments in the triple transgenic-AD (3xTg-AD) mice. METHODS: The 3xTg-AD mice were assigned to a chow diet (control, n=10), a high-fat diet (HFD, n=10), or a high-fat diet combined with exercise (HFD+EX, n=10) group...
November 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872402/effect-of-training-exercise-on-urinary-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-cognitive-performances-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-pilot-study
#5
Angelo Russo, Livia Buratta, Roberto Pippi, Cristina Aiello, Claudia Ranucci, Elisa Reginato, Valerio Santangelo, Pierpaolo DeFeo, Claudia Mazzeschi
Exercise-mediated, brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction benefits health and cognitive functions. The multifaceted interplay between physical activity, urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive functioning has been largely neglected in previous literature. In this pilot study, two bouts of training exercise (65% and 70% of heart rate reserve) influenced urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive performances in 12 overweight and obese participants. Percent heart rate reserve, expenditure energy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor urinary levels and cognitive performances were measured before and after the exercise...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864047/apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-impacts-up-regulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-a-six-month-stretch-and-aerobic-exercise-intervention-in-mild-cognitively-impaired-elderly-african-americans-a-pilot-study
#6
Joanne S Allard, Oyonumo Ntekim, Steven P Johnson, Julius S Ngwa, Vernon Bond, Dynell Pinder, Richard F Gillum, Thomas V Fungwe, John Kwagyan, Thomas O Obisesan
Possession of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that APOE genotype differentially affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Notably, aerobic exercise-induced upregulation of BDNF is well documented; and exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function. As BDNF is known for its role in neuroplasticity and survival, its upregulation is a proposed mechanism for the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858724/the-effect-of-combined-therapies-on-recovery-after-acquired-brain-injury-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies-combining-enriched-environment-exercise-or-task-specific-training-with-other-therapies
#7
Hana Malá, Camilla Pihl Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injuries (ABI) have devastating effects for the affected individual as well as society. Many studies have investigated the effect of different monotherapies. However, functional recovery is typically only partial. One possible strategy to promote a greater degree of recovery is to apply monotherapies in combination with one or more treatments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate if approaches combining enriched environment (EE), exercise, or task-specific training with other monotherapies, further enhance the degree of recovery after ABI...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856411/personalising-exercise-recommendations-for-brain-health-considerations-and-future-directions
#8
Cindy K Barha, Liisa A Galea, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Kirk I Erickson, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
The societal value of strategies that delay the onset and progression of dementia cannot be overstated. Physical activity-unstructured and structured-is a promising, cost-effective strategy for the promotion of brain health. However, a large degree of variation exists in its efficacy. Therefore, to increase its utility as 'medication' for healthy cognitive ageing, it is imperative to identify key moderators and mediators of the positive effects of targeted exercise training on brain health. In this commentary, we focus on the type of targeted exercise training, the determinants of individual variation, including biological sex and genotypic factors, and the mechanisms by which exercise exerts its influence on the brain...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849355/acute-cocoa-flavanol-improves-cerebral-oxygenation-without-enhancing-executive-function-at-rest-or-after-exercise
#9
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Danusa D Soares, Semah Tagougui, Elsa Heyman, Romain Meeusen
Acute exercise-induced improvements in cognitive function are accompanied by increased (cerebral) blood flow and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Acute cocoa flavanol (CF) intake may improve cognitive function, cerebral blood flow (in humans), and BNDF levels (in animals). This study investigated (i) the effect of CF intake in combination with exercise on cognitive function and (ii) cerebral hemodynamics and BDNF in response to CF intake and exercise. Twelve healthy men participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study...
December 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834788/the-role-of-physical-exercise-in-cognitive-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#10
Timothy Morris, Joyce Gomes-Osman, David Costa-Miserachs, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence revealing exercise-induced effects on brain structure and cognitive function across the lifespan. Animal models of traumatic brain injury also suggest exercise is capable of modulating not only the pathophysiological changes following trauma but also the associated cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of physical exercise on cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury in humans. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed database was performed using the search terms "cognition" and "executive function, memory or attention", "traumatic brain injury" and "physical exercise"...
November 8, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814622/interventions-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-executive-function
#11
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Jennifer A Deal, Michelle Carlson
The cortico-striatal network plays a major role in executive functions (EF), and is believed to play a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the tools to assess EF are limited. This review assesses the impact of all PD interventions, namely, pharmacotherapy, physical exercise and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery on EF. The effect of PD pharmacotherapy varies with the drug class, neuropsychological test used and the affected dopamine receptor family. There appears to be a benefit of aerobic exercise on EF, including judgment and attention...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814304/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of%C3%A2-physical%C3%A2-exercise-on-cognition-in%C3%A2-stroke%C3%A2-and-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#12
Ines Vanderbeken, Eric Kerckhofs
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physical exercise enhances cognition following TBI or stroke. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, ScienceDirect and the reference lists of papers that were included for full-text evaluation. Medical subject headings from three concepts, i.e. brain injury, physical exercise and cognition, were used to incorporate related search terms. STUDY SELECTION: Included were all trials published in English that assessed cognition before and after an exercise intervention in human adults with TBI or stroke...
October 31, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#13
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. Clinical Question After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807517/delayed-voluntary-exercise-does-not-enhance-cognitive-performance-after-hippocampal-injury-an-investigation-of-differentially-distributed-exercise-protocols
#14
Elise Wogensen, Marie Gajhede Gram, Jens Bak Sommer, Christina Rytter Vilsen, Jesper Mogensen, Hana Malá
Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running wheels either for 14 consecutive days (FF/exercise daily [ExD], sham/ExD) or every other day for 14 days (FF/exercise every second day [ExS], sham/ExS)...
October 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807514/role-of-exercise-on-the-brain
#15
REVIEW
Seung-Soo Baek
The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases...
October 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806707/is-the-time-ripe-for-new-diagnostic-criteria-of-cognitive-impairment-due-to-cerebrovascular-disease-consensus-report-of-the-international-congress-on-vascular-dementia-working-group
#16
EDITORIAL
Robert Perneczky, Oren Tene, Johannes Attems, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, M Arfan Ikram, Antonio Federico, Marie Sarazin, Lefkos T Middleton
BACKGROUND: Long before Alzheimer's disease was established as the leading cause of dementia in old age, cerebrovascular lesions were known to cause cognitive deterioration and associated disability. Since the middle of the last century, different diagnostic concepts for vascular dementia and related syndromes were put forward, yet no widely accepted diagnostic consensus exists to date. DISCUSSION: Several international efforts, reviewed herein, are ongoing to define cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease in its different stages and subtypes...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800473/cognitive-training-among-cognitively-impaired-older-adults-a-feasibility-study-assessing-the-potential-improvement-in-balance
#17
Renae L Smith-Ray, Cheryl Irmiter, Kristin Boulter
BACKGROUND: Emerging literature suggests that mobility and cognition are linked. Epidemiological data support a negative association between cognition and falls among cognitively intact older adults. A small number of intervention studies found that regimented cognitive training (CT) improves mobility among this population, suggesting that CT may be an under-explored approach toward reducing falls. To date, no studies have examined the impact of CT on balance among those who are cognitively impaired...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795733/the-effect-of-abscisic-acid-chronic-treatment-on-neuroinflammatory-markers-and-memory-in-a-rat-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-neuroinflammation
#18
Sandra Sánchez-Sarasúa, Salma Moustafa, Álvaro García-Avilés, María Fernanda López-Climent, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Francisco E Olucha-Bordonau, Ana M Sánchez-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Western diet and lifestyle are associated with overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, which, in turn, are correlated with neuroinflammation processes. Exercise and a healthy diet are important in the prevention of these disorders. However, molecules inhibiting neuroinflammation might also be efficacious in the prevention and/or treatment of neurological disorders of inflammatory etiology. The abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in hydric-stress responses. This compound is not only found in plants but also in other organisms, including mammals...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783051/the-efficacy-of-non-pharmacological-interventions-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Kenji Sanada, Iñaki Zorrilla, Yusuke Iwata, Cristina Bermúdez-Ampudia, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Ana González-Pinto
Several studies have investigated the relationship between non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in schizophrenia patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to review the efficacy of NPIs on peripheral serum and plasma BDNF in subjects with schizophrenia (including schizoaffective disorder). Meta-analyses were conducted to examine the effects of NPIs on blood BDNF levels by using the standardized mean differences (SMDs) between the intervention groups and controls...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766192/aerobic-exercise-in-people-with-schizophrenia-neural-and-neurocognitive-benefits
#20
Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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