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Exercise cognition brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638338/physical-exercise-with-music-reduces-gray-and-white-matter-loss-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-elderly-people-the-mihama-kiho-scan-project
#1
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Masayuki Satoh, Jun-Ichi Ogawa, Tomoko Tokita, Noriko Nakaguchi, Koji Nakao, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Findings from previous studies suggest that physical exercise combined with cognitive training produces more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than physical exercise alone. However, the brain plasticity associated with these proposed benefits of combined therapy has not yet been investigated in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that the dual task group would experience greater benefits than the physical exercise alone and non-exercise control groups with regard to both cognitive function and brain plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628597/integrating-health-promotion-into-physical-therapy-practice-to-improve-brain-health-and-prevent-alzheimer-disease
#2
Ellen McGough, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627125/the-role-of-long-term-physical-exercise-on-performance-and-brain-activation-during-the-stroop-colour-word-task-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#3
S Martinsen, P Flodin, J Berrebi, M Löfgren, I Bileviciute-Ljungar, K Mannerkorpi, M Ingvar, P Fransson, E Kosek
The Stroop colour word test (SCWT) has been widely used to assess changes in cognitive performance such as processing speed, selective attention and the degree of automaticity. Moreover, the SCWT has proven to be a valuable tool to assess neuronal plasticity that is coupled to improvement in performance in clinical populations. In a previous study, we showed impaired cognitive processing during SCWT along with reduced task-related activations in patients with fibromyalgia. In this study, we used SCWT and functional magnetic resonance imagingFMRI to investigate the effects of a 15-week physical exercise intervention on cognitive performance, task-related cortical activation and distraction-induced analgesia (DIA) in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls...
June 18, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620337/the-acute-effects-of-exercise-intensity-on-inhibitory-cognitive-control-in-adolescents
#4
Fernando Peruyero, Julio Zapata, Diego Pastor, Eduardo Cervelló
Adolescence is an important stage for brain maturation. There are many studies of exercise-cognition relations, but there is still a lack of knowledge about the impact of combining different intensities of exercise on adolescents' cognitive responses. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of three physical education sessions (based on Zumba dance) of different intensities (no exercise, predominantly light intensity, and predominantly vigorous intensity) on the inhibition response (measured with the Stroop test) in adolescents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617135/influence-of-personalized-exercise-recommendations-during-rehabilitation-on-the-sustainability-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-levels-fatigue-and-fatigue-related-biomarkers-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#5
Philipp Zimmer, Freerk T Baumann, Max Oberste, Joachim Schmitt, Niklas Joisten, Philipp Hartig, Alexander Schenk, Rafaela Kuhn, Wilhelm Bloch, Monika Reuss-Borst
PURPOSE: Only one-third of patients with breast cancer reach the recommended activity level of 15 to 25 MET h/wk. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of personalized exercise recommendations during rehabilitation on patients' physical activity level, fatigue, and self-perceived cognitive function as well as on side effect-associated biomarkers. METHODS: Total metabolic rate, physical activity level, mean MET and steps, fatigue, self-perceived cognitive functioning , and biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin 6, macrophage migration inhibiting factor [MIF], tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF1]) were assessed in 60 patients with breast cancer in the aftercare phase before ( t0) and 8 months after ( t1) the intervention...
June 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614695/sex-differences-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-in-older-rodents
#6
REVIEW
Cindy K Barha, Ryan S Falck, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Research in humans indicates that women may show greater cognitive benefits from aerobic training (AT) than men. To determine whether this sex difference extends to rodents, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy, older rodents. Results indicate that compared to controls, AT improved hippocampus-dependent and -independent learning and memory. A sex difference was found with males showing larger benefits from AT on conditioned-avoidance and non-spatial memory tasks. AT also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor compared to controls, with larger effects in females...
June 11, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610948/adaptive-capacity-an-evolutionary-neuroscience-model-linking-exercise-cognition-and-brain-health
#7
REVIEW
David A Raichlen, Gene E Alexander
The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging?...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602152/physical-activity-and-cognitive-function-of-long-distance-walkers-studying-four-days-marches-participants
#8
Hans Wouters, Teun Aalbers, Martijn Maessen, André Verbeek, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Roy Kessels, Maria Hopman, Thijs Eijsvogels
OBJECTIVE: Studies show physical activity to be beneficial for cognitive function. However, studies usually included individuals who were not particularly inclined to exercise. Following research among master athletes, we examined associations between physical activity and cognitive function in participants of the International Nijmegen Four Days Marches. These individuals are also inclined to exercise. On 4 consecutive days > 40,000 participants walk a daily distance of 30-50 km (120-200 km or 75-125 miles in total)...
June 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600001/at-least-eighty-percent-of-brain-grey-matter-is-modifiable-by-physical-activity-a-review-study
#9
REVIEW
Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Valiallah Saba
The human brain is plastic, i.e. it can show structural changes in response to the altered environment. Physical activity (PA) is a lifestyle factor which has significant associations with the structural and functional aspects of the human brain, as well as with the mind and body health. Many studies have reported regional/global brain volume increments due to exercising; however, a map which shows the overall extent of the influences of PAs on brain structure is not available. In this study, we collected all the reports on brain structural alterations in association with PA in healthy humans, and next, a brain map of the extent of these effects is provided...
June 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598841/effects-of-exercise-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-cognitive-impairment-and%C3%A2-dementia
#10
Michele Callisaya, Kazunori Nosaka
Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598701/a-double-blind-randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-computerized-cognitive-exercises-to-tetris-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Aida Bikic, Torben Østergaard Christensen, James F Leckman, Niels Bilenberg, Søren Dalsgaard
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this trial was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of computerized cognitive exercises from Scientific Brain Training (SBT), compared to the computer game Tetris as an active placebo, in a pilot study of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Eighteen adolescents with ADHD were randomized to treatment or control intervention for 7 weeks. Outcome measures were cognitive test, symptom, and motivation questionnaires...
June 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593819/voluntary-exercise-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-female-dominant-negative-disc1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#12
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Ran Barzilay, Ofri Rimoni, Daniel Offen
OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise has gained increasing interest as a treatment modality that improves prognosis in psychiatric patients. The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is a candidate gene for major mental illness. In this study, we aimed to determine whether voluntary wheel running can improve cognitive deficits of dominant-negative DISC1 transgenic mice (DN-DISC1). METHODS: DN-DISC1 and control mice (10-week-old male and female) were placed for 14 days in a cage with or without access to a running wheel...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588546/neuroprotective-effects-of-physical-activity-evidence-from-human-and-animal-studies
#13
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Giovanni Messina, Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Alessio Sullo, Roberto Avola, Vincenzo Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli, Marcellino Monda
In the present article, we provide a review of current knowledge regarding the role played by physical activity (PA) in preventing age-related cognitive decline and reducing risk of dementia. The cognitive benefits of PA are highlighted by epidemiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. Epidemiological studies identified PA as an influential lifestyle factor in predicting rates of cognitive decline. Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging studies documented attenuation of age-related brain atrophy, and also increase of gray matter and white matter of brain areas, including frontal and temporal lobes...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588534/cognitive-effects-of-thinkrx-cognitive-rehabilitation-training-for-eleven-soldiers-with-brain-injury-a-retrospective-chart-review
#14
Christina Ledbetter, Amy Lawson Moore, Tanya Mitchell
Cognitive rehabilitation training is a promising technique for remediating the cognitive deficits associated with brain injury. Extant research is dominated by computer-based interventions with varied results. Results from clinician-delivered cognitive rehabilitation are notably lacking in the literature. The current study examined the cognitive outcomes following ThinkRx, a clinician-delivered cognitive rehabilitation training program for soldiers recovering from traumatic brain injury and acquired brain injury...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587894/burrowing-as-a-novel-voluntary-strength-training-method-for-mice-a-comparison-of-various-voluntary-strength-or-resistance-exercise-methods
#15
P Roemers, P N Mazzola, P P De Deyn, W J Bossers, M J G van Heuvelen, E A van der Zee
BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579942/voluntary-exercise-promotes-glymphatic-clearance-of-amyloid-beta-and-reduces-the-activation-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-aged-mice
#16
Xiao-Fei He, Dong-Xu Liu, Qun Zhang, Feng-Ying Liang, Guang-Yan Dai, Jin-Sheng Zeng, Zhong Pei, Guang-Qing Xu, Yue Lan
Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578432/effects-of-childhood-and-adolescence-physical-activity-patterns-on-psychosis-risk-a-general-population-cohort-study
#17
Elina Sormunen, Maiju M Saarinen, Raimo K R Salokangas, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality in somatic diseases. The risk factors of this excess mortality include, e.g., obesity, dietary factors, and physical inactivity, especially after the onset of psychosis, but there are limited early developmental data on these factors in individuals who later develop psychosis. A population-based cohort study "Cardiovascular Risk of Young Finns" started in 1980 with 3596 children and adolescents from six different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years)...
January 13, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578208/bdnf-val66met-and-childhood-adversity-on-response-to-physical-exercise-and-internet-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-depressed-swedish-adults
#18
Md Shafiqur Rahman, Vincent Millischer, Zangin Zeebari, Yvonne Forsell, Catharina Lavebratt
The genetic effect of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on treatment response in depression is not consistent in the literature. Childhood adversity is a known risk factor for depression which has been reported to increase depression susceptibility by interacting with BDNF genetic variation. We aimed to explore whether the BDNF variation Val66Met and childhood adversity (CA) predicted the treatment response to a 12-week intervention with physical exercise (PE) or internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) when compared with treatment as usual (TAU)...
October 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570092/the-effect-of-physical-exercise-after-a-concussion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Avtar Lal, Stephanie A Kolakowsky-Hayner, Jamshid Ghajar, Maya Balamane
BACKGROUND: Data evaluating the role of exercise in patients with a concussion are contradictory. Studies have reported improvement in the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) score, whereas others showed no effect on the PCSS score. PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of physical exercise on different outcomes in patients with a concussion. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A search of 5 databases from the earliest available date to September 30, 2016, and a hand search of a few articles were performed...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558817/effects-of-exercise-on-brain-activity-during-walking-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Hiroyuki Shimada, Kenji Ishii, Hyuma Makizako, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Megumi Suzukawa
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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