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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345742/a-qualitative-exploration-of-chronic-pain-and-opioid-treatment-among-hiv-patients-with-drug-use-disorders
#1
Sarina R Isenberg, Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Kathleen Ridgeway, Mary C Beach, Amy R Knowlton
OBJECTIVE: The study explored high-risk participants' experiences with pain management regarding clinical access to and use of prescription opioids. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interviews and focus groups. SETTING: Data were collected August 2014 to May 2015 at an urban community-based research facility in Baltimore City, MD. PARTICIPANTS: HIV participants with chronic pain and a history of illicit drug use. METHODS: Qualitative coding and analysis used an iterative, inductive, and thematic approach and coders achieved inter-coder consistency...
January 2017: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332270/changes-in-elevated-cholesterol-in-the-era-of-tenofovir-in-south-africa-risk-factors-clinical-management-and-outcomes
#2
L Jamieson, D Evans, A T Brennan, F Moyo, D Spencer, K Mahomed, M Maskew, L Long, S Rosen, M P Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with unfavourable lipid profile changes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). With a growing population on ART in South Africa, there has been concern about the increase in noncommunicable diseases such as CVD. We determined risk factors associated with increased total cholesterol (TC) in a large cohort on ART and describe the clinical management thereof. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of ART-naïve adults initiating standard first-line ART in a large urban clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa...
March 23, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323758/cervical-cancer-screening-intervals-and-management-for-women-living-with-hiv-a-risk-benchmarking-approach
#3
Hilary A Robbins, Howard D Strickler, L Stewart Massad, Christopher B Pierce, Teresa M Darragh, Howard Minkoff, Marla J Keller, Margaret Fischl, Joel Palefsky, Lisa Flowers, Lisa Rahangdale, Joel Milam, Sadeep Shrestha, Christine Colie, Gypsyamber Dʼsouza
OBJECTIVE: We suggested cervical cancer screening strategies for women living with HIV (WLHIV) by comparing their precancer risks to general population women, and then compared our suggestions to current CDC guidelines. DESIGN: We compared risks of biopsy-confirmed cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (bHSIL+), calculated among WLHIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, to "risk benchmarks" for specific management strategies in the general population...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321282/challenges-with-targeted-viral-load-testing-for-medical-inpatients-at-queen-elizabeth-central-hospital-in-blantyre-malawi
#4
Alison Craik, Priyanka Patel, Pratiksha Patel, Jane Mallewa, Ken Malisita, Joseph Bitilinyu-Bangoh, Joep J van Oosterhout, Christine Kelly
BACKGROUND: Approximately 75% of medical inpatients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi are HIV seropositive, and a third of these patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Malawi guidelines recommend targeted viral load (VL) testing for patients on ART for at least one year who report excellent adherence and present with a WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 HIV disease. A switch to second-line ART is only indicated if a VL result >5000 copies/mL confirms treatment failure...
December 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320359/chronic-cough-conundrum-a-case-report-of-a-new-diagnosis-of-hiv-and-pulmonary-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#5
Pamela P Bailey, Marylou M Dryer, John P Piper, Sajjad Ahmad
BACKGROUND: When evaluating a common complaint such as cough, clinicians should rely on a patient's history and physical to guide them, but also not diverge from guidelines in screening and testing lest certain diagnoses be overlooked. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44 year old Hispanic male presented to a pulmonologist's office after failing multiple courses of antibiotics for chronic cough, now six months in duration. He described intermittent scant hemoptysis and an evanescent migratory non-pruritic rash occasionally noted on his trunk or limbs...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320347/facilitators-and-barriers-to-uptake-and-adherence-to-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#6
Esther Buregyeya, Rose Naigino, Aggrey Mukose, Fred Makumbi, Godfrey Esiru, Jim Arinaitwe, Joshua Musinguzi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uganda started implementing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) in line with the WHO 2012 guidelines. This study explored experiences of HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding women regarding barriers and facilitators to uptake and adherence to lifelong ART. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional qualitative study conducted in three districts (Masaka, Mityana and Luwero) in Uganda, between February and May 2014...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319753/the-impact-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-for-medical-conditions-on-health-related-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Matthew Goldenberg, Mark William Reid, Waguih William IsHak, Itai Danovitch
INTRODUCTION: The use of cannabis or cannabinoids to treat medical conditions and/or alleviate symptoms is increasingly common. However, the impact of this use on patient reported outcomes, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, employing guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We categorized studies based on design, targeted disease condition, and type of cannabis or cannabinoid used...
March 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#8
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301593/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-south-african-healthcare-workers-regarding-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-influenza-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#9
Jazmin Duque, Sisanda Gaga, David Clark, Madeleine Muller, Bulenani Kuwane, Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Puleng Ramatoboe, Tsakani Furumele, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Meredith L McMorrow, Adam L Cohen
BACKGROUND: The South African Department of Health (DOH) publishes annual guidelines identifying priority groups, including immunosuppressed individuals and healthcare workers (HCW), for influenza vaccination and treatment. How these guidelines have impacted HCW and their patients, particularly those infected with HIV, remains unknown. METHODS: We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza and the vaccine among South African HCW...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293159/intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-implementation-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-and-associated-factors-among-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-at-public-health-facilities-of-harari-region-eastern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Ayele Geleto, Degu Abate, Gudina Egata
OBJECTIVE: Globally, the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa is growing. This has been resulted in increased number of tuberculosis (TB) new cases. To control burden of TB among PLHIV, a number of collaborative TB/HIV activities were recommended. However, data about collaborative TB/HIV services in the study area is scarce. The objective of this study is to assess intensified TB case finding, implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and associated factors among PLHIV...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292203/simple-screening-for-neurocognitive-impairment-in-routine-hiv-outpatient-care-is-it-deliverable
#11
Sarah Parry, Sarah Zetler, Anna Kentridge, Jenny Petrak, Tristan Barber
Routine screening for psychological and cognitive difficulties is recommended in BHIVA guidelines but screening questions are not specified and studies give varied recommendations. Our aim was to see if simple screening in the routine clinic could help better direct our referrals to psychology and highlight those patients requiring, and likely to benefit from, further assessment. We introduced brief questions to assess neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and mood into routine HIV visits, with an onward referral pathway for further investigation for those screening positive...
March 14, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288467/tattoo-infections-personal-resistance-and-contagious-exposure-through-tattooing
#12
Jørgen Serup
Bacterial infection of tattoos remains a common complication. Pyogenic bacteria can cause infections shortly after the tattoo is made. Severity of infection varies from minor to major, ultimately with life-threatening septicemia. Viral infections may be introduced, i.e. HVB, HVC, and HIV. The risk of infection depends on the following triad: microbial pathogen and its aggressiveness, individual resistance of the tattooed, and inoculation and exposures by the tattoo needle and in the tattoo parlor. Some infectious risks can be controlled...
2017: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286006/it-s-not-just-the-pills-a-qualitative-meta-synthesis-of-hiv-antiretroviral-adherence-research
#13
Julie Barroso, Natalie M Leblanc, Dalmacio Flores
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health and longevity of people living with HIV infection (PLWH) and also prevents transmission of the virus. Yet, lack of adherence to ART regimens has been a persistent problem, even with simpler regimens. Guidelines that deal with ART adherence are based almost solely on quantitative studies; this focus ignores the context and complexity of patients' lives. Guidelines are also focused on the individual. We argue that the solution is to include the broader communities in which patients live, and to deal with systemic disparities that persist worldwide; this can be done in part through demedicalizing HIV care for healthy PLWH...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285796/cardiovascular-disease-in-women-with-hiv-1-infection
#14
Massimo Volpe, Alessia Uglietti, Antonella Castagna, Cristina Mussini, Giulia Marchetti, Rita Bellagamba, Teresa Bini, Daniela Mancusi, Roberta Termini
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in women, nevertheless it is often underestimated in female patients without overt risk factors. The chronic infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is clearly associated, along with the use of certain antiretroviral drugs and traditional risk factors, with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this manuscript is to review the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, primary and secondary prevention strategies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-negative and HIV-positive female subjects...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284004/monitoring-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-screenings-a-critical-review-including-guidelines-for-clinical-and-research-use
#15
REVIEW
Jody Kamminga, Luxshimi Lal, Edwina J Wright, Mark Bloch, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
Screening tools to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) are primarily devised to detect cognitive impairment on a single occasion. With the chronicity of HIV infection and the risk of HAND developing or progressing despite viral control, it may be pertinent to repeat HAND screening at more than one time point. Despite this, there are limited data on longitudinal use of such screening tools, particularly with regard to the role of practice effects. Additionally, no guidelines currently exist on the timeframe between testing intervals, or recommendation of the magnitude of baseline impairment that warrants follow-up testing...
March 10, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279997/association-between-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-and-selected-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#16
Christian Akem Dimala, Hannah Blencowe
INTRODUCTION: The increasing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. However, the epidemiology of the association between HAART and CVD risk factors in SSA is sparse. We aim to assess the extent to which HAART is associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome) in SSA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between HAART and CVD risk factors retrieved from Medline, Embase, Popline, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus and the Cochrane library databases...
March 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277098/barriers-and-motivations-to-volunteers-participation-in-preventive-vaccine-trials-a-systematic-review
#17
M Detoc, A Gagneux-Brunon, F Lucht, E Botelho-Nevers
The recruitment of volunteers in preventive vaccine trials (PVT) is a challenge, since vaccine hesitancy and debates on vaccines are combined to usual difficulties of enrollment in clinical trials. Areas covered: Current knowledge of the reasons leading to the volunteers' participation or non-participation in PVT mainly focuses on data from preventive HIV vaccine trials. A systematic PubMed search was conducted using PRISMA guidelines to identify articles or reviews that reported barriers and motivations to participation in PVT regardless of the targeted disease or population...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274607/understanding-the-magnitude-of-occupational-exposure-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-uptake-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-among-healthcare-workers-in-a-rural-district-in-tanzania
#18
P Mabwe, A T Kessy, I Semali
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood or other body fluids in healthcare settings puts healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is estimated that between 200 and 5000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to HCWs worldwide. Use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been documented to reduce the rate of HIV infection from workplace exposures by 81%. AIM: To investigate the extent of occupational exposure to HIV infection during the period of 12 months before the survey and to identify factors associated with uptake of PEP services among HCWs...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273857/improving-the-quality-of-diagnostic-studies-evaluating-point-of-care-tests-for-acute-hiv-infections-problems-and-recommendations
#19
Megan Smallwood, Nitika Pant Pai
The diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) plays a unique role in preventing the spread of HIV and ending the epidemic. Acutely infected individuals are thought to contribute substantially to forward transmissions of HIV; however, diagnosing AHI in resource-limited settings has proven to be a challenge. While fourth generation antigen-antibody combination assays have been successful in high-resource settings, rapid point of care (POC) versions of these assays have yet to demonstrate high sensitivity to detect AHI...
March 4, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271718/acceptability-of-microbicidal-vaginal-rings-and-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-female-sex-workers-in-a-high-prevalence-us-city
#20
Sarah M Peitzmeier, Catherine Tomko, Erin Wingo, Anne Sawyer, Susan G Sherman, Nancy Glass, Chris Beyrer, Michele R Decker
Biomedical HIV prevention tools including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and vaginal microbicidal rings hold unique value for high-risk women who may have limited capacity for condom negotiation, including the key populations of sex workers and drug users. Commercial sex is a PrEP indicator in CDC guidelines, yet little is known about female sex workers' (FSWs) knowledge of and attitudes toward PrEP or the recently developed monthly vaginal microbicide rings. We describe knowledge and attitudes toward PrEP and microbicide rings in a sample of 60 mostly drug-using FSWs in Baltimore, Maryland, a high HIV-prevalence US city...
March 8, 2017: AIDS Care
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