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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#1
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914484/comparing-non-occupational-post-exposure-prophylaxis-drug-regimens-for-hiv-insights-from-a-linked-hiv-surveillance-system
#2
Anna B Pierce, Carol El-Hayek, Damien McCarthy, Jude Armishaw, Kerrie Watson, Anna Wilkinson, Brian Price, Edwina J Wright, Jennifer F Hoy, Mark A Stoové
Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013...
December 5, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907928/cytomorphological-analysis-of-lymph-node-lesions-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-cd4-count-correlation-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Sadia Siddiqa Nasser, Rashmi K Patil, Shreekanth K Kittur
OBJECTIVES: To study the cytomorphological spectrum of lymph node lesions in HIV-positive patients and correlate the cytological findings with the CD4 count. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 23 months' duration which included 110 HIV-positive cases proved according to the guidelines of the National AIDS Control Organisation. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was done on clinically palpable lymph nodes. Special stains and culture were done wherever necessary...
December 2, 2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906733/routine-inpatient-human-immunodeficiency-virus-screening-missed-prevention-opportunities
#4
Daniel C Baker
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the current guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening among inpatients and explores adherence to the guidelines and barriers to their implementation. BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released updated recommendations suggesting HIV screening for all patients in all healthcare settings. DESCRIPTION: A nonsystematic review of current HIV screening guidelines, as well as research and nonresearch literature, addressing rates of inpatient screening was performed...
January 2017: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906027/antiretroviral-treatment-regardless-of-cd4-count-the-universal-answer-to-a-contextual-question
#5
REVIEW
Serge P Eholié, Anani Badje, Gérard M Kouame, Jean-Baptiste N'takpe, Raoul Moh, Christine Danel, Xavier Anglaret
After a period where it was recommended to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, the CD4 threshold for treating asymptomatic adults dropped to 200/mm(3) at the beginning of the 2000s. This was mostly due to a great prudence with regards to drug toxicity. The ART-start CD4 threshold in most international guidelines was then raised to 350/mm(3) in 2006-2009 and to 500/mm(3) in 2009-2013. Between 2012 and 2015, international guidelines went the last step further and recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count...
July 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900741/-from-evidence-to-health-policy-making-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#7
Nai-Ying Ko
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in combination with traditional prevention strategies (such as condom use, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections), has been shown to effectively prevent HIV infection. As of September 2015, the World Health Organization recommends that people at substantial risk of HIV infection should be offered PrEP as an additional prevention choice, as part of comprehensive prevention. This article introduces how to apply a systematic review using the methodology of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to write clinical guidelines...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900502/values-and-preferences-on-the-use-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-prevention-among-multiple-populations-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
Florence M Koechlin, Virginia A Fonner, Sarah L Dalglish, Kevin R O'Reilly, Rachel Baggaley, Robert M Grant, Michelle Rodolph, Ioannis Hodges-Mameletzis, Caitlin E Kennedy
Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of antiretroviral drugs by HIV-negative people to prevent HIV infection. WHO released new guidelines in 2015 recommending PrEP for all populations at substantial risk of HIV infection. To prepare these guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of values and preferences among populations that might benefit from PrEP, women, heterosexual men, young women and adolescent girls, female sex workers, serodiscordant couples, transgender people and people who inject drugs, and among healthcare providers who may prescribe PrEP...
November 29, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898576/sexually-transmitted-disease-testing-and-uptake-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-in-a-large-online-survey-of-us-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-risk-for-hiv-infection-2012
#9
Erin M Kahle, Elissa Meites, R Craig Sineath, Muazzam Nasrullah, Kristina E Bowles, Elizabeth DiNenno, Patrick S Sullivan, Travis Sanchez
National guidelines recommend annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease testing for sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) and vaccination against human papillomavirus for MSM through age 26. A 2012 online survey of 2,794 MSM found that 51%, 36%, and 14% reported receiving human immunodeficiency virus testing, sexually transmitted disease testing, and human papillomavirus vaccination, respectively.
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898572/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-among-street-based-and-residence-based-female-sex-workers-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#10
Rasheda Khanam, Masud Reza, Dilruba Ahmed, Mustafizur Rahman, M Shah Alam, Salima Sultana, Anadil Alam, Sharful I Khan, Kenneth H Mayer, Tasnim Azim
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh remain at elevated risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among them is low. Recent information on the burden and etiological diagnosis of STIs among them has been lacking. This study examines prevalence and risk behaviors of selected STIs among FSWs in Dhaka in 2014. METHODS: Between August and October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among street-based and residence-based FSWs receiving HIV prevention services at 24 drop in centers in Dhaka...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898570/are-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-guidelines-for-preexposure-prophylaxis-specific-enough-formulation-of-a-personalized-hiv-risk-score-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-initiation
#11
Matthew R Beymer, Robert E Weiss, Catherine A Sugar, Linda B Bourque, Gilbert C Gee, Donald E Morisky, Suzanne B Shu, Marjan Javanbakht, Robert K Bolan
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention tool for populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for identifying PrEP candidates may not be specific enough to identify gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) at the highest risk for HIV infection. We created an HIV risk score for HIV-negative MSM based on Syndemics Theory to develop a more targeted criterion for assessing PrEP candidacy...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895236/a-review-of-single-tablet-regimens-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#12
REVIEW
Jamielynn C Sebaaly, Denise Kelley
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacokinetics, safety, drug-drug interactions, and advantages and disadvantages of currently available single-tablet regimens (STRs) for HIV-1 infection. DATA SOURCES: A search using PubMed was conducted (up to September 2016) using the following keywords: single tablet regimen AND HIV Additionally, a PubMed search was conducted for each individual STR using the generic names of the agents. Articles were evaluated for content, and additional references were identified from a review of literature citations...
November 27, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895016/are-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-target-concentrations-different-the-case-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-or-lamivudine-administered-to-infants-for-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-1-transmission-during-breastfeeding
#13
Frantz Foissac, Jörn Blume, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Thorkild Tylleskär, Chipepo Kankasa, Nicolas Meda, James K Tumwine, Mandisa Singata-Madliki, Kim Harper, Silvia M Illamola, Naïm Bouazza, Nicolas Nagot, Philippe Van de Perre, Stéphane Blanche, Déborah Hirt
The ANRS 12174 trial assessed the efficacy and tolerance of LPV/r versus 3TC prophylaxis administered to breastfed infants, whose HIV-infected mothers were not on ART. In this sub-study, we assessed LPV/r and 3TC pharmacokinetics to evaluate the percentage of infants with therapeutic plasma concentrations and to discuss these data in the context of a prophylactic treatment. Infants from the South African trial site underwent blood sampling for pharmacokinetic study at week 6, 26 and 38 of life. We applied a Bayesian approach to derive the 3TC and LPV pharmacokinetic parameters based on previously published pharmacokinetic models for HIV-infected children...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891360/why-should-viral-markers-be-mandatory-in-ocular-surgeries-a-hospital-based-retrospective-study
#14
Anita Ambastha, Rakhi Kusumesh, Gyan Bhasker
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus I, II (HIV-I,II) are serious global and public health problem. Knowledge of the seroprevalence would enable early diagnosis, treatment of patients and also help in prevention of horizontal spread of infection by application of universal infection control measures. AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV I, II infection in patients undergoing ocular surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889053/osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women-living-with-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Fionnuala Finnerty, Karen Walker-Bone, Shema Tariq
The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors...
January 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888600/-darunavir-cobicistat-monotherapy-experience-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#16
L Yunquera-Romero, R Asensi-Díez, J C Del Rio-Valencia, I Muñoz-Castillo, M A Castaño-Carracedo
OBJECTIVE: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (IP/r) monotherapy: darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy is only provided in the major treatment guidelines in pretreated patients to prevent toxicity associated with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), reduce costs and simplify antiretroviral treatment. To start IP/r monotherapy, according to GESIDA guidelines 2016, patients need to meet the following criteria: absence of chronic hepatitis B, plasma viral load <50 copies/ mL for at least 6 months and absence of protease inhibitors mutations or previous virologic failures to IP/r...
December 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887644/copenhagen-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-cocomo-study-a-study-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-non-interventional-assessment-of-non-aids-comorbidity-in-hiv-infection-in-denmark
#17
Andreas Ronit, Judith Haissman, Ditte Marie Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Thomas Skårup Kristensen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Thomas Benfield, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Lars Køber, Andreas Kjær, Klaus Kofoed, Jørgen Vestbo, Børge Nordestgaard, Jens Lundgren, Susanne Dam Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues to age. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of non-AIDS comorbidity among PLWHIV in Denmark in the cART era and to determine risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis...
November 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885972/protecting-the-confidentiality-and-security-of-personal-health-information-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-in-the-era-of-sdgs-and-big-data
#18
Eduard J Beck, Wayne Gill, Paul R De Lay
BACKGROUND: As increasing amounts of personal information are being collected through a plethora of electronic modalities by statutory and non-statutory organizations, ensuring the confidentiality and security of such information has become a major issue globally. While the use of many of these media can be beneficial to individuals or populations, they can also be open to abuse by individuals or statutory and non-statutory organizations. Recent examples include collection of personal information by national security systems and the development of national programs like the Chinese Social Credit System...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875836/ageism-aging-and-hiv-community-responses-to-prevention-treatment-care-and-support
#19
Rosanna F DeMarco, Mark Brennan-Ing, Courtenay Sprague, Shelley M Brown
Ageism, in the form of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination targeting older adults, represents a barrier to addressing the graying of the HIV epidemic. There is widespread misperception on the part of older adults themselves, as well as service providers and society in general that HIV risk is low as one ages. In addition, internalized ageism may play a role in poorer physical and mental health outcomes, as the negative stereotypes associated with aging become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A number of steps can be taken to address HIV and aging in the context of ageism with regard to: prevention, education, and outreach; treatment guidelines for older adults with HIV; funding to address the aging of the epidemic; engagement of communities, health and social service organizations, and other providers around mental health and social support, and addressing the needs of special populations...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875828/application-of-geriatric-principles-and-care-models-in-hiv-and-aging
#20
Aroonsiri Sangarlangkarn, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Jonathan S Appelbaum
People aging with HIV present a unique challenge for providers. HIV-infected patients experience accentuated aging and multimorbidity, but are typically disconnected from geriatric care, which is limited by a shortage of geriatric providers worldwide. Consequently, HIV providers are tasked with managing multiple age-related illnesses, within service networks that are historically not designed to care for aging patients. While comfortable with the management of antiretroviral therapy, HIV providers may have limited training on how to recognize or manage geriatric syndromes, especially in the context of multimorbidity...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
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