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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458021/increased-mortality-from-influenza-infection-in-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-knockout-mice
#1
Apurva Shinde, Jiadi Luo, Sivakama S Bharathi, Huifang Shi, Megan E Beck, Kevin J McHugh, John F Alcorn, Jieru Wang, Eric S Goetzman
We previously showed that the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzyme long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) is expressed in alveolar type II pneumocytes and that LCAD-/- mice have altered breathing mechanics and surfactant defects. Here, we hypothesized that LCAD-/- mice would be susceptible to influenza infection. Indeed, LCAD-/- mice demonstrated increased mortality following infection with 2009 pandemic influenza (A/CA/07/09). However, the mortality was not due to increased lung injury, as inflammatory cell counts, viral titers, and histology scores all showed non-significant trends toward milder injury in LCAD-/- mice...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458008/trefoil-factor-2-promotes-type-2-immunity-and-lung-repair-through-intrinsic-roles-in-hematopoietic-and-non-hematopoietic-cells
#2
Li-Yin Hung, Taylor K Oniskey, Debasish Sen, Matthew F Krummel, Andrew E Vaughan, Noam A Cohen, De'Broski R Herbert
Trefoil factors are small secreted proteins that regulate tissue integrity and repair at mucosal surfaces, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. However, their relative contribution(s) to controlling baseline lung function or the extent of infection-induced lung injury are unknown issues. Using irradiation bone marrow chimeras, we found that Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) produced from both hematopoietic- and non-hematopoietic-derived cells is essential for host protection, proliferation of alveolar type 2 cells, and restoration of pulmonary gas exchange following infection with the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457828/dihydrodiosgenin-protects-against-experimental-acute-pancreatitis-and-associated-lung-injury-through-mitochondrial-protection-and-pi3k%C3%AE-akt-inhibition
#3
Yan Shen, Li Wen, Rui Zhang, Zeliang Wei, Na Shi, Qiuyang Xiong, Qing Xia, Zhihua Xing, Zhi Zeng, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a painful and burdensome exocrine pancreatic disorder with no specific drug treatment. Diosgenyl saponin extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright were reported to protect against experimental models of AP and diosgenin or its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in various diseases. However, the effects of diosgenin and its spiroacetal ring opened analog dihydrodiosgenin (Dydio) have not yet been determined in AP. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Various concentrations of diosgenin and Dydio were tested for sodium taurocholate hydrate (Tauro)-induced necrosis in freshly isolated murine pancreatic acinar cells...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456774/gastric-aspiration-and-its-role-in-airway-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456642/anti-semaphorin-7a-single-chain-antibody-demonstrates-beneficial-effects-on-pulmonary-inflammation-during-acute-lung-injury
#5
Xiao Chen, Hailing Wang, Kui Jia, Hao Wang, Tao Ren
Pulmonary inflammation is a primary characteristic of lung injury initiated by the accession of immune cells into the alveolar space. Neutrophil migration serves an important role in pulmonary inflammation mediated by the migration of neutrophils into hypoxic tissue sites. The elimination of pulmonary inflammation is directly associated with rehabilitation in patients with lung injury. Anti-inflammatory treatment is essential following lung injury and ultimately determines patient outcomes. Semaphorin-7A (SEMA-7A) is a member of the Semaphorin family that influences the migration of neutrophils into hypoxic tissue sites, thus promoting inflammation...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456363/inadvertent-central-arterial-catheterization-an-unusual-cause-of-ischemic-stroke
#6
Nakul Katyal, Amanda Korzep, Christopher Newey
Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is extensively utilized in Intensive Care Units for evaluation of hemodynamic status, administration of intravenous drugs, and for providing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, CVC use is associated with complications including lung injury, bleeding, infection, and thrombosis. We present a patient with an acute ischemic stroke from an inadvertently placed CVC into the right common carotid artery. A 57-year-old male presented to our institution for left hemiplegia and seizures 2 days after a CVC was placed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455690/effect-of-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-on-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#7
Sonny Thiara, Donald E Griesdale, William R Henderson, Mypinder S Sekhon
BACKGROUND: Increased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)>70 mmHg has been associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since this reported association, significant changes in ventilation strategies and fluid management have been accepted as routine critical care. Recently, individualized perfusion targets using autoregulation monitoring suggest CPP titration>70 mmHg. Given these clinical advances, the association between ARDS and increased CPP requires further delineation...
February 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455490/-clinical-application-of-anterior-thoracoscopically-assisted-surgery-with-posterior-one-stage-total-en-block-spondylectomy-for-thoracic-spinal-tumor
#8
Wen Xue, Xiao-Li Guan, Zeng-Ping Wang, Zhong-Yu Hao, Lin Liu, Yao-Wen Qian
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clincial effects and feasibility of anterior thoracoscopically assisted surgery (TAS) with posterior one-stage total en block spondylectomy(TES) for thoracic spinal tumour. METHODS: From October 2014 to January 2016, 4 patients with thoracic spinal tumour were treated by anterior thoracoscopically assisted surgery with posterior one-stage total en block spondylectomy. There were 2 males and 2 females, aged 16, 35, 46, 60 years. Courses of disease were 1, 4, 6, 9 months...
September 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454810/predictors-of-functional-outcome-after-hanging-injury
#9
Chia-Lung Kao, I-Lin Hsu
PURPOSE: Suicide becomes a serious problem in today's society and hanging is a common method of suicide. We want to find the factors which can predict the final functional outcomes of these cases. METHODS: All patients who presented to Accident and Emergency Department (ED) of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital from 1st January 2005 to 31th December 2013 with a hanging injury were included in this study. All cases were divided into good outcome group and bad outcome group according to Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
January 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454806/oxidative-imbalance-in-mice-intoxicated-by-microcystin-lr-can-be-minimized
#10
Natália V Casquilho, Maria Diana Moreira-Gomes, Clarissa B Magalhães, Renata T Okuro, Victor Hugo Ortenzi, Emanuel K Feitosa-Lima, Lidia M Lima, Eliezer J Barreiro, Raquel M Soares, Sandra M F O Azevedo, Samuel S Valença, Rodrigo S Fortunato, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Walter A Zin
Microcystins-LR (MC-LR) is a cyanotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. We evaluated the antioxidant potential of LASSBio-596 (LB-596, inhibitor of phosphodiesterases 4 and 5), per os, and biochemical markers involved in lung and liver injury induced by exposure to sublethal dose of MC-LR. Fifty male Swiss mice received an intraperitoneal injection of 60 μL of saline (CTRL group, n = 20) or a sublethal dose of MC-LR (40 μg/kg, TOX group, n = 20). After 6 h the animals received either saline (TOX and CTRL groups) or LB-596 (50 mg/kg, TOX + LASS group, n = 10) by gavage...
February 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454750/a-newly-discovered-antifibrotic-pathway-regulated-by-two-fatty-acid-receptors-gpr40-and-gpr84
#11
Lyne Gagnon, Martin Leduc, Jean-Francois Thibodeau, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Brigitte Grouix, Francois Sarra-Bournet, William Gagnon, Kathy Hince, Mikaël Tremblay, Lilianne Geerts, Christopher R J Kennedy, Richard L Hébert, Alex Gutsol, Chet E Holterman, Eldjonai Kamto, Liette Gervais, Jugurtha Ouboudinar, Jonathan Richard, Alexandra Felton, Alexandre Laverdure, Jean-Christophe Simard, Sylvie Létourneau, Marie-Pier Cloutier, Francois A Leblond, Shaun D Abbott, Christopher Penney, Jean-Simon Duceppe, Boulos Zacharie, Jocelyn Dupuis, Angelino Calderone, Quang Trinh Nguyen, Raymond C Harris, Pierre Laurin
Numerous clinical conditions can lead to organ fibrosis and functional failure. There is a great need for therapies that could effectively target pathophysiological pathways involved in fibrosis. GPR40 and GPR84 are G protein-coupled receptors with free fatty acid ligands and are associated with metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Although GPR40 and GPR84 are involved in diverse physiological processes, no evidence has demonstrated the relevance of GPR40 and GPR84 in fibrosis pathways. Using PBI-4050 (3-pentylbenzeneacetic acid sodium salt), a synthetic analog of a medium-chain fatty acid that displays agonist and antagonist ligand affinity toward GPR40 and GPR84, respectively, we uncovered an antifibrotic pathway involving these receptors...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453386/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-cxcr4-targeting-i-body-ad-114-in-preclinical-models-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#12
K Griffiths, D M Habiel, J Jaffar, U Binder, W G Darby, C G Hosking, A Skerra, G P Westall, C M Hogaboam, M Foley
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease that is prevalent in individuals >50 years of age, with a median survival of 3-5 years and limited therapeutic options. The disease is characterized by collagen deposition and remodeling of the lung parenchyma in a process that is thought to be driven by collagen-expressing immune and structural cells. The G-protein coupled C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, CXCR4, is a candidate therapeutic target for IPF owing to its role in the recruitment of CXCR4 + fibrocytes from the bone marrow to fibrotic lung tissue and its increased expression levels by structural cells in fibrotic lung tissue...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452569/up-regulation-of-sftpb-expression-and-attenuation-of-acute-lung-injury-by-pulmonary-epithelial-cell-specific-nampt-knockdown
#13
Guangliang Bi, Lei Wu, Peixin Huang, Shamima Islam, Daniel P Heruth, Li Qin Zhang, Ding-You Li, Venkatesh Sampath, Weimin Huang, Brett A Simon, Ronald Blaine Easley, Shui Qing Ye
Although a deficiency of surfactant protein B (SFTPB) has been associated with lung injury, SFTPB expression has not yet been linked with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a potential biomarker of acute lung injury (ALI). The effects of Nampt in the pulmonary epithelial cell on both SFTPB expression and lung inflammation were investigated in a LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Pulmonary epithelial cell-specific knockdown of Nampt gene expression, achieved by the crossing of Nampt gene exon 2 floxed mice with mice expressing epithelial-specific transgene Cre or by the use of epithelial-specific expression of anti-Nampt antibody cDNA, significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451852/delta-opioids-neuroprotective-roles-in-preclinical-studies
#14
Shahid Husain
Since ancient times, opioids have been used clinically and abused recreationally. In the early stages (about 1,000 AD) of opium history, an Arab physician, Avicenna, administered opioids to control diarrhea and eye diseases. 1 Opioids have very strong pain relieving properties and they also regulate numerous cellular responses. Opioid receptors are expressed throughout the body, including the nervous system, heart, lungs, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and retina. 2-6 Delta opioid receptors (DORs) are a very attractive target from the perspective of both receptor function and their therapeutic potential...
January 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450214/-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Maroun Sfeir, Marissa Walsh, Rossana Rosa, Laura Aragon, Sze Yan Liu, Timothy Cleary, Marylee Worley, Corey Frederick, Lilian M Abbo
Background: Infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus group strains are usually resistant to multiple antimicrobials and challenging to treat worldwide. We describe the risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients in 2 large academic medical centers in the United States. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults with a positive culture for M. abscessus in Miami, Florida (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014). Demographics, comorbidities, the source of infection, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes were analyzed...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449956/bilateral-bronchial-stent-deployment-for-palliative-treatment-of-a-compressive-intrathoracic-mass-in-a-cat
#16
Kieran Borgeat, Kerry Simpson, David Reese, Helen Wilson, Joanna Potter, Daniel Ogden
Case summary: Bronchial stents may be useful to relieve clinical signs of extraluminal compression. Herein we describe a case which, to our knowledge, is the first cat where bilateral bronchial stents have been used clinically. Respiratory signs of principal bronchial compression were alleviated after the stent procedure. Minor complications occurred, specifically: severe hypoxia during stent deployment; a transient, self-limiting postoperative pneumothorax possibly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury; bronchopneumonia (possibly pre-existing); and transient worsening of cough postoperatively...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449936/function-of-aquaporins-in-sepsis-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Katharina Rump, Michael Adamzik
Background: Sepsis is a common cause of death in intensive care units worldwide. Due to the high complexity of this immunological syndrome development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgent. Promising drug targets or biomarkers may depict aquaporins (AQPs) as they regulate crucial key mechanisms of sepsis. Main body: Here we report on base of the current literature that several AQPs are involved in different physiological processes of sepsis. In immune system mainly AQPs 3, 5 and 9 seem to be important, as they regulate the migration of different immune cells...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449035/usage-of-density-analysis-based-on-micro-ct-for-studying-lung-injury-associated-with-burn-blast-combined-injury
#18
Yang Chang, Dong-Hai Zhang, Quan Hu, Ling-Ying Liu, Yong-Hui Yu, Jia-Ke Chai
BACKGROUND: Burn-blast combined injury is a kind of injury caused by heat and blast at the same time. The lung injury after burn-blast combined injuries is of primary importance, and investigation of lung injury is needed in the clinical care of patients. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the standard tools used to observe the anatomical basis and pathophysiology of acute lung injury. METHODS: We applied a method of fast 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction to calculate the density value of the lung injury by CT analysis...
February 12, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448106/folic-acid-prevents-methotrexate-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-suppression-of-secreted-factors-from-the-human-alveolar-epithelial-cell-line-a549
#19
Masashi Kawami, Rika Harabayashi, Risako Harada, Yohei Yamagami, Ryoko Yumoto, Mikihisa Takano
Methotrexate (MTX) often induces serious lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Although MTX is known to be a folic acid (FA) antagonist, the effect of FA on MTX-induced lung injury remains unclear. Recent studies indicate that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we aimed to clarify the effect of FA on MTX-induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 using conditioned medium (CM). CM was prepared from the supernatants of A549 cells treated with MTX in the absence (CMM) or presence (CMMF) of FA...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448054/rage-induced-changes-in-the-proteome-of-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#20
Charles A Downs, Nicholle M Johnson, George Tsaprailis, My N Helms
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. RAGE is constitutively expressed in the distal lung where it co-localizes with the alveolar epithelium; RAGE expression is otherwise minimal or absent, except with disease. This suggests RAGE plays a role in lung physiology and pathology. We used proteomics to identify and characterize the effects of RAGE on rat alveolar epithelial (R3/1) cells. LC-MS/MS identified 177 differentially expressed proteins and the PANTHER Classification System further segregated proteins...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
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