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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244031/transition-and-post-transition-metals-in-exhaled-breath-condensate
#1
Andrew Ghio, Michael C Madden, Charles R Esther
Water vapor in expired air, as well as dispersed non-volatile components, condense onto a cooler surface after exiting the respiratory tract. This exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a dilute sampling of the epithelial lining fluid. Accordingly, the collection of EBC imparts a capacity to provide biomarkers of injury preceding clinical disease. Concentrations of transition and post-transition metals in EBC are included among these endpoints. Iron and zinc are those metals in highest concentration and are measurable in all EBC samples from healthy subjects; other metals are most frequently either at or below the level of detection in this group...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243467/high-resolution-ct-of-the-lungs-indications-and-diagnosis
#2
Helena Lauri
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a method of examination which is more precise than chest 2-rat in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. Modern CT equipment enables a volume HRCT scan covering the whole lung tissue. HRCT slices can also be constructed from contrast-enhanced CT scans of the chest of the whole body. HRCT of the lungs can be applied to the diagnosis of both acute and more chronic diffuse diseases of the lung tissue and the airways. The best-known indications for HRCT include idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243243/shikonin-inhibits-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-to-prevent-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#3
Yali Zhang, Tingting Xu, Zheer Pan, Xiangting Ge, Chuchu Sun, Chun Lu, Hongjin Chen, Zhongxiang Xiao, Bing Zhang, Yuanrong Dai, Guang Liang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a challenging clinical syndrome which manifests as an acute inflammatory response. Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) has an important role in mediating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Currently, there are no effective molecular-based therapies for ALI or viable biomarkers for predicting the severity of disease. Recent preclinical studies have shown that shikonin (SHI), a natural naphthoquinone, prevents LPS-inflammation...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243040/protective-effect-of-acacetin-on-sepsis-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-its-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidative-activity
#4
Li-Chao Sun, Hong-Bo Zhang, Cheng-Dong Gu, Shi-Dong Guo, Gang Li, Rui Lian, Yao Yao, Guo-Qiang Zhang
Sepsis is a clinical syndrome with no effective protective or therapeutic treatments. Acacetin, a natural flavonoid compound, has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects which can potentially work to reduce sepsis. We investigated the potential protective effect of acacetin on sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) ALI and dissect out the underlying mechanisms. Mice were divided into five groups: a sham group, a sepsis-induced ALI group, and three sepsis groups pre-treated with 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body weight of acacetin...
December 14, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242308/chemokine-c-c-motif-receptor-like-2-is-not-essential-for-lung-injury-lung-inflammation-or-airway-hyperresponsiveness-induced-by-acute-exposure-to-ozone
#5
Farhan Malik, Kevin R Cromar, Constance L Atkins, Roger E Price, William T Jackson, Saad R Siddiqui, Chantal Y Spencer, Nicholas C Mitchell, Ikram U Haque, Richard A Johnston
Inhalation of ozone (O3), a gaseous air pollutant, causes lung injury, lung inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Macrophages, mast cells, and neutrophils contribute to one or more of these sequelae induced by O3 Furthermore, each of these aforementioned cells express chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (Ccrl2), an atypical chemokine receptor that facilitates leukocyte chemotaxis. Given that Ccrl2 is expressed by cells essential to the development of O3-induced lung pathology and that chemerin, a Ccrl2 ligand, is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by O3, we hypothesized that Ccrl2 contributes to the development of lung injury, lung inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness induced by O3 To that end, we measured indices of lung injury (BALF protein, BALF epithelial cells, and bronchiolar epithelial injury), lung inflammation (BALF cytokines and BALF leukocytes), and airway responsiveness to acetyl-β-methylcholine chloride (respiratory system resistance) in wild-type and mice genetically deficient in Ccrl2 (Ccrl2-deficient mice) 4 and/or 24 hours following cessation of acute exposure to either filtered room air (air) or O3 In air-exposed mice, BALF chemerin was greater in Ccrl2-deficient as compared to wild-type mice...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242228/bmscs-ameliorate-septic-coagulopathy-through-suppressing-inflammation-in-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-sepsis
#6
Shunyao Xu, Zhen Zhou, Hao Li, Ziying Liu, Xiaojun Pan, Fen Wang, Yueyue Huang, Xiaogang Li, Yunbei Xiao, Jingye Pan, Cong Wang, Dequan Li
Sepsis is an aggressive and life-threatening systemic inflammatory response with a high mortality. Inflammation and coagulation play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of sepsis in a mutually promoting manner. Unlike other single-target molecular therapies that have no obvious effects on clinical sepsis, the bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) therapy offers a broader spectrum of activities ranging from immune and inflammation suppression to tissue regeneration. In this report, we demonstrated that BMSC injection attenuated the septic coagulopathy...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242152/human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-from-hyperoxic-lung-injury-by-ameliorating-aberrant-elastin-remodeling-in-the-lung-of-o2-exposed-newborn-rat
#7
Chen Hou, Danyi Peng, Li Gao, Daiyin Tian, Jihong Dai, Zhengxiu Luo, Enmei Liu, Hong Chen, Lin Zou, Zhou Fu
The incidence and mortality rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain very high. Therefore, novel therapies are imminently needed to improve the outcome of this disease. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) show promising therapeutic effects on oxygen-induced model of BPD. In our experiment, UC-MSCs were intratracheally delivered into the newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia, a well-established BPD model. This study demonstrated that UC-MSCs reduce elastin expression stimulated by 90% O2 in human lung fibroblasts-a (HLF-a), and inhibit HLF-a transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts...
December 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241160/microparticles-in-red-cell-concentrates-prime-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-and-cause-acute-lung-injury-in-a-two-event-mouse-model
#8
Rufeng Xie, Yiming Yang, Yueyue Zhu, Li Gao, Xueyu Jiang, Juan Sun, Maohong Bian, Jie Yang
Red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are potential mediators of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of microparticles present in red cell concentrates (RCC) on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) respiratory burst and acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Microparticles (MPs) in RCC supernatant were quantified using flow cytometry. The priming activity of either isolated MPs or RCC supernatant toward human PMN was measured in vitro. Mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), followed by an infusion of either isolated MPs or heat-treated RCC supernatant...
December 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241072/combined-efficacy-of-oseltamivir-isoprinosine-and-ellagic-acid-in-influenza-a-h3n2-infected-mice
#9
Elitsa L Pavlova, Lora S Simeonova, Galina A Gegova
Influenza pathogenesis comprises a complex cascade of impaired cellular processes resulting from the viral replication and exaggerated immune response accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and oxidative stress, destructing membranous structures and tissues. By classical virological and biochemical methods we compared and evaluated the therapeutic effects of 2.5mg/kg/day of the antiviral drug - oseltamivir (OS), 500mg/kg/day of the immune modulator - isoprinosine (IP) and 500mg/kg/day of the antioxidant agent ellagic acid (EA) with a focus on their combined activities in influenza H3N2 virus-infected mice...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241031/the-protective-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-the-hmgb1-mediated-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathways
#10
Lu Meng, Longyun Li, Shan Lu, Kai Li, Zhenbo Su, Yunyun Wang, Xiaodi Fan, Xuyang Li, Guoqing Zhao
The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate its possible mechanisms mediated by HMGB1. In vivo, pulmonary pathology observation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were also examined to evaluate the protective effect of DEX in the lungs. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lung tissues LPS-induced rats were detected...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239818/inhibitory-effect-of-compound-chuanxiong-kangxian-granules-on-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats
#11
Weiyi Shi, Bo Feng, Shuguang Xu, Xiaoyun Shen, Tiefeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: The diverse medicinal properties of herbal compounds make them suitable candidates to treat multifactorial conditions such as pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of compound Chuanxiong Kangxian granules (CCKG) on a bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following an intratracheal instillation of BLM, Sprague Dawley rats were intragastrically administrated with different doses of CCKG solution or hydrocortisone for 28 d, while control and BLM-treated rats were administered with saline solution...
November 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238999/physiological-gas-exchange-mapping-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-using-spiral-ideal-and-moxe-in-a-model-of-regional-radiation-induced-lung-injury
#12
Brandon Zanette, Elaine Stirrat, Salomeh Jelveh, Andrew Hope, Giles Santyr
PURPOSE: To map physiological gas exchange parameters using dissolved hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe in a rat model of regional radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) with spiral-IDEAL and the model of xenon exchange (MOXE). Results are compared to quantitative histology of pulmonary tissue and red blood cell (RBC) distribution. METHODS: Two cohorts (n=6 each) of age-matched rats were used. One was irradiated in the right-medial lung, producing regional injury. Gas exchange was mapped four weeks post-irradiation by imaging dissolved-phase HP 129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL at five gas exchange timepoints using a clinical 1...
December 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238069/kynurenic-acid-an-ido-metabolite-controls-tsg-6-mediated-immunosuppression-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Guan Wang, Kai Cao, Keli Liu, Yueqing Xue, Arthur I Roberts, Fengying Li, Yanyan Han, Arnold B Rabson, Ying Wang, Yufang Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory against various immune disorders through several factors, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6). However, little is known about the necessity for both of these key immunosuppressive factors. Here we employed the mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model, and found that IDO is necessary to achieve the effect of human umbilical cord-derived MSC (hUC-MSC)-based treatment on ALI...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237497/hyaluronic-acid-is-associated-with-organ-dysfunction-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Anthony J Esposito, Pavan K Bhatraju, Renee D Stapleton, Mark M Wurfel, Carmen Mikacenic
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA), an extracellular matrix component, is degraded in response to local tissue injury or stress. In various animal models of lung injury, HA has been shown to play a mechanistic role in modulating inflammation and injury. While HA is present in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), its relationship to patient outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We studied 86 patients with ARDS previously enrolled in the Phase II Randomized Trial of Fish Oil in Patients with Acute Lung Injury (NCT00351533) at five North American medical centers...
December 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237485/resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-may-increase-the-bleeding-of-minor-thoracic-injury-in-severe-multiple-trauma-patients-a-case-report
#15
Takaaki Maruhashi, Hiroaki Minehara, Ichiro Takeuchi, Yuichi Kataoka, Yasushi Asari
BACKGROUND: The resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, because of its efficacy and feasibility, has been widely used in treating patients with severe torso trauma. However, complications developing around the site proximal to the occlusion by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta have almost never been studied. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old Japanese woman fell from a height of approximately 10 m. At initial arrival, her respiratory rate was 24 breaths/minute, her blood oxygen saturation was 95% under 10 L/minute oxygenation, her pulse rate was 90 beats per minute, and her blood pressure was 180/120 mmHg...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237457/the-role-of-src-erk1-2-kinases-in-inspiratory-resistive-breathing-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-inflammation
#16
Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Vyronia Vassilakopoulou, Ioanna Sigala, Panagiotis Zacharatos, Ioanna Vraila, Vassiliki Karavana, Stamatios Theocharis, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos
BACKGROUND: Inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB), a hallmark of obstructive airway diseases, is associated with large negative intrathoracic pressures, due to strenuous contractions of the inspiratory muscles. IRB is shown to induce lung injury in previously healthy animals. Src is a multifunctional kinase that is activated in the lung by mechanical stress. ERK1/2 kinase is a downstream target of Src. We hypothesized that Src is activated in the lung during IRB, mediates ERK1/2 activation and IRB-induced lung injury...
December 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236845/comparison-between-conventional-protective-mechanical-ventilation-and-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-associated-with-the-prone-position
#17
José Roberto Fioretto, Susiane Oliveira Klefens, Rafaelle Fernandes Pires, Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa, Mario Ferreira Carpi, Rossano César Bonatto, Marcos Aurélio Moraes, Carlos Fernando Ronchi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and conventional protective mechanical ventilation associated with the prone position on oxygenation, histology and pulmonary oxidative damage in an experimental model of acute lung injury. METHODS: Forty-five rabbits with tracheostomy and vascular access were underwent mechanical ventilation. Acute lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Three experimental groups were formed: healthy animals + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, supine position (Control Group; n = 15); animals with acute lung injury + conventional protective mechanical ventilation, prone position (CMVG; n = 15); and animals with acute lung injury + high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, prone position (HFOG; n = 15)...
December 7, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236548/budesonide-instillation-immediately-after-reperfusion-ameliorates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-injury-in-the-transplanted-lung-of-rat
#18
Wei Gao, Qiu-Ming Meng, Xiao-Guang Cui
PURPOSE: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) after lung transplantation can lead to primary graft dysfunction. Budesonide can improve endothelial function to reduce lung injury. This study was aimed to examine the effects of budesonide on LIRI and potential mechanisms. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomized and transplanted with syngeneic left lung or received the sham surgery. The recipients were instilled with saline or budesonide immediately after reperfusion...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235254/mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-double-edged-sword-in-radiation-induced-lung-injury
#19
Yi Yao, Zhongliang Zheng, Qibin Song
Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for multiple thoracic malignancies. However, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), which is the term generally used to describe damage to the lungs caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, remains a critical issue affecting both tumor control and patient quality of life. Despite tremendous effort, there is no current consensus regarding the optimal treatment approach for RILI. Because of a number of functional advantages, including self-proliferation, multi-differentiation, injury foci chemotaxis, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been a focus of research for many years...
December 13, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234608/location-of-ruptured-bullae-in-secondary-spontaneous-pneumothorax
#20
Jinseok Choi, Hyo Yeong Ahn, Yeong Dae Kim, Hoseok, Jeong Su Cho, Jonggeun Lee
Background: The surgical treatment of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) can be complicated by fragile lung parenchyma. The preoperative prediction of air leakage could help prevent intraoperative lung injury during manipulation of the lung. Common sites of bulla development and ruptured bullae were investigated based on computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative findings. Methods: The study enrolled 208 patients with SSP who underwent air leak control through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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