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Lung injury

Zhanglong Peng, Shibani Pati, Magali J Fontaine, Kelly Hall, Anthony V Herrera, Rosemary A Kozar
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have demonstrated that the early and empiric use of plasma improves survival after hemorrhagic shock. We have demonstrated in rodent models of hemorrhagic shock that resuscitation with plasma is protective to the lungs compared with lactated Ringer's solution. As our long-term objective is to determine the molecular mechanisms that modulate plasma's protective effects in injured bleeding patients, we have used human plasma in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Hengfei Shi, Ke Ren, Baojie Lv, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhao, Ren Xiang Tan, Erguang Li
The roots of Scutellaria baicalensis has been used as a remedy for inflammatory and infective diseases for thousands of years. We evaluated the antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, the leading cause of childhood infection and hospitalization. By fractionation and chromatographic analysis, we determined that baicalin was responsible for the antiviral activity of S. baicalensis against RSV infection. The concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) of RSV infection was determined at 19...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pedro L Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Namitosh Tyagi, D Dash, Rashmi Singh
OBJECTIVE: Paraquat (PQ), a potent herbicide can cause severe toxicity. We report here that fibroproliferation phase of acute lung injury (ALI) is initiated much earlier (within 48 h) after PQ intoxication than previously reported (after 2 weeks) and we aimed to study the protective effects of intranasal curcumin as new therapeutic strategy in mouse model. METHODS: Mice (Park's strain) were divided into five experimental groups (I) control, received only saline (0...
October 20, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Daniel Schober, Nicole Schwendener, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Christian Jackowski
Segmentation of the lungs using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) data was so far not feasible due to post-mortem changes such as internal livores. Recently, an Osirix plug-in has been developed allowing automatically segmenting lungs also in PMCT data. The aim of this study was to investigate if the Hounsfield unit (HU) profiles obtained in PMCT data of the segmented lung tissue present with specific behaviour in relation to the cause of death. In 105 PMCT data sets of forensic cases, the entire lung volumes were segmented using the Mia Lite plug-in on Osirix...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Alexandros Stamatopoulos, Davide Patrini, Efstratios Koletsis, Elaine Borg, Reena Khiroja, Martin Hayward, David Lawrence, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that can affect practically every organ. Although it was first identified in pancreas and salivary glands, major organs like liver, biliary tree, kidney, thyroid glands and lungs are commonly involved, sometimes resulting in organ failure. We describe a case of an 41-year-old man presented with back pain after a rotator cuff injury. A Computed Tomography (CT) revealed incidentally a right lower lobe paravertebral lesion extending across the T5 and T6 vertebral levels and invading into the adjacent pleural surface...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Yujie Jiang, Yi Zeng, Xia Huang, Yueqiu Qin, Weigui Luo, Shulin Xiang, Suren R Sooranna, Liao Pinhu
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar and capillary barriers that results in impaired gas exchange and severe acute respiratory failure. Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has emerged as a regulator of gene expression in inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of ARDS is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of Nur77 and its underlying mechanism in the regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in LPS-induced A549 cells and an ARDS rat model...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Chris Durkin, Travis Schisler, Jens Lohser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite marked improvements in perioperative outcomes, esophagectomy continues to be a high-risk operation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Progress has been achieved through evidence-based changes in preoperative optimization, intraoperative ventilation strategies, fluid therapy, and analgesia, as well as expedited postoperative recovery pathways. This review will summarize the recent literature on the anesthetic management of patients undergoing esophageal resection...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Arnoldo Santos, Luca Lucchetta, M Ignacio Monge-Garcia, Joao Batista Borges, Gerardo Tusman, Goran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann
OBJECTIVE: To test whether positive end-expiratory pressure consistent with an open lung approach improves pulmonary vascular mechanics compared with higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressures in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Ten pigs, 35 ± 5.2 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced combining saline lung lavages with injurious mechanical ventilation...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Jacob Herrmann, Merryn H Tawhai, David W Kaczka
Regional ventilation in the injured lung is heterogeneous and frequency-dependent, making it difficult to predict how an oscillatory flow waveform at a specified frequency will be distributed throughout the periphery. To predict the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on regional ventilation distribution and gas transport, we developed a computational model of distributed gas flow and CO2 elimination during oscillatory ventilation from 0.1 to 30 Hz. The model consists of a three dimensional airway network of a canine lung, with heterogeneous parenchymal tissues to mimic effects of gravity and injury...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yong Cui, Huiming Li, Sihui Wu, Runzhen Zhao, Deyi Du, Yan Ding, Hongguang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na(+) currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gisele de A Padilha, Lucas F B Horta, Lillian Moraes, Cassia L Braga, Milena V Oliveira, Cíntia L Santos, Isalira P Ramos, Marcelo M Morales, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Regina C S Goldenberg, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: In patients with emphysema, invasive mechanical ventilation settings should be adjusted to minimize hyperinflation while reducing respiratory effort and providing adequate gas exchange. We evaluated the impact of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on pulmonary and diaphragmatic damage, as well as cardiac function, in experimental emphysema. METHODS: Emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase in Wistar rats, once weekly for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Xingjian Liu, Shuren Ma, Gerard Turino, Jerome Cantor
INTRODUCTION: Desmosine and isodesmosine (DID) are unique elastin crosslinks that may serve as biomarkers for elastic fiber degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Previously, our laboratory found that the ratio of free to peptide-bound DID in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed a significant positive correlation with the extent of airspace enlargement in an elastase model of pulmonary emphysema. To further evaluate this hypothesis, our laboratory measured this ratio in a bleomycin (BLM) model of pulmonary fibrosis, which involved different microarchitectural changes than those associated with pulmonary emphysema...
October 19, 2016: Lung
Xinlei Song, Shu Zhang, Yanna Cheng, Ting Zhao, Qianqian Lian, Lu Lu, Fengshan Wang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the resuscitative efficacy and the effect on reperfusion injury of two site-specific PEGylated human serum albumins modified with linear or branched PEG20kDa, compared with saline, 8% human serum albumin and 25% human serum albumin, in a hemorrhagic shock model. SETTING: Laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Wistar rats. DESIGN: Prospective study. INTERVENTIONS: Rats were bled to hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock and resuscitated with different resuscitation fluids...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Deng-Wei Chou, Shu-Ling Wu, Kuo-Mou Chung, Shu-Chen Han, Bruno Man-Hon Cheung
OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Yi Cheng, Mu Jin, Xiuhua Dong, Lizhong Sun, Jing Liu, Rong Wang, Yanwei Yang, Peirong Lin, Siyu Hou, Yuehua Ma, Yuefeng Wang, Xudong Pan, Jiakai Lu, Weiping Cheng
BACKGROUND: Stanford type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe cardiovascular disease demonstrating the characteristics of acute onset and rapid development, with high morbidity and mortality. The available evidence shows that preoperative acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Stanford type-A AAD is a frequent and important cause for a number of untoward consequences. However, there is no study assessing the incidence of preoperative ALI and its independent determinants before Standford type-A AAD surgery in Chinese adult patients...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gabriella Di Lascio, Edvin Prifti, Elmi Messai, Adriano Peris, Guy Harmelin, Roland Xhaxho, Albana Fico, Guido Sani, Massimo Bonacchi
INTRODUCTION: Status asthmaticus is a life-threatening condition characterized by progressive respiratory failure due to asthma that is unresponsive to standard therapeutic measures. We used extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to treat patients with near-fatal status asthamticus who did not respond to aggressive medical therapies and mechanical ventilation under controlled permissive hypercapnia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and October 2015, we treated 16 adult patients with status asthmaticus (8 women, 8 men, mean age: 50...
October 6, 2016: Perfusion
You Jin Jang, Moon Jung Back, Zhicheng Fu, Joo Hyun Lee, Jong Hoon Won, Hae Chan Ha, Hae Kyung Lee, Ji Min Jang, Jong Min Choi, Dae Kyong Kim
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a respiratory failure disease and the major source of mortality in the critically ill patients. The main pathological changes involved in ALI include the excessive recruitment and activation of neutrophils by increased pro-inflammatory mediators. However, any specific therapy for ALI has not been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate protective effects of parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone produced in feverfew, on LPS-induced lung injury. In the present study, parthenolide treatment reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, airway permeability and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced ALI mouse model...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Stephen P Bird, William J Markwick
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
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