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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749627/acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#1
Daniel Mohrer, Melissa Langhan, Pradip Chaudhari
Pediatric acute kidney injury is a condition that is underdiagnosed among children seen in the emergency department, and it has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for chronic kidney disease. The most common etiologies in pediatric patients are now known to be due to hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, and cardiac dysfunction. This issue compares 3 classification systems for the diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury and reviews the etiologies that lead to kidney injury in children...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749625/diphtheria-pertussis-and-tetanus-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#2
Lara Zibners, Pradip Chaudhari
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749121/diphtheria-pertussis-and-tetanus-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Lara Zibners
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts...
February 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749111/syncope-in-pediatric-patients-a-practical-approach-to-differential-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#4
Colleen Fant, Ari Cohen, Michelle N Vazquez
Syncope is a condition that is often seen in the emergency department. Most syncope is benign, but it can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. While syncope often requires an extensive workup in adults, in the pediatric population, critical questioning and simple, noninvasive testing is usually sufficient to exclude significant or life-threatening causes. For low-risk patients, resource-intensive workups are rarely diagnostic, and add significant cost to medical care. This issue will highlight critical diseases that cause syncope, identify high-risk "red flags," and enable the emergency clinician to develop a cost-effective, minimally invasive algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric syncope...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749107/content-of-spiritual-counselling-for-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-in-iran-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#5
Nadereh Memaryan, Zeinab Ghaempanah, Mir Majid Saeedi, Aidin Aryankhesal, Nafiseh Ansarinejad, Ruohollah Seddigh
Background: Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death. Besides clinical treatment, cancer patients may need emotional and spiritual counselling to overcome their mental and morale problems. Such counselling sessions have been reported influential by many patients. We aimed to explore the structure of spiritual counselling sessions and their content as one of services provided to patients who experience chemotherapy in Iranian hospitals. Methods: Through a qualitative content analysis study, we recorded the discussions between a counsellor, who was a cleric as well, and cancer cases who were undergoing chemotherapy in a hospital in Tehran...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749054/the-precision-medicine-nation
#6
Maya Sabatello, Paul S Appelbaum
The United States' ambitious Precision Medicine Initiative proposes to accelerate exponentially the adoption of precision medicine, an approach to health care that tailors disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention to individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. It aims to achieve this by creating a cohort of volunteers for precision medicine research, accelerating biomedical research innovation, and adopting policies geared toward patients' empowerment. As strategies to implement the PMI are formulated, critical consideration of the initiative's ethical and sociopolitical dimensions is needed...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749037/transfusion-for-sickle-cell-disease-in-pregnancy-a-single-centre-survey
#7
J Sharif, L Byrd, K Stevenson, J Raddats, E Morsman, K Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease in pregnancy carries a high risk of maternal and fetal adverse outcomes. The use of prophylactic transfusions to reduce the risk of sickle complications is controversial. Current UK standards do not recommend the routine use of transfusion for sickle pregnancy. We examined transfusion episodes during sickle pregnancies in a single centre over an 11-year period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of all pregnancies in patients with sickle cell disease who attended the joint obstetric/haematology clinic over an 11-year period...
July 27, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748889/spectrum-of-kidney-diseases-in-patients-presented-for-acute-hemodialysis-in-kasr-al-aini-school-of-medicine
#8
Khaled M Sadek, Bahaa M Zayed, Manal M Eldeeb, Dinna H Ahmed, Ahmed A Aly, Dawlat M Belal
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients with mortality varying from 10% to 80%. It is crucial to know the incidence and etiology of AKI to promote prevention strategies. Our study aimed at obtaining a comprehensive review of the pattern and spectrum of patients who presented for emergency hemodialysis to Kasr Al-Aini Hospital between October 2012 and October 2014. We analyzed clinical and laboratory factors in all such patients. Two thousand twenty three patients were included of which patients with AKI were 728 patients (36%)...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748770/management-of-diabetic-surgical-patients-in-a-deployed-field-hospital-a-model-for-acute-non-communicable-disease-care-in-disaster
#9
Kathleen M McDermott, Ruth M Hardstaff, Sophie Alpen, David J Read, Nicholas R Coatsworth
Sudden onset disasters (SODs) have affected over 1.5 billion of the world's population in the past decade. During the same time, developing nations have faced a sustained increase in the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) with extra pressure placed on health systems. The combined increase in SODs and the NCD epidemic facing the world's most disaster-prone nations will present new challenges to emergency medical teams (EMTs) during disaster response. This report details the experience as an EMT during the Typhoon Haiyan disaster of 2013, with particular reference to the challenges of diabetic management in a surgical field hospital...
July 27, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748715/rate-of-bleeding-related-episodes-in-elderly-patients-with-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Shuling Li, Julia T Molony, Karynsa Cetin, Jeffrey S Wasser, Ivy Altomare
OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterized by low platelet counts and a tendency toward increased bleeding and bruising. We aimed to describe bleeding frequency and use of rescue ITP therapy to treat or prevent bleeding in elderly ITP patients in a real-world setting. METHODS: Using Medicare 20% sample data, 2007-2012, we identified elderly (ages ≥67 years) Medicare fee-for-service enrollees diagnosed with primary ITP January 1, 2009-September 30, 2012...
July 27, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748673/neurological-complications-during-treatment-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#11
Jee Eun Kim, Jae Hyeok Heo, Hye Ok Kim, Sook Hee Song, Sang Soon Park, Tai Hwan Park, Jin Young Ahn, Min Ky Kim, Jae Phil Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has a high mortality rate and pandemic potential. However, the neurological manifestations of MERS have rarely been reported since it first emerged in 2012. METHODS: We evaluated four patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS coronavirus (CoV) infections who showed neurological complications during MERS treatment. These 4 patients were from a cohort of 23 patients who were treated at a single designated hospital during the 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748625/multiple-risk-factor-counseling-to-promote-heart-healthy-lifestyles-in-the-chest-pain-observation-unit-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
David A Katz, Mark Graber, Patricia Lounsbury, Mark W Vander Weg, Emily K Phillips, Christina Clair, Phillip A Horwitz, Xueya Cai, Alan J Christensen
OBJECTIVE: Admission to the chest pain observation unit (CPOU) may be an advantageous time for patients to consider heart-healthy lifestyle changes while undergoing diagnostic evaluation to rule out myocardial ischemia. The aim of this pragmatic trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multiple risk factor intervention in changing CPOU patients' health beliefs and readiness to change health behaviors. A secondary aim was to obtain preliminary estimates of the intervention's effect on diet, physical activity, and smoking...
July 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748429/admission-control-policies-for-surgery-patients
#13
Li Luo, Yong Luo, Chunrong Qin
In China, day surgery has been promoted because its operation time and post-operative hospital stay are shorter than those of elective surgery. Day surgery can speed up the turnover of beds and operation rooms. Usually, the conditions of elective surgery patients are more complicated than those of day surgery patients. The development of the discipline, which means that the hospital has improved the skills of the doctors and the ability of doctors to cope with serious diseases and has increased the overall medical level of the hospital, requires surgeons to operate in some complicated elective surgeries...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748314/the-present-status-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-its-value-in-the-elderly
#14
REVIEW
Yao-Wen Cheng, Monika Fischer
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review current literature describing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of various diseases, and its potential role in elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years). RECENT FINDINGS: Research on FMT has blossomed in the last decade and its pivotal role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been recognized by the American College of Gastroenterology in the latest guidelines...
July 26, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747873/mitochondria-bioenergetics-and-excitotoxicity-new-therapeutic-targets-in-perinatal-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Bryan Leaw, Syam Nair, Rebecca Lim, Claire Thornton, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg
Injury to the fragile immature brain is implicated in the manifestation of long-term neurological disorders, including childhood disability such as cerebral palsy, learning disability and behavioral disorders. Advancements in perinatal practice and improved care mean the majority of infants suffering from perinatal brain injury will survive, with many subtle clinical symptoms going undiagnosed until later in life. Hypoxic-ischemia is the dominant cause of perinatal brain injury, and constitutes a significant socioeconomic burden to both developed and developing countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747782/hybrid-high-order-functional-connectivity-networks-using-resting-state-functional-mri-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-diagnosis
#16
Yu Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Conventional functional connectivity (FC), referred to as low-order FC, estimates temporal correlation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) time series between any pair of brain regions, simply ignoring the potentially high-level relationship among these brain regions. A high-order FC based on "correlation's correlation" has emerged as a new approach for abnormality detection of brain disease. However, separate construction of the low- and high-order FC networks overlooks information exchange between the two FC levels...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747776/animal-models-of-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy-for-parkinson-disease-drug-development
#17
REVIEW
James B Koprich, Lorraine V Kalia, Jonathan M Brotchie
A major challenge in Parkinson disease (PD) will be to turn an emerging and expanding pipeline of novel disease-modifying candidate compounds into therapeutics. Novel targets need in vivo validation, and candidate therapeutics require appropriate preclinical platforms on which to define potential efficacy and target engagement before advancement to clinical development. We propose that α-synuclein (α-syn)-based mammalian models will be crucial for this process. Here, we review α-syn transgenic mouse models, viral vector models of α-syn overexpression and models of 'prion-like' spread of α-syn, and describe how each of these model types may contribute to PD drug discovery...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747773/deciphering-mechanisms-of-acquired-t790m-mutation-after-egfr-inhibitors-for-nsclc-by-computational-simulations
#18
Bin Zou, Victor H F Lee, Lijiang Chen, Lichun Ma, Debby D Wang, Hong Yan
Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating EGFR mutations responds very well to first and second generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI) including gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. Unfortunately, drug resistance will eventually develop and about half of the cases are secondary to the emergence of acquired T790M somatic mutation. In this work, we prospectively recruited 68 patients with metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC who have developed progressive disease after first-line TKI with or without subsequent TKI and/or other systemic therapy...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747736/association-of-ubash3a-gene-polymorphism-and-atopic-dermatitis-in-the-chinese-han-population
#19
Y Li, H Cheng, F-L Xiao, B Liang, F-S Zhou, P Li, X-D Zheng, L-D Sun, S Yang, X-J Zhang
Genome-wide association studies have revealed a large number of genetic-risk loci for many autoimmune diseases. One clear finding emerging from the published genetic studies of autoimmunity is that different autoimmune diseases share susceptibility loci. Recent evidence has demonstrated that UBASH3A gene was associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the association between UBASH3A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and atopic dermatitis (AD) in a Chinese Han population...
July 27, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747730/epidemiology-and-characterization-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-strains-circulating-in-southern-china-during-the-period-from-2013-2015
#20
Keyu Feng, Feng Wang, Yu Xue, Qingfeng Zhou, Feng Chen, Yingzuo Bi, Qingmei Xie
Two hundred and six strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were isolated from chickens showing signs of disease in southern China during the period from 2013-2015. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the isolated field strains were compared to 42 published references. Nucleotide homologies ranged from 63.1-99.9% and amino acid homologies ranging from 60.2-100%. At least seven IBV genotypes were co-circulating in commercial chicken farms in southern China. The IBV isolates were genetically diverse and underwent continuing evolution...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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