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delirium management

Guan-Bo Chen, Sheng-Hui Tuan, Li-Hsiang Chen, Wen-Sou Lin
RATIONALE: Neurological melioidosis, an extremely rare condition, is caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. If treatment is suboptimal or delayed, this infection can produce diverse clinical symptoms and result in death. PATIENT CONCERNS: A healthy 65-year-old female who had been treated with antipsychotic medication for neurotic depression for over 2 years presented with acute-onset fever, headache, lead-pipe rigidity of all limbs, and delirium...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mohammad Arbabi, Fatemeh Shahhatami, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Mostafa Mohammadi, Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: Delirium is a brain dysfunction syndrome. In most cases, this syndrome is neither diagnosed accurately nor treated properly. The incidence of delirium by itself increases hospitalization period, mortality rate and the cost in health spectrum. If appropriate attempts are not made to treat this complication, the outcomes could become worse. Thus, the present study aimed at conducting a review on medications which are prescribed to treat delirium and establishing a general view on their advantages and disadvantages...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Lisbeth A Evered, Brendan S Silbert
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an objectively measured decline in cognition postoperatively compared with preoperative function. POCD has been considered in the anesthetic and surgical literature in isolation of cognitive decline which is common in the elderly within the community and where it is labeled as mild cognitive impairment, neurocognitive disorder, or dementia. This narrative review seeks to place POCD in the broad context of cognitive decline in the general population. Cognitive change after anesthesia and surgery was described over 100 years ago, initially as delirium and dementia...
June 8, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Malissa A Mulkey, Sonya R Hardin, DaiWai M Olson, Cindy L Munro
Delirium affects 70% to 80% of intensive care unit patients and is associated with a 10-fold increase in rates of cognitive impairment at discharge and a 3-fold increase in mortality rates. Estimated costs are $152 billion in Medicare charges annually, 17.5 million inpatient days, and 30-day postdischarge costs of $238 726 per patient. Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and global cognitive function characterized by fluctuating symptoms occurring in the face of an underlying organic cause. As patients adapt to physiological stressors, neurotransmitter changes lead to electroencephalogram pattern changes...
July 2018: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Donal T Skelly, Éadaoin W Griffin, Carol L Murray, Sarah Harney, Conor O'Boyle, Edel Hennessy, Marc-Andre Dansereau, Arshed Nazmi, Lucas Tortorelli, J Nicholas Rawlins, David M Bannerman, Colm Cunningham
Systemic inflammation can impair cognition with relevance to dementia, delirium and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Episodes of delirium also contribute to rates of long-term cognitive decline, implying that these acute events induce injury. Whether systemic inflammation-induced acute dysfunction and acute brain injury occur by overlapping or discrete mechanisms remains unexplored. Here we show that systemic inflammation, induced by bacterial LPS, produces both working-memory deficits and acute brain injury in the degenerating brain and that these occur by dissociable IL-1-dependent processes...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Rafael Bielza, Asunción Mora, Francisco Zambrana, Jorge Sanjurjo, David Sanz-Rosa, Israel J Thuissard, Estefanía Arias, Marta Neira, Jorge Francisco Gómez Cerezo
BACKGROUND: Patient blood management (PBM) performs multidisciplinary strategies to optimize red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Orthogeriatric share care models (surgeon and geriatrician manage the patient together from admission) have the goal of improving outcomes in hip fracture patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. Patients aged ≥70 years undergoing hip fracture (HF) surgery were consecutively included. When admitted on the orthogeriatric service a PBM protocol was applied based on: perioperative antithrombotic management, intravenous iron sucrose administration and restrictive transfusion criteria...
May 30, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Yutaka Hatano, Yuko Shikata, Hiroaki Izumi, Akinori Kawaguchi
BACKGROUND: Palliative care team (PCT) is a common type of palliative care services. However, distress in cancer patients may be underestimated by hospital staff. Reasons for PCT consultation may be inconsistent with patients' actual needs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the proportions of discrepancy between the reasons for PCT consultation and actual PCT activities. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed an observational study based on datasets of PCT activities at Kindai University Hospital...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Sandra L Staveski, Rita H Pickler, Li Lin, Richard J Shaw, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Andrew Redington, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Descriptive self-report survey. SETTING: A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. PATIENT OR SUBJECTS: Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses)...
June 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Christopher Bond, Justin Morgenstern, Corey Heitz, William K Milne
This systematic review provides an assessment of the excited delirium syndrome (ExDS), including definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. 66 relevant articles were included with significant heterogeneity of selected studies and poor overall quality. A quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed because there remains no clear definition for ExDS, however, this study does provide useful information regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of ExDS. This article is protected by copyright...
June 1, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Karin Becke, Christoph Eich, Claudia Höhne, Martin Jöhr, Andreas Machotta, Markus Schreiber, Robert Sümpelmann
Inspired by the Choosing Wisely initiative, a group of pediatric anesthesiologists representing the German Working Group on Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) coined and agreed upon 10 concise positive ("dos") or negative ("don'ts") evidence-based recommendations. (i) In infants and children with robust indications for surgical, interventional, or diagnostic procedures, anesthesia or sedation should not be avoided or delayed due to the potential neurotoxicity associated with the exposure to anesthetics...
May 30, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Zhiyou Peng, Yanfeng Zhang, Jianguo Guo, Xuejiao Guo, Zhiying Feng
Objective: To compare the efficacy and side effects of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with hydromorphone, sufentanil, and oxycodone on the management of advanced cancer patients with pain. Methods: Patients allocated to receive PCIA between January 2015 and December 2016 were chosen for this study. After reviewing medical records, we verified if hydromorphone, sufentanil, or oxycodone for PCIA could equally provide effective pain relief. A numeric rating scale (NRS) of cancer pain was applied before PCIA, at 4 hours after PCIA, and at the discontinuation of PCIA...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Chikul Mittal, Hsien Chieh Daniel Lee, Kiat Sern Goh, Cheng Kiang Adrian Lau, Leeanna Tay, Chuin Siau, Yik Hin Loh, Teck Kheng Edward Goh, Chit Lwin Sandi, Chien Earn Lee
BACKGROUND: To test a population health program which could, through the application of process redesign, implement multiple evidence-based practices across the continuum of care in a functionally integrated health delivery system and deliver highly reliable and consistent evidence-based surgical care for patients with fragility hip fractures in an acute tertiary general hospital. METHODS: The ValuedCare (VC) program was developed in three distinct phases as an ongoing collaboration between the Geisinger Health System (GHS), USA, and Changi General Hospital (CGH), Singapore, modelled after the GHS ProvenCare® Fragile Hip Fracture Program...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Henning R Stetefeld, Michael Schroeter
Myasthenic crisis is the life threatening maximal manifestation of myasthenia gravis. Severe dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency demand admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). At variance, the timely recognition and treatment of myasthenic exacerbation may prevent a manifesting crisis. This reviews deals with red flags that pronounce exacerbation and crisis. Myasthenic crisis is an important differential diagnosis of bulbar symptoms and dysphagia. We elaborate on a structured and comprehensive approach to myasthenic crisis on the ICU...
May 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
J Steenberg, A M Møller
BACKGROUND: Fascia iliaca compartment block is used for hip fractures in order to reduce pain, the need for systemic analgesia, and prevent delirium, on this basis. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the analgesic and adverse effects of fascia iliaca block on hip fracture in adults when applied before operation. METHODS: Nine databases were searched from inception until July 2016 yielding 11 randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials, all using loss of resistance fascia iliaca compartment block, with a total population of 1062 patients...
June 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Thomas J Pallaria, Casey Panebianco, Mary C Kamienski
PURPOSE: Delirium is an acute change in cognition and attention. It may affect any age group. It is most common in older patients and is associated with a significant increase in mortality. The purpose of this project was to implement an assessment protocol to identify patients at risk for postoperative delirium. DESIGN: A case study approach was used. METHODS: The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) tool for screening and diagnostic purposes was used to train surgeons, anesthesia providers, and nurses...
June 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Catherine Hebert
Delirium is a pervasive and dangerous syndrome for older adults in the perianesthesia setting, occurring in up to 60% of surgical cases. The American Geriatrics Society performed a systematic review to develop recommendations for the prevention and management of postoperative delirium in older adults. The recommendations emphasize nonpharmacologic interventions with a strong focus on reducing the use of psychoactive medication. Perianesthesia nurses can serve as leaders in translating these recommendations into evidence-based practice at the bedside for older adults...
June 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Carsten Hermes, Maria Acevedo-Nuevo, Andrea Berry, Thomas Kjellgren, Alessandra Negro, Paola Massarotto
Significant improvements in our understanding of pain, agitation, and delirium management within the Intensive Care Unit have been made in recent years. International guidelines and implementation bundles have become more evidence-based, patient-centred, and provide clear recommendations on the best-practice management of critically ill patients. However, the intensive care community has highlighted the need for higher-order evidence in several areas of pain, agitation and delirium research and studies suggest that a significant number of intensive care patients still receive outdated treatment as a consequence of inadequate guideline implementation...
May 15, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Vimala Ramoo, Harlinna Abu, Vineya Rai, Surindar Kaur Surat Singh, Ayuni Asma' Baharudin, Mahmoud Danaee, Raveena Rajalachimi R Thinagaran
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess intensive care unit nurses' knowledge of intensive care unit delirium and delirium assessment before and after an educational intervention. In addition, nurses' perception on the usefulness of a delirium assessment tool and barriers against delirium assessment were assessed as secondary objectives. BACKGROUND: Early identification of delirium in intensive care units is crucial for patient care. Hence, nurses require adequate knowledge to enable appropriate evaluation of delirium using standardised practice and assessment tools...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
C Stewart, S Bench
Quality improvement (QI) is a way through which health care delivery can be made safer and more effective. Various models of quality improvement methods exist in health care today. These models can help guide and manage the process of introducing changes into clinical practice. The aim of this project was to implement the use of a delirium assessment tool into three adult critical care units within the same hospital using a QI approach. The objective was to improve the identification and management of delirium...
May 15, 2018: Nursing in Critical Care
Jacqueline Oehme, Caitlin Sheehan
BACKGROUND: Dying is ubiquitous, yet the optimal management of hydration in the terminal phase is undetermined. Palliative care (PC) doctors' practices may act as a de facto measure of the benefits and burdens of artificial hydration (AH) use. OBJECTIVE: To identify PC doctors' AH prescribing practices for imminently dying patients and possible influencing factors. METHODS: An online survey of doctors belonging to the Australian and New Zealand Society of Palliative Medicine...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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