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Review articles

Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
C Teljeur, P S Moran, S Walshe, S M Smith, F Cianci, L Murphy, P Harrington, M Ryan
AIMS: To systematically review the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. BACKGROUND: Self-management support is the provision of education and supportive interventions to increase patients' skills and confidence in managing their health problems, potentially leading to improvements in HbA1c levels in people with diabetes. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials, observational studies or economic modelling studies were eligible for inclusion in the review...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Rory J McCrimmon
Despite the introduction of newer technologies and improved insulin formulations, recurrent hypoglycaemia continues to affect the lives of many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Developing strategies or therapies designed to prevent or minimize hypoglycaemia risk is of utmost importance to help individuals safely achieve glycaemic targets. Novel, educational or behavioural approaches need to be based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning both the detection of hypoglycaemia and why repeated exposure to hypoglycaemia leads to the development of a clinical syndrome referred to as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Zi-Qi Shen, Shan-Yan Gao, Shawn Xiang Li, Tie-Ning Zhang, Cai-Xia Liu, Hai-Chen Lv, Yuan Zhang, Ting-Ting Gong, Xin Xu, Chao Ji, Qi-Jun Wu, Da Li
AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of available cohort studies on the association between sertraline use by pregnant women in the first trimester and the findings of congenital anomalies in infants. METHODS: A comprehensive search of articles published from the index date through December 31, 2015 investigating the aforementioned associations was conducted on PubMed and Web of Science. Mesh headings used included the terms "serotonin reuptake inhibitor," "sertraline," "congenital anomalies" and "obstetrical outcome...
October 22, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
T Akhvlediani, N Akhvlediani, T Kuchuloria
Health care associated infections are the most frequent adverse event accompanying healthcare delivery worldwide. Of these, respiratory tract infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), have been recognized as the most common infections in acute hospitals. Sparse anecdotal and epidemiologic data from intensive care units (ICU) and infectious diseases physicians, as well as several publications in this field, suggest that the etiology of VAP in Georgia is most likely Klebsiella pneumoniae. This review article discusses the challenges of infection control in the Georgian health care system, with a focus on VAP...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
A Forsberg, C E West, S L Prescott, M C Jenmalm
Reduced intensity and diversity of microbial exposure is considered a major factor driving abnormal postnatal immune maturation and increasing allergy prevalence, particularly in more affluent regions. Quantitatively the largest important source of early immune-microbial interaction, the gut microbiota is of particular interest in this context, with variations in composition and diversity in the first months of life associated with subsequent allergy development. Attempting to restore the health consequences of the 'dysbiotic drift' in modern society, interventions modulating gut microbiota for allergy prevention have been evaluated in several randomized placebo controlled trials...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Y Berlin-Broner, M Febbraio, L Levin
A systematic review was conducted to assess the association between apical periodontitis (AP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies published from the earliest date available until September 2015 were retrieved from the Medline, PubMed and Embase databases. The included studies reported the results from observational studies and assessed the link between AP and CVD as confirmed by one of the following criteria: diagnosed coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality caused by cardiac pathology...
October 21, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
M C M Conde, L A Chisini, R Sarkis-Onofre, H S Schuch, J E Nör, F F Demarco
The aim of this Scoping Study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human Necrotic Immature Permanent Teeth (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus(®) , PubMed/Medline, Web of Science(®) , BIREME and in grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework...
October 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Elisa Luzon, Kevin Blake, Susan Cole, Anna Nordmark, Carolien Versantvoort, Eva Gil Berglund
Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling is a valuable tool in drug development and regulatory assessment, as it offers the opportunity to simulate the pharmacokinetics of a compound, with a mechanistic understanding, in a variety of populations and situations. This work reviews the use and impact of such modelling in selected regulatory procedures submitted to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) before the end of 2015, together with its subsequent reflection in public documents relating to the assessment of these procedures...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michael Buchfelder, Sven-Martin Schlaffer
PURPOSE: Surgical extraction of as much tumour mass as possible is considered the first step of treatment in acromegaly in many centers. In this article the potential benefits, disadvantages and limitations of operative acromegaly treatment are reviewed. METHODS: Pertinent literature was selected to provide a review covering current indications, techniques and results of operations for acromegaly. RESULTS: The rapid reduction of tumour volume is an asset of surgery...
October 21, 2016: Pituitary
Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Julia Diehle, Samantha K Brooks, Neil Greenberg
PURPOSE: Previous research has mainly focused on veterans' mental health problems, especially on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Less is known about the impact that the veteran's experienced potentially traumatic events (PTEs) might have on their significant others. Therefore, we reviewed the scientific literature to find out what is known about the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) in significant others of veterans. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library and PILOTS for relevant articles...
October 21, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
U A Dietz, C-T Germer, A Wiegering
There are several techniques for repair of symptomatic inguinal and femoral hernias. There is an increased acceptance and tendency favoring minimally invasive procedures, such as plug or transinguinal preperitoneal mesh prosthesis (TIPP) and endoscopic procedures, such as totally extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair. In the present review the classical techniques of Irving L. Lichtenstein (1986) and Jean Rives (1965), two indispensable procedures, are presented and the results from the literature are discussed...
October 21, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Kelsey L Shnaekel, Michael P Wendel, Nader Z Rabie, Everett F Magann
Objective: The aim of this review was to describe the risk factors, clinical and radiographic criteria, and management of this rare complication of pregnancy. Methods: A PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL search was undertaken with no limitations on the number of years searched. Results: There were 60 articles identified, with 53 articles being the basis of this review. Multiple risk factors have been suggested in the literature including retroverted uterus in the first trimester, deep sacral concavity with an overlying sacral promontory, endometriosis, previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, pelvic or uterine adhesions, ovarian cysts, leiomyomas, multifetal gestation, uterine anomalies, uterine prolapse, and uterine incarceration in a prior pregnancy...
October 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Marjolein Poels, Maria P H Koster, Hennie R Boeije, Arie Franx, Henk F van Stel
Importance: Preconception care (PCC) has the potential to optimize pregnancy outcomes. However, awareness of PCC among the target population is generally limited, and the use of PCC remains low. Importance: The objective of this study was to review the literature on women's perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators for the use of PCC. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for published studies until February 2015...
October 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
(no author information available yet)
Many disciplines, from human genetics and oncology to plant breeding, microbiology and virology, commonly face the challenge of analyzing rapidly increasing numbers of genomes. In case of Homo sapiens, the number of sequenced genomes will approach hundreds of thousands in the next few years. Simply scaling up established bioinformatics pipelines will not be sufficient for leveraging the full potential of such rich genomic data sets. Instead, novel, qualitatively different computational methods and paradigms are needed...
October 21, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
William R Pitchers, Savvas J Constantinou, Mauricio Losilla, Jason R Gallant
Electric fish have served as a model system in biology since the 18th century, providing deep insight into the nature of bioelectrogenesis, the molecular structure of the synapse, and brain circuitry underlying complex behavior. Neuroethologists have collected extensive phenotypic data that span biological levels of analysis from molecules to ecosystems. This phenotypic data, together with genomic resources obtained over the past decades, have motivated new and exciting hypotheses that position the weakly electric fish model to address fundamental 21(st) century biological questions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Marcelo Arantes Levenhagen, Hélio Conte, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Strongyloides stercoralis is a helminth parasite that can infect millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions with poor sanitation. Several aspects of epidemiology, biology and host-parasite interactions of S. stercoralis have been studied, and substantial knowledge has been acquired; however, very few studies on immunotherapeutic control strategies to prevent infection and disease in humans have been conducted. Therefore, this article reviews the current progress and targets toward vaccine and passive immunization approaches for Strongyloides spp...
October 18, 2016: Immunology Letters
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