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Omega-3 fatty acids

J K Chhetri, P de Souto Barreto, G Soriano, I Gennero, C Cantet, B Vellas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional markers (Vitamin D, homocysteine, n-3PUFA) status of older subjects aged 70 years and older with subjective memory complaint, according to their physical and cognitive function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study is a secondary analysis of the MAPT study. Subjects were classified into four groups: 1) Physical limitation with cognitive impairment (PLCI), 2) cognitive impairment (CI), 3) physical limitation (PL) and 4) no physical or cognitive deficits (NPCD)...
July 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Raphael Wurm, Lore Schrutka, Alexandra Hammer, Deddo Moertl, Rudolf Berger, Noemi Pavo, Irene M Lang, Georg Goliasch, Martin Huelsmann, Klaus Distelmaier
BACKGROUND: The underlying reasons for the highly inconsistent clinical outcome data for omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) supplementation in patients with cardiac disease have not been understood yet. The aim of the present prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was to determine the effects of oral treatment with n3-PUFAs on the anti-oxidant capacity of HDL in heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with advanced HF of non-ischemic origin, defined by NT-proBNP levels of >2000 pg/ml, NYHA class III or IV and a LVEF <35% who were on stable optimized medical therapy for ≥3 months were consecutively enrolled into this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomized in a 1:1:1 fashion to receive 1g/day or 4g/day of n3-PUFA, or placebo, respectively, for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ren-Jay Shei, Emily M Adamic, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
Habitual endurance training may be associated with mild airway inflammation and subsequent deterioration in lung function. PCSO-524™ (Lyprinol®/Omega-XL®), a supplement extracted from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel ( Perna canaliculus ), has been shown to moderate airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with PCSO-524™ improves pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in non-asthmatic elite runners. Sixteen male, non-asthmatic elite runners were randomly assigned to either a treatment (PCSO-524™; 1 capsule contains 50 mg n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 100 mg olive oil, n =8) or placebo (1 capsule contains 150 mg olive oil; n =8) group...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Melissa Desnoyers, Kim Gilbert, Guy Rousseau
The high-fat diet of North Americans has a major impact on cardiovascular disease occurrence. Notably, fatty acids have been identified as important factors that could modulate such diseases, especially myocardial infarction (MI). Experimentally, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have demonstrated positive effects on cardiovascular disorders and have also shown cardioprotection by decreasing MI size. Although many animal experiments have clearly established the benefits of omega-3 PUFA, clinical studies have not reached similar conclusions...
July 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Matthew C Evans, Tapati Stalam, Michael Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with hypertriglyceridemia can be challenging due to frequent confounding conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. We sought to quantify this risk by examining several meta-analyses as well as subgroup analyses of previously published major randomized controlled trials that focused on the treatment of hyperlipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trials measuring the effects of PCSK9 inhibitors such as evolocumab and alirocumab on cardiovascular outcomes have demonstrated a high degree of residual cardiovascular risk even after profound reductions in low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)...
July 10, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Samira Shirooie, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Ahmad R Dehpour, Tarun Belwal, Solomon Habtemariam, Sandro Argüelles, Antoni Sureda, Maria Daglia, Michał Tomczyk, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez, Suowen Xu, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's (PD), Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cause significant world-wide morbidity and mortality. To date, there is no drug of cure for these, mostly age-related diseases, although approaches in delaying the pathology and/or giving patients some symptomatic relief have been adopted for the last few decades. Various studies in recent years have shown the beneficial effects of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) through diverse mechanisms including anti-inflammatory effects...
July 7, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ana M Valdes, Srinivasarao Ravipati, Petros Pousinis, Cristina Menni, Massimo Mangino, Abhishek Abhishek, Victoria Chapman, David A Barrett, Michael Doherty
Omega-6 fatty acids are important inflammatory mediators increased in joints with osteoarthritis (OA) joints. To investigate the relationship between omega-6 fatty acids and knee OA 22 omega-6 lipids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and 20 oxylipins) were measured using liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry in synovial fluid from 112 knees of 102 individuals (knee OA n=58; controls n=44). Thsese were tested for association with presence of knee OA adjusting for covariates and NSAID use. Validation was performed in samples from 10 individuals with unilateral knee OA comparing affected to unaffected knees...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Priscila Haygert, Karine Roversi, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Luana Haselein Maurer, Camila Camponogara, Thiago Duarte, Raquel Cristine S Barcelos, Tatiana Emanuelli, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Fabíola Trevizol, Marilise Escobar Burger
A balanced intake of fatty acids (FA) of both omega-6 (n-6) and -3 (n-3) series is essential for memory. The Mediterranean diet (MD), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, has shown beneficial influences on health. Inversely, the Western diet contains saturated fats, including hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fat) and interesterified fat (IF), making the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio high. Due to the health impairments caused by HVF, it has been replaced by IF in processed foods...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Andrew M Taylor, Hannah D Holscher
OBJECTIVE: Pre-clinical evidence suggests that the gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to mood and behavior disorders. Among humans, diet quality and patterns, which also impact the gastrointestinal microbiota, have been linked to depression, anxiety, and stress. This review summarizes findings from clinical studies using dietary intervention to improve depression, anxiety, or stress and the role the gastrointestinal microbiota may have in these disorders. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the keywords microbiome, microbiota, depression, anxiety, stress, diet, dietary pattern, diet quality, fiber, prebiotics, probiotics, and mood...
July 9, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Katherine Elizabeth Black, Oliver C Witard, Dane Baker, Philip Healey, Victoria Lewis, Francisco Tavares, Sam Christensen, Tom Pease, Brett Smith
Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could reduce muscle soreness and maintain muscle function following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The aim of this applied field study was to investigate the effectiveness of consuming a protein-based supplement containing 1546 mg of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (551 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 551 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) twice daily (FO) compared to a protein-based placebo (P) on muscle soreness, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and psychological well-being in 20 professional Rugby Union players during 5 weeks of pre-season training...
July 9, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Vilma Gabbay, Rachel D Freed, Carmen M Alonso, Stefanie Senger, Jill Stadterman, Beth A Davison, Rachel G Klein
OBJECTIVE: Reports are mixed on the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), with only limited data in adolescents. The present trial aimed to investigate systematically the efficacy of O3FA as a monotherapy, compared to a placebo, in adolescents with MDD. Secondarily, we explored O3FA effects on anhedonia, irritability, and suicidality-all key features of adolescent MDD. METHODS: Fifty-one psychotropic medication-free adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of MDD (aged 12-19 years; 57% female) were randomized to receive O3FA or a placebo for 10 weeks...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Montserrat Cofan, Emilio Ros
Plant sterols and stanols (PS) are natural, non-nutritive molecules that play a structural role in plant membranes similar to that of cholesterol in animal membranes and abound in seeds and derived oils. PS exert their physical effect of interference with micellar solubilization of cholesterol within the intestinal lumen and are marginally absorbed by enterocytes, with negiglible increases in circulating levels. The physiological role of PS in plants and their natural origin and non-systemic action, together with their cholesterol-lowering effect, make them an attractive option as non-pharmacological agents for the management of hypercholesterolemia...
July 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Ebrahim Kouchaki, Maryam Afarini, Javad Abolhassani, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Fereshteh Bahmani, Seyed Ali Masoud, Zatollah Asemi
Background: Combined omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D supplementation may improve multiple sclerosis (MS) by correcting metabolic abnormalities and attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of ω-3 fatty acid and vitamin D cosupplementation on the disability score and metabolic status of patients with MS. Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and inflammation as primary outcomes and oxidative stress biomarkers and metabolic profile as secondary outcomes...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Lauren L O'Mahoney, Jamie Matu, Oliver J Price, Karen M Birch, Ramzi A Ajjan, Diane Farrar, Robyn Tapp, Daniel J West, Kevin Deighton, Matthew D Campbell
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) may favourably modify cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous meta-analyses are limited by insufficient sample sizes and omission of meta-regression techniques, and a large number of RCTs have subsequently been published since the last comprehensive meta-analysis. Updated information regarding the impact of dosage, duration or an interaction between these two factors is therefore warranted...
July 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Florentina Glodde, Mevlüt Günal, Mary E Kinsel, Amer AbuGhazaleh
Introduction: The efficiency of five natural antioxidants (curcumin, cranberry, pomegranate, grape seed extract (GSE), and açai berry) in reducing lipid oxidation in dog food was compared to that of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Material and Methods: In two different experiments content parameters were measured after 12 days of storage at 55°C. In experiment one, the natural antioxidants were added at 0.2% and BHA at 0.02% of the food (DM basis), and samples were analysed for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Research
K P Best, T R Sullivan, D J Palmer, M Gold, J Martin, D Kennedy, M Makrides
Background: Randomized controlled trials of prenatal omega (ω-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation are suggestive of some protective effects on allergic sensitization and symptoms of allergic disease in childhood. Due to the nature of the atopic march, investigation of any effects of this prenatal intervention may be most informative when consistently assessed longitudinally during childhood. Methods: Follow-up of children ( n  = 706) with familial risk of allergy from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial...
2018: World Allergy Organization Journal
Chuntida Kamalashiran, Junya Pattaraarchachai, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa
Dementia is a broad-spectrum terminology for a degenerate in cognitive function severe enough to intervene in activities of daily living. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the neurodegenerative cascade, leading to the irreversible mechanism in dementia. Perilla seed oil is extracted from its seeds and contains a high source of antioxidative substances such as omega-3 fatty acid. With its prominent antioxidative property, perilla seed oil demonstrates neuroprotective effects against dementia in preclinical studies...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
There has been a great deal of controversy in recent years about the potential role of dietary supplementation with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Four recent meta-analyses have been published that evaluated randomized, controlled trial (RCT) data from studies that assessed the effects of supplemental n-3 PUFA intake on CVD endpoints. The authors of those reports reached disparate conclusions. This review explores the reasons informed experts have drawn different conclusions from the evidence, and addresses implications for future investigation...
July 4, 2018: Nutrients
C Moran, A Scotto di Palumbo, J Bramham, A Moran, B Rooney, G De Vito, B Egan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of a six-month multi-ingredient nutrition supplement intervention (Smartfish®), containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D, resveratrol, and whey protein, on cognitive function in Irish older adults. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomised controlled trial ( NCT02001831). A quantitative, mixed-model design was employed in which the dependent variable (cognitive function) was analysed with a between-subjects factor of group (placebo, intervention) and within-subjects factor of testing occasion (baseline, three-months, six-months)...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Milene Volpato, Mark A Hull
The majority of evidence linking anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3FAs) has focussed on decreased CRC risk (prevention). More recently, preclinical data and human observational studies have begun to make the case for adjuvant treatment of advanced CRC. Herein, we review latest data regarding the effect of O3FAs on post-diagnosis CRC outcomes, including mechanistic preclinical data, evidence that O3FAs have beneficial effects on efficacy and tolerability of CRC chemotherapy, and human epidemiological data linking dietary O3FA intake with CRC outcomes...
July 3, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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