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Plant propagation

Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondrej Novak, Miroslav Strnad, Tomas Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion and only very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
Masayoshi Nakayama, Tsukasa Iwashina
We discovered that some tree species have leaves whose adaxial sides show bright green-blue fluorescence upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. In total, 141 native Japanese species belonging to 47 families were analyzed, and the brightness of the leaf fluorescence, represented by the L* values (Lab color space) of the pictures, was evaluated. The species possessing the brightest fluorescent leaves, with L* > 50, were Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, and Cleyera japonica of Theaceae, Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ligustrum japonicum of Oleaceae, Aucuba japonica of Garryaceae, and Trochodendron aralioides of Trochodendraceae...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Dhriti Bhattacharyya, Supriya Chakraborty
Chloroplast is one of the most dynamic organelle of a plant cell. It carries out photosynthesis, synthesizes major phytohormones, takes active part in defence response, and is crucial for inter-organelle signaling. Viruses, on the other hand, are extremely strategic in manipulating the internal environment of the host cell. Chloroplast, a prime target for viruses, undergoes enormous structural and functional damage during viral infection. In fact, large proportions of affected gene products in a virus infected plant are closely associated to chloroplast and photosynthesis process...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Xinsheng Chen, Yulin Liao, Yonghong Xie, Chao Wu, Feng Li, Zhengmiao Deng, Xu Li
Sediment accretion (burial) and nutrient enrichment occur concurrently in lacustrine wetlands, but the role of these two aspects of sedimentation on macrophyte performance has rarely been examined. Here, we investigated the concurrent effects of sediment accretion and nutrient enrichment on the growth and propagation of Phalaris arundinacea L. using a factorial sediment burial by nutrient addition experimental design. Regardless of burial depth, nutrient addition increased biomass accumulation, shoot mass ratio, the number of rhizomes, and the length of ramets and rhizomes...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hajime Hiyama, Aya Ozawa, Hiroaki Kumazawa, Osami Takeda
The Ephedra herb, which has been used in Kampo medicines, originates from terrestrial stems of Ephedra species. It is important to establish cultivation methods and cultivars to secure a stable supply of the Ephedra herb that would meet the quality standards for the ephedrine alkaloids content. In this study, we first grew Ephedra sinica plants derived from seeds in the field for 5 years. Then, for selective breeding of cultivars that could meet the quality standards for the ephedrine alkaloids content, we measured the content of total alkaloids (TAs), ephedrine (Eph), and pseudoephedrine (PEph) in individual plants derived from seedlings and grown for 4 years in the field...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Frank Gaupels, Jörg Durner, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Rapid long-distance signalling is an emerging topic in plant research, and is particularly associated with responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogen attack is dependent on nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). By comparison, systemic wound responses (SWRs) and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) to abiotic stress encounters are triggered by rapid waves of H2 O2 , calcium and electrical signalling. Efforts have been made to decipher the relationship between redox messengers, calcium and other known systemic defence signals...
January 3, 2017: New Phytologist
Nabil Killiny, Faraj Hijaz, Timothy A Ebert, Michael E Rogers
: Insect-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria may alter their vectors' fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism. Because these pathogens interact with their vectors on the cellular and organismal levels, potential changes at the biochemical level might occur. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is transmitted in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The genome of CLas revealed the presence of an ATP translocase that mediates the uptake of ATP and other nucleotides from the media to achieve its biological processes such as growth and multiplication...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Seamus J Bann, Robert Malina, Mark D Staples, Pooja Suresh, Matthew Pearlson, Wallace E Tyner, James I Hileman, Steven Barrett
This study quantifies and compares the costs of production for six alternative jet fuel pathways using consistent financial and technical assumptions. Uncertainty was propagated through the analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. The six processes assessed were HEFA, advanced fermentation, Fischer-Tropsch, aqueous phase processing, hydrothermal liquefaction, and fast pyrolysis. The results indicate that none of the six processes would be profitable in the absence of government incentives, with HEFA using yellow grease, HEFA using tallow, and FT revealing the lowest mean jet fuel prices at $0...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Carmen Leida, Antonio Dal Rì, Lorenza Dalla Costa, Maria D Gómez, Valerio Pompili, Paolo Sonego, Kristof Engelen, Domenico Masuero, Gabino Ríos, Claudio Moser
During grape ripening, numerous transcriptional and metabolic changes are required in order to obtain colored, sweet, and flavored berries. There is evidence that ethylene, together with other signals, plays an important role in triggering the onset of ripening. Here, we report the functional characterization of a berry-specific Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF), VviERF045, which is induced just before véraison and peaks at ripening. Phylogenetic analysis revealed it is close to the SHINE clade of ERFs, factors involved in the regulation of wax biosynthesis and cuticle morphology...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Orlando Joaqui Barandica, Juan C Pérez, Jorge I Lenis, Fernando Calle, Nelson Morante, Lizbeth Pino, Clair H Hershey, Hernán Ceballos
Breeding cassava relies on a phenotypic recurrent selection that takes advantage of the vegetative propagation of this crop. Successive stages of selection (single row trial-SRT; preliminary yield trial-PYT; advanced yield trial-AYT; and uniform yield trials UYT), gradually reduce the number of genotypes as the plot size, number of replications and locations increase. An important feature of this scheme is that, because of the clonal, reproduction of cassava, the same identical genotypes are evaluated throughout these four successive stages of selection...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Matthias Schleuning, Jochen Fründ, Oliver Schweiger, Erik Welk, Jörg Albrecht, Matthias Albrecht, Marion Beil, Gita Benadi, Nico Blüthgen, Helge Bruelheide, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, D Matthias Dehling, Carsten F Dormann, Nina Exeler, Nina Farwig, Alexander Harpke, Thomas Hickler, Anselm Kratochwil, Michael Kuhlmann, Ingolf Kühn, Denis Michez, Sonja Mudri-Stojnić, Michaela Plein, Pierre Rasmont, Angelika Schwabe, Josef Settele, Ante Vujić, Christiane N Weiner, Martin Wiemers, Christian Hof
Impacts of climate change on individual species are increasingly well documented, but we lack understanding of how these effects propagate through ecological communities. Here we combine species distribution models with ecological network analyses to test potential impacts of climate change on >700 plant and animal species in pollination and seed-dispersal networks from central Europe. We discover that animal species that interact with a low diversity of plant species have narrow climatic niches and are most vulnerable to climate change...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
Murali Gopal, Alka Gupta
"No plant is an island too…" Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Briana L Gross, Adam D Henk, Remi Bonnart, Gayle M Volk
Transcripts related to abiotic stress, oxidation, and wounding were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis shoot tips in response to cryoprotectant and liquid nitrogen treatment. Cryopreservation methods have been implemented in genebanks as a strategy to back-up plant genetic resource collections that are vegetatively propagated. Cryopreservation is frequently performed using vitrification methods, whereby shoot tips are treated with cryoprotectant solutions, such as Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3); these solutions remove and/or replace freezable water within the meristem cells...
December 20, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Brigitte Schönberger, Xiaochao Chen, Svenja Mager, Uwe Ludewig
The propagation via clonal stem cuttings is a frequent practice in tree plantations. Despite their clonal origin, the trees establish differently according to weather, temperature and nutrient availability, as well as the presence of various stresses. Here, clonal Populus trichocarpa (cv. Muhle Larson) cuttings from different sites were transferred into a common, fully nutrient supplied environment. Despite identical underlying genetics, stem cuttings derived from sites with lower phosphorus availability established worse, independent of phosphorus (P) level after transplantation...
2016: PloS One
Zhixin Zhang, Xun Tian, Yuguang Bai, Huifang Liu, Xueli Niu, Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang
The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big seeds (M) and small seeds (P)...
2016: PloS One
S Duchow, R Dahlke, T Geske, W Blaschek, B Classen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Ernesto Estrada, Sandro Meloni, Matthew Sheerin, Yamir Moreno
The use of network theory to model disease propagation on populations introduces important elements of reality to the classical epidemiological models. The use of random geometric graphs (RGGs) is one of such network models that allows for the consideration of spatial properties on disease propagation. In certain real-world scenarios-like in the analysis of a disease propagating through plants-the shape of the plots and fields where the host of the disease is located may play a fundamental role in the propagation dynamics...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
Norahizah Abd Rahim, Hasnah Md Jais, Hasnuri Mat Hassan
The association of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) and roots undoubtedly gives positive advantages to the host plant. However, heavily fertilised soil such as in oil palm plantation, inhibit the growth of mycorrhiza. Thus, the aim of this research is to distinguish and quantify the availability of AMF population and propagules at different sites of an oil palm plantation by Most Probable Number (MPN) assay. In addition, root infection method was employed to observe host compatibility through the propagation of AMF using two different types of hosts, monocotyledon (Echinochloa cruss-galli) and dicotyledon (Vigna radiata)...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Jihua Xu, Karen K Tanino, Stephen J Robinson
Epigenetic inheritance was transmitted through selection over five generations of extreme early, but not late flowering time phenotypic lines in Fragaria vesca. Epigenetic variation was initially artificially induced using the DNA demethylation reagent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). It is the first report to explore epigenetic variant selection and phenotypic trait inheritance in strawberry. Transmission frequency of these traits was determined across generations. The early flowering (EF4) and late stolon (LS) phenotypic traits were successfully transmitted across five and three generations through meiosis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sandrine Eveillard, Camille Jollard, Fabien Labroussaa, Dima Khalil, Mireille Perrin, Delphine Desqué, Pascal Salar, Frédérique Razan, Cyril Hévin, Louis Bordenave, Xavier Foissac, Jean E Masson, Sylvie Malembic-Maher
Flavescence dorée (FD) is a quarantine disease of grapevine, involving interactions between the plants, leafhopper vectors, and FD phytoplasma. Characterizing the susceptibility of vine varieties could limit disease propagation. After extensive surveys in vineyards, we showed that Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) is highly susceptible, with a high proportion of symptomatic branches and phytoplasma titers, in contrast to Merlot (M). Localized insect transmissions and grafting showed that phytoplasma circulate in the whole plant in the CS cultivar, but in M they are restricted to the transmission point...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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