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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228765/field-performance-of-transgenic-sugarcane-lines-resistant-to-sugarcane-mosaic-virus
#1
Wei Yao, Miaohong Ruan, Lifang Qin, Chuanyu Yang, Rukai Chen, Baoshan Chen, Muqing Zhang
Sugarcane mosaic disease is mainly caused by the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), which can significantly reduce stalk yield and sucrose content of sugarcane in the field. Coat protein mediated protection (CPMP) is an effective strategy to improve virus resistance. A 2-year field study was conducted to compare five independent transgenic sugarcane lines carrying the SCMV-CP gene (i.e., B2, B36, B38, B48, and B51) with the wild-type parental clone Badila (WT). Agronomic performance, resistance to SCMV infection, and transgene stability were evaluated and compared with the wild-type parental clone Badila (WT) at four experimental locations in China across two successive seasons, i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224056/evaluation-and-comparison-of-fta-card-and-ctab-dna-extraction-methods-for-non-agricultural-taxa
#2
Chloe S Siegel, Florence O Stevenson, Elizabeth A Zimmer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: An efficient, effective DNA extraction method is necessary for comprehensive analysis of plant genomes. This study analyzed the quality of DNA obtained using paper FTA cards prepared directly in the field when compared to the more traditional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based extraction methods from silica-dried samples. METHODS: DNA was extracted using FTA cards according to the manufacturer's protocol. In parallel, CTAB-based extractions were done using the automated AutoGen DNA isolation system...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221949/growth-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-in-water-and-hydroponic-fertilizer-solutions
#3
Angela Shaw, Kara Helterbran, Michael R Evans, Christopher Currey
The desire for local, fresh produce year round is driving the growth of hydroponic growing systems in the United States. Many food crops, such as leafy greens and culinary herbs, grown within hydroponics systems have their root systems submerged in recirculating nutrient-dense fertilizer solutions from planting through harvest. If a foodborne pathogen were introduced into this water system, the risk of contamination to the entire crop would be high. Hence, this study was designed to determine whether Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220131/plant-stress-responses-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-epigenomics-era-perspectives-on-the-grapevine-scenario-a-model-for-perennial-crop-plants
#4
Ana M Fortes, Philippe Gallusci
Epigenetic marks include Histone Post-Translational Modifications and DNA methylation which are known to participate in the programming of gene expression in plants and animals. These epigenetic marks may be subjected to dynamic changes in response to endogenous and/or external stimuli and can have an impact on phenotypic plasticity. Studying how plant genomes can be epigenetically shaped under stressed conditions has become an essential issue in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant stress responses and enabling epigenetic in addition to genetic factors to be considered when breeding crop plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202406/cannabis-cultivation-methodological-issues-for-obtaining-medical-grade-product
#5
REVIEW
Suman Chandra, Hemant Lata, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Larry A Walker, David Potter
As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods...
February 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197691/the-medicinal-and-pharmaceutical-importance-of-dendrobium-species
#6
REVIEW
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Tzi Bun Ng
Plants of the Dendrobium genus, one of the largest in the Orchidaceae, manifest a diversity of medicinal effects encompassing antiangiogenic, immunomodulating, antidiabetic, cataractogenesis-inhibiting, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, antifungal, antibacterial, antiherpetic, antimalarial, aquaporin-5 stimulating, and hemagglutininating activities and also exert beneficial actions on colonic health and alleviate symptoms of hyperthyroidism. The active principles include a wide range of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous molecules...
February 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194565/transgenic-papaya-a-useful-platform-for-oral-vaccines
#7
Gladis Fragoso, Marisela Hernández, Jacquelynne Cervantes-Torres, Rubén Ramírez-Aquino, Héctor Chapula, Nelly Villalobos, René Segura-Velázquez, Alfredo Figueroa, Iván Flores, Herminio Jiménez, Laura Adalid, Gabriela Rosas, Luis Galvez, Elias Pezzat, Elizabeth Monreal-Escalante, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Vazquez, Edda Sciutto
Transgenic papaya callus lines expressing the components of the S3Pvac vaccine constitute a stable platform to produce an oral vaccine against cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium or T. crassiceps. The development of effective delivery systems to cope with the reduced immunogenicity of new subunit vaccines is a priority in vaccinology. Herein, experimental evidence supporting a papaya-based platform to produce needle-free, recombinant, highly immunogenic vaccines is shown. Papaya (Carica papaya) callus lines were previously engineered by particle bombardment to express the three protective peptides of the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine (KETc7, KETc12, KETc1)...
February 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193737/exogenous-transposable-elements-circumvent-identity-based-silencing-permitting-the-dissection-of-expression-dependent-silencing
#8
Dalen Fultz, R Keith Slotkin
The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we have revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21-22 or 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome...
February 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190566/effects-of-wireless-packet-loss-in-industrial-process-control-systems
#9
Yongkang Liu, Richard Candell, Nader Moayeri
Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance...
February 9, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167887/lucerne-transient-streak-virus-a-recently-detected-virus-infecting-alfafa-medicago-sativa-in-central-saudi-arabia
#10
Ahmed Raza, Ibrahim M Al-Shahwan, Omer A Abdalla, Mohammed A Al-Saleh, Mahmoud A Amer
A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair...
February 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161965/pvx-tolerant-potato-development-using-a-nucleic-acid-hydrolyzing-recombinant-antibody
#11
J-G Yang, K-H Hwang, E-J Kil, J Park, S Cho, Y-G Lee, C-K Auh, Y Rhee, S Lee
3D8 scFv, a catalytic recombinant antibody developed in the MRL mouse, exhibits nucleic acid-hydrolyzing activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that tobacco plants harboring 3D8 scFv antibodies showed broad-spectrum resistance to infection by both DNA and RNA viruses. In this study, potatoes were transformed with the 3D8 scFv gene and screened by potato virus X (PVX) challenge. Starting with the T0 and T1 potato lines, PVX-tolerant T1 potatoes were identified in the field and characterized by ELISA and RT-PCR analysis...
February 6, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155257/cell-wall-proteome-analysis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-mature-stems
#12
Harold Duruflé, Hélène San Clemente, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Christophe Dunand, Elisabeth Jamet
Plant stems carry flowers necessary for species propagation and need to be adapted to mechanical disturbance and environmental factors. The stem cell walls are different from other organs and can modify their rigidity or viscoelastic properties for the integrity and the robustness required to withstand mechanical impacts and environmental stresses. Plant cell wall is composed of complex polysaccharide networks also containing cell wall proteins (CWPs) crucial to perceive and limit the environmental effects...
February 2, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155116/re-sequencing-transgenic-plants-revealed-rearrangements-at-t-dna-inserts-and-integration-of-a-short-t-dna-fragment-but-no-increase-of-small-mutations-elsewhere
#13
Henk J Schouten, Henri Vande Geest, Sofia Papadimitriou, Marian Bemer, Jan G Schaart, Marinus J M Smulders, Gabino Sanchez Perez, Elio Schijlen
Transformation resulted in deletions and translocations at T-DNA inserts, but not in genome-wide small mutations. A tiny T-DNA splinter was detected that probably would remain undetected by conventional techniques. We investigated to which extent Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is mutagenic, on top of inserting T-DNA. To prevent mutations due to in vitro propagation, we applied floral dip transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. We re-sequenced the genomes of five primary transformants, and compared these to genomic sequences derived from a pool of four wild-type plants...
March 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152613/acclimatization-study-of-tagetes-lucida-l-in-egypt-and-the-chemical-characterization-of-its-essential-oils
#14
Elasyed A Omer, Saber F Hendawy, Rasha F Ismail, Giacomo L Petretto, Jonathan P Rourke, Giorgio Pintore
Seeds of Tagetes lucida were imported to Egypt from Canada and propagated under greenhouse conditions in peat moss media. Soil was sandy in texture and the irrigation system was dripping irrigation. The growth parameters were determined at five successive plant ages, fresh and dry weights of herb were determined at three successive plant ages. The yield of aerial parts after 175 days, was about 7.5 Mg/ha. The essential oil (EO) was extracted by hydro-distillation for three hours with a yield of about 0.5% (w/v)...
February 2, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141489/a-chitinase-is-required-for-xylella-fastidiosa-colonization-of-its-insect-and-plant-hosts
#15
Fabien Labroussaa, Michael Ionescu, Adam Zeilinger, Steven Lindow, Rodrigo Almeida
Xylella fastidiosa colonizes the xylem network of host plant species as well as the foregut of required insect vectors to ensure its efficient propagation. Disease management strategies remain inefficient due to a limited comprehension of mechanisms governing both insect and plant colonization. It was previously shown that X. fastidiosa has a functional chitinase (ChiA), and that chitin likely serves as a carbon source for this bacterium. We expand on that research showing that a chiA mutant strain is unable to grow on chitin as the sole carbon source...
January 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134264/cascade-a-platform-for-controlled-gene-amplification-for-high-tunable-and-selection-free-gene-expression-in-yeast
#16
Tomas Strucko, Line Due Buron, Zofia Dorota Jarczynska, Christina Spuur Nødvig, Louise Mølgaard, Barbara Ann Halkier, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen
Over-expression of a gene by increasing its copy number is often desirable in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may facilitate elucidation of enzyme functions, and in cell factory design it is used to increase production of proteins and metabolites. Current methods are typically exploiting expression from the multicopy 2 μ-derived plasmid or by targeting genes repeatedly into sequences like Ty or rDNA; in both cases, high gene expression levels are often reached. However, with 2 μ-based plasmid expression, the population of cells is very heterogeneous with respect to protein production; and for integration into repeated sequences it is difficult to determine the genetic setup of the resulting strains and to achieve specific gene doses...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124474/casting-light-on-xylem-vulnerability-in-an-herbaceous-species-reveals-a-lack-of-segmentation
#17
Robert P Skelton, Timothy J Brodribb, Brendan Choat
Finding thresholds at which loss of plant functionality occurs during drought is critical for predicting future crop productivity and survival. Xylem resistance to embolism has been suggested as a key trait associated with water-stress tolerance. Although a substantial literature exists describing the vulnerability of woody stems to embolism, leaves and roots of herbaceous species remain under-represented. Also, little is known about vulnerability to embolism at a whole-plant scale or propagation of embolism within plants...
January 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120994/from-geometric-optics-to-plants-the-eikonal-equation-for-buckling
#18
Sergei Nechaev, Kirill Polovnikov
Optimal buckling of a tissue, e.g. a plant leaf, growing by means of exponential division of its peripheral cells, is considered in the framework of a conformal approach. It is shown that the boundary profile of a tissue is described by the 2D eikonal equation, which provides the geometric optic approximation for the wavefront propagating in a medium with an inhomogeneous refraction coefficient. A variety of optimal surfaces embedded in 3D is controlled by spatial dependence of the refraction coefficient which, in turn, is dictated by the local growth protocol...
January 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113950/an-end-to-end-model-of-plant-pheromone-channel-for-long-range-molecular-communications
#19
Bige Deniz Unluturk, Ian Akyildiz
A new track in molecular communication is using pheromones which can scale up the range of diffusion-based communication from meters to meters and enable new applications requiring long range. Pheromone communication is the emission of molecules in the air which trigger behavioral or physiological responses in receiving organisms. The objective of this paper is to introduce a new end-to-end model which incorporates pheromone behavior with communication theory for plants. The proposed model includes both the transmission and reception processes as well as the propagation channel...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112437/orchestrating-rapid-long-distance-signaling-in-plants-with-ca-2-ros-and-electrical-signals
#20
Won-Gyu Choi, Gad Miller, Ian Wallace, Jeffrey Harper, Ron Mittler, Simon Gilroy
Plants show a rapid systemic response to a wide range of environmental stresses, where the signals from the site of stimulus perception are transmitted to distal organs to elicit plant-wide responses. A wide range of signaling molecules are trafficked through the plant, but a trio of potentially interacting messengers, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca(2+) and electrical signaling ('trio signaling') appear to form a network supporting rapid signal transmission. The molecular components underlying this rapid communication are beginning to be identified, such as the ROS producing NAPDH oxidase RBOHD, the ion channel Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1), and glutamate receptor-like channels GLR3...
January 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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