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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533793/exogenous-supplementation-of-silicon-improved-the-recovery-of-hyperhydric-shoots-in-dianthus-caryophyllus-l-by-stabilizing-the-physiology-and-protein-expression
#1
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Yoon S Cho, Byoung R Jeong
Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. 'Green Beauty'. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532402/antiviral-activity-of-phenanthrenes-from-the-medicinal-plant-bletilla-striata-against-influenza-a-virus
#2
Ya Shi, Bing Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Chaodong Qian, Yan Feng, Liwei Fang, Zhishan Ding, Dongqing Cheng
BACKGROUND: Influenza represents a serious public health concern. The emergence of resistance to anti-influenza drugs underlines the need to develop new drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-influenza viral activity and possible mechanisms of 12 phenanthrenes from the medicinal plant Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae family). METHODS: Twelve phenanthrenes were isolated and identified from B. striata. Influenza virus A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) propagated in embryonated chicken eggs was used...
May 22, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530581/metabolic-phenotyping-of-various-tea-camellia-sinensis-l-cultivars-and-understanding-of-their-intrinsic-metabolism
#3
Hyang-Gi Ji, Yeong-Ran Lee, Min-Seuk Lee, Kyeong Hwan Hwang, Eun-Hee Kim, Jun Seong Park, Young-Shick Hong
Recently, we selected three tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars that are rich in taste, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate (EGCG3″Me) and then cultivated them through asexual propagation by cutting in the same region. In the present study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabotype and to understand the metabolic mechanism of these tea cultivars including wild type tea. Of the tea leaf metabolite variations, reverse associations of amino acid metabolism with catechin compound metabolism were found in the rich-taste, and EGCG- and EGCG3″Me-rich tea cultivars...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523073/improved-axenic-hydroponic-whole-plant-propagation-for-rapid-production-of-roots-as-transformation-target-tissue
#4
Kyle Benzle, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Plant roots are used as an efficient target tissue for plant transformation assays. In root propagable species transformed roots are able to regenerate into whole plants without the addition of exogenous hormones, thus avoiding somaclonal variation associated with many plant transformation protocols. Plants grown in soil or soilless solid medium have roots that tend to be extremely delicate and are difficult to sterilize in advance of plant transformation experiments. Axenic tissue culture plants grown on semi-solid media are slow to produce large amounts of biomass compared to plants grown in solution-based media...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522357/the-analysis-of-an-effect-of-seed-propagation-on-defense-strategy-against-pathogen-transmission-within-clonal-plant-population-using-lattice-model
#5
Yuma Sakai, Takenori Takada
Many clonal plants have two breeding systems, vegetative and seed propagation. In vegetative propagation, plants reproduce genetically identical offspring that have lower mortality rates. By contrast, the seed propagated offspring has higher mortality rate, however, the seed propagation "acts an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproduce widely. According to the experimental studies, the balance between the breeding systems, vegetative and seed propagation, is determined by several functions, such as resource allocation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515782/ecotypic-differentiation-under-farmers-selection-molecular-insights-into-the-domestication-of-pachyrhizus-rich-ex-dc-fabaceae-in-the-peruvian-andes
#6
Marc Delêtre, Beatriz Soengas, Prem Jai Vidaurre, Rosa Isela Meneses, Octavio Delgado Vásquez, Isabel Oré Balbín, Monica Santayana, Bettina Heider, Marten Sørensen
Understanding the distribution of crop genetic diversity in relation to environmental factors can give insights into the eco-evolutionary processes involved in plant domestication. Yam beans (Pachyrhizus Rich. ex DC.) are leguminous crops native to South and Central America that are grown for their tuberous roots but are seed-propagated. Using a landscape genetic approach, we examined correlations between environmental factors and phylogeographic patterns of genetic diversity in Pachyrhizus landrace populations...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499256/from-common-to-rare-zingiberaceae-plants-a-metabolomics-study-using-gc-ms
#7
Gina B Barbosa, Nirupama S Jayasinghe, Siria H A Natera, Ellen D Inutan, Nonita P Peteros, Ute Roessner
Zingiberaceae plants, commonly known as gingers, have been popular for their medicinal and culinary uses since time immemorial. In spite of their numerous health-promoting applications, many Zingiberaceae plants still receive no scientific attention. Moreover, existing reports mostly focused only on the Zingiberaceae rhizomes. Here, untargeted metabolite profiling using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare the metabolic composition of leaves and rhizomes of the more common gingers, Zingiber officinale Rosc...
May 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494872/using-resurrected-ancestral-proviral-proteins-to-engineer-virus-resistance
#8
Asunción Delgado, Rocio Arco, Beatriz Ibarra-Molero, Jose M Sanchez-Ruiz
Proviral factors are host proteins hijacked by viruses for processes essential for virus propagation such as cellular entry and replication. Pathogens and their hosts co-evolve. It follows that replacing a proviral factor with a functional ancestral form of the same protein could prevent viral propagation without fatally compromising organismal fitness. Here, we provide proof of concept of this notion. Thioredoxins serve as general oxidoreductases in all known cells. We report that several laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins display substantial levels of functionality within Escherichia coli...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487723/genome-silencing-and-elimination-insights-from-a-selfish-b-chromosome
#9
REVIEW
John C Aldrich, Patrick M Ferree
B chromosomes are non-essential components of numerous plant and animal genomes. Because many of these "extra" chromosomes enhance their own transmission in ways that are detrimental to the rest of the genome, they can be thought of as genome parasites. An extreme example is a paternally inherited B chromosome known as paternal sex ratio (PSR), which is found in natural populations of the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. In order to ensure its own propagation, PSR severely biases the wasp sex ratio by converting diploid female-destined embryos into transmitting haploid males...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481402/dna-methylation-in-sugarcane-somaclonal-variants-assessed-through-methylation-sensitive-amplified-polymorphism
#10
J H M B Francischini, E L Kemper, J B Costa, J R V Manechini, L R Pinto
Micropropagation is an important tool for large-scale multiplication of plant superior genotypes. However, somaclonal variation is one of the drawbacks of this process. Changes in DNA methylation have been widely reported as one of the main causes of somaclonal variations in plants. In order to investigate the occurrence of changes in the methylation pattern of sugarcane somaclonal variants, the MSAP (methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism) technique was applied to micro-propagated plantlets sampled at the third subculture phase...
May 4, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474535/long-term-propagation-of-porcine-undifferentiated-spermatogonia
#11
Pengfei Zhang, Xiaoxu Chen, Yi Zheng, Jinsheng Zhu, Yuwei Qin, Yinghua Lv, Wenxian Zeng
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the foundation for spermatogenesis and fertility throughout the adult life of a male. Genetic manipulations of SSCs combined with germ cell transplantation present a novel approach for gene therapy and production of genetically modified animals. However, the rarity of SSCs within mammalian testes remains an impediment to related applications that require sufficient numbers of SSCs, making in vitro expansion of SSCs a prerequisite. Nevertheless, long-term culture systems of SSCs from large animals have not been established yet...
May 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471745/assessing-the-influence-of-structural-disorder-on-the-plant-epidermal-cells-optical-properties-a-numerical-analysis
#12
Benjamin Fritz, Ruben Hünig, Raphael Schmager, Michael Hetterich, Uli Lemmer, Guillaume Gomard
Many plant surfaces, such as rose petals, display lens-like epidermal cells that are known to assist the collection and focusing of the sunlight. Those cells form an array with a high degree of structural irregularities including disorder in the height and orientation of the cells, and in their arrangement. In this study, we numerically analyze the influence of structural disorder on the optical properties of a 3D modeled epidermal cell array using ray tracing simulations. We conclude that the anti-reflection properties of such structures are almost unperturbed by disorder effects, although the latter can notably broaden the propagation angle distribution of the collected light...
May 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469026/are-flowers-vulnerable-to-xylem-cavitation-during-drought
#13
Feng-Ping Zhang, Timothy J Brodribb
Water stress is known to cause xylem cavitation in the leaves, roots and stems of plants, but little is known about the vulnerability of flowers to xylem damage during drought. This is an important gap in our understanding of how and when plants become damaged by water stress. Here we address fundamental questions about if and when flowers suffer cavitation damage, using a new technique of cavitation imaging to resolve the timing of cavitation in water-stressed flower petals compared with neighbouring leaves...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466187/water-wisteria-as-an-ideal-plant-to-study-heterophylly-in-higher-aquatic-plants
#14
Gaojie Li, Shiqi Hu, Jingjing Yang, Elizabeth A Schultz, Kurtis Clarke, Hongwei Hou
The semi-aquatic plant Water-Wisteria is suggested as a new model to study heterophylly due to its many advantages and typical leaf phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors and phytohormones. Water-Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis (Acanthaceae), is a fast growing semi-aquatic plant that exhibits a variety of leaf shapes, from simple leaves to highly branched compound leaves, depending on the environment. The phenomenon by which leaves change their morphology in response to environmental conditions is called heterophylly...
May 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460982/nutritional-and-chemical-properties-of-fermented-food-of-wild-and-cultivated-genotypes-of-enset-ensete-ventricosum
#15
Abraham Bosha, Abitew Lagibo Dalbato, Tamado Tana, Wassu Mohammed, Buzayew Tesfaye, Laila M Karlsson
The multipurpose crop enset (Ensete ventricosum) has been traditionally cultivated in Ethiopia since ancient times. The main food product is the starch-rich fermented kocho made from the pseudostem and corm. There are many vegetatively propagated landraces utilised by farmers, but no concisions breeding have taken place, and there are requests for improved cultivars. There are also populations of wild ensets which propagate sexually, and the variation in characteristics among the wild is not studied. We suggest investigating the variation among the wild, in order utilise the most proper combinations of parent plants when breeding for different purposes...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460323/doing-more-with-less-removing-trees-in-a-prairie-system-improves-value-of-grasslands-for-obligate-bird-species
#16
Jason D Tack, Frank R Quamen, Kyle Kelsey, David E Naugle
Grassland birds endemic to the Northern Great Plains have declined faster and more severely than any other avian guild on the continent. Remaining prairie fragments that sustain breeding populations are continually converted to a disturbed state, or degraded by fragmentation. Planted tree rows (shelterbelts) in prairie landscapes are a prominent feature and have been implicated in propagating negative edge effects on breeding birds, perhaps through harboring a diverse suite of nest predators. We experimentally removed shelterbelts on areas in the northern tallgrass prairie in North and South Dakota USA while conducting avian surveys to evaluate hypotheses about grassland bird response to the removal of a woodland edge...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457574/botanists-in-lithuania-during-the-michurinist-campaign
#17
Aurika Ričkienė
The meeting of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) that occurred from July 31 to August 7, 1948, declared Michurinism to be the only "correct theory" of biology in the Soviet Union. As of that moment, Michurinist biology officially took center stage in Soviet scientific institutions, and it was further developed over the next fifteen years. Scientists from all of the former Soviet Republics participated in the Michurinist campaign. In Lithuania, this campaign started in the autumn of 1948...
April 27, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449656/improved-tissue-culture-conditions-for-the-emerging-c4-model-panicum-hallii
#18
Joshua N Grant, Jason N Burris, C Neal Stewart, Scott C Lenaghan
BACKGROUND: Panicum hallii Vasey (Hall's panicgrass) is a compact, perennial C4 grass in the family Poaceae, which has potential to enable bioenergy research for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Unlike P. hallii, switchgrass has a large genome, allopolyploidy, self-incompatibility, a long life cycle, and large stature-all suboptimal traits for rapid genetics research. Herein we improved tissue culture methodologies for two inbred P. hallii populations: FIL2 and HAL2, to enable further development of P...
April 27, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449073/genetics-of-phenotypic-plasticity-and-biomass-traits-in-hybrid-willows-across-contrasting-environments-and-years
#19
Sofia Berlin, Henrik R Hallingbäck, Friderike Beyer, Nils-Erik Nordh, Martin Weih, Ann-Christin Rönnberg-Wästljung
Background and Aims: Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444870/the-greenscape-shapes-surfing-of-resource-waves-in-a-large-migratory-herbivore
#20
Ellen O Aikens, Matthew J Kauffman, Jerod A Merkle, Samantha P H Dwinnell, Gary L Fralick, Kevin L Monteith
The Green Wave Hypothesis posits that herbivore migration manifests in response to waves of spring green-up (i.e. green-wave surfing). Nonetheless, empirical support for the Green Wave Hypothesis is mixed, and a framework for understanding variation in surfing is lacking. In a population of migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 31% surfed plant phenology in spring as well as a theoretically perfect surfer, and 98% surfed better than random. Green-wave surfing varied among individuals and was unrelated to age or energetic state...
April 25, 2017: Ecology Letters
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