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Plant propagation

Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Fatemeh Maghuly, Stephan Pabinger, Julie Krainer, Margit Laimer
Mutagenesis in combination with Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) is a powerful tool for introducing variation, studying gene function and identifying causal mutations underlying phenotypes of interest in crop plant genomes. About 400 million paired-end reads were obtained from 82 ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) induced mutants and 14 wild-type accessions of Jatropha curcas for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Insertion/Deletions (InDels) by two different approaches (nGBS and ddGBS) on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aneta Więsyk, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Anna Fogtman, Włodzimierz Zagórski-Ostoja, Anna Góra-Sochacka
Viroids are small non-capsidated non-coding RNA replicons that utilize host factors for efficient propagation and spread through the entire plant. They can incite specific disease symptoms in susceptible plants. To better understand viroid-plant interactions, we employed microarray analysis to observe the changes of gene expression in "Rutgers" tomato leaves in response to the mild (M) and severe (S23) variants of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). The changes were analyzed over a time course of viroid infection development: (i) the pre-symptomatic stage; (ii) early symptoms; (iii) full spectrum of symptoms and (iv) the so-called 'recovery' stage, when stem regrowth was observed in severely affected plants...
May 15, 2018: Viruses
N Shrestha, P H Weber, S V Burke, W Wysocki, M R Duvall, J J Bujarski
Although RNA viruses evolved the mechanisms of specific encapsidation, miss-packaging of cellular RNAs has been reported in such RNA virus systems as flock house virus or cucumber necrosis virus. To find out if brome mosaic virus (BMV), a tripartite RNA virus, can package cellular RNAs, BMV was propagated in barley and in Nicotiana benthamiana hosts, purified by cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient ultracentrifugation followed by nuclease treatment to remove any contaminating cellular (host) RNAs. The extracted virion RNA was then sequenced by using next-generation sequencing (NGS RNA-Seq) with the Illumina protocol...
May 10, 2018: Virus Research
Laurent Duchemin, Christophe Eloy, Eric Badel, Bruno Moulia
Plants have developed different tropisms: in particular, they reorient the growth of their branches towards the light (phototropism) or upwards (gravitropism). How these tropisms affect the shape of a tree crown remains unanswered. We address this question by developing a propagating front model of tree growth. Being length-free, this model leads to self-similar solutions after a long period of time, which are independent of the initial conditions. Varying the intensities of each tropism, different self-similar shapes emerge, including singular ones...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Kanako Bessho-Uehara, Jovano Erris Nugroho, Hirono Kondo, Rosalyn B Angeles-Shim, Motoyuki Ashikari
Oryza longistaminata, the African wild rice, can propagate vegetatively through rhizomes. Rhizomes elongate horizontally underground as sink organs, however, they undergo a developmental transition that shifts their growth to the surface of the ground to become aerial stems. This particular stage is essential for the establishment of new ramets. While several determinants such as abiotic stimuli and plant hormones have been reported as key factors effecting developmental transition in aerial stem, the cause of this phenomenon in rhizome remains elusive...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Juddy H Arias, Jesus Gómez-Gardeñes, Sandro Meloni, Ernesto Estrada
Here we develop an epidemic model that accounts for long-range dispersal of pathogens between plants. This model generalizes the classical compartmental models-Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR)-to take into account those factors that are key to understand epidemics in real plant populations. These ingredients are the spatial characteristics of the plots and fields in which plants are embedded and the effect of long-range dispersal of pathogens. The spatial characteristics are included through the use of random rectangular graphs which allow to consider the effects of the elongation of plots and fields, while the long-range dispersal is implemented by considering transformations, such as the Mellin and Laplace transforms, of a generalization of the adjacency matrix of the geometric graph...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Chiew Foan Chin, Hooi Sin Tan
In many tropical countries with agriculture as the mainstay of the economy, tropical crops are commonly cultivated at the plantation scale. The successful establishment of crop plantations depends on the availability of a large quantity of elite seedling plants. Many plantation companies establish plant tissue culture laboratories to supply planting materials for their plantations and one of the most common applications of plant tissue culture is the mass propagation of true-to-type elite seedlings. However, problems encountered in tissue culture technology prevent its applications being widely adopted...
May 4, 2018: Proteomes
Feng Cheng, Jian Wu, Xu Cai, Jianli Liang, Michael Freeling, Xiaowu Wang
All natural plant species are evolved from ancient polyploids. Polyloidization plays an important role in plant genome evolution, species divergence and crop domestication. We review how the pattern of polyploidy within the plant phylogenetic tree has engendered hypotheses involving mass extinctions, lag-times following polyploidy, and epochs of asexuality. Polyploidization has happened repeatedly in plant evolution and, we conclude, is important for crop domestication. Once duplicated, the effect of purifying selection on any one duplicated gene is relaxed, permitting duplicate gene and regulatory element loss (fractionation)...
May 2018: Nature Plants
Arlene Oliveira Souza, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Rodrigues Chaves, Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa, Charles Roland Clement
INTRODUCTION: Invasive plants can impact biodiversity as well as the lives of native human populations. Natural ecosystems represent sources of natural resources essential for the subsistence and socio-cultural continuity of these social groups. Approximately 30,000 ha of Acacia mangium were planted for commercial purposes in savanna areas surrounding indigenous lands in Roraima State, Brazil, at the end of the 1990s. We examined the local ecological knowledge of indigenous Wapichana and Macuxi Amerindians, members of the Arawak and Carib linguistic families, respectively, concerning A...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Gaoming Zhang, Jiali Ye, Yulin Jia, Lingli Zhang, Xiyue Song
A “two-line hybrid system” was developed, previously based on thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility in Aegilops kotschyi (K-TCMS), which can be used in wheat breeding. The K-TCMS line exhibits complete male sterility and it can be used to produce hybrid wheat seeds during the normal wheat-growing season; it propagates via self-pollination at high temperatures. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteome and bioinformatics analyses of the TCMS line KTM3315A were conducted under different fertility conditions to understand the mechanisms of fertility conversion in the pollen development stages...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daryl Codron, Marcus Clauss, Jacqueline Codron, Thomas Tütken
Stable carbon isotope analyses of vertebrate hard tissues such as bones, teeth, and tusks provide information about animal diets in ecological, archeological, and paleontological contexts. There is debate about how carbon isotope compositions of collagen and apatite carbonate differ in terms of their relationship to diet, and to each other. We evaluated relationships between δ13 Ccollagen and δ13 Ccarbonate among free-ranging southern African mammals to test predictions about the influences of dietary and physiological differences between species...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Peter Hempel, Annette Hohe, Conny Tränkner
The ornamental crop species Hydrangea macrophylla exhibits diploid and triploid levels of ploidy and develops lacecap (wild type) or mophead inflorescences. In order to characterize a H. macrophylla germplasm collection, we determined the inflorescence type and the 2C DNA content of 120 plants representing 43 cultivars. We identified 78 putative diploid and 39 putative triploid plants by flow cytometry. In our collection 69 out of 98 flowering plants produced lacecap inflorescences, whereas 29 plants developed mophead inflorescences...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kun Hua Wei, Jian Ping Xu, Lin Xuan Li, Jin Yuan Cai, Jian Hua Miao, Min Hui Li
Background: Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. is an important medical plant in China. Early researches of S. tonkinensis were focused on rapid propagation and quality analysis of in vitro tissue culture plantlet, and still no research focuses on the plant breeding of and there were no excellent varieties for artificial cultivation of S. tonkinensis . Objective: To set up a method to generate and select the best varieties of S. tonkinensis by polyploid breeding after induction by colchicine treatment...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Faheem Afzal Shah, Jun Ni, Jing Chen, Qiaojian Wang, Wenbo Liu, Xue Chen, Caiguo Tang, Songling Fu, Lifang Wu
Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S...
2018: PeerJ
Rihito Takisawa, Tetsuya Nakazaki, Tsukasa Nunome, Hiroyuki Fukuoka, Keiko Kataoka, Hiroki Saito, Tsuyoshi Habu, Akira Kitajima
BACKGROUND: Parthenocarpy is a desired trait in tomato because it can overcome problems with fruit setting under unfavorable environmental conditions. A parthenocarpic tomato cultivar, 'MPK-1', with a parthenocarpic gene, Pat-k, exhibits stable parthenocarpy that produces few seeds. Because 'MPK-1' produces few seeds, seedlings are propagated inefficiently via cuttings. It was reported that Pat-k is located on chromosome 1. However, the gene had not been isolated and the relationship between the parthenocarpy and low seed set in 'MPK-1' remained unclear...
April 27, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Reizaluamar J Neves, Rafael P Diniz, Eder J DE Oliveira
New techniques of rapid multiplication of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) have been developed, requiring technical support for large-scale use. This work main to evaluate the agronomic performance of plantlets obtained by leaf buds technique against stem cuttings in the field conditions. The work was conducted using the randomized block design in a factorial scheme with 3 varieties (BRS Kiriris, 98150-06, 9624-09) × 4 origins of the plantlets (conventional - stem cuttings of 20 cm length, leaf buds of the upper, middle and inferior stem part) × 2 agrochemicals (control and treated)...
April 23, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Giacomo Fedele, Bruno Locatelli, Houria Djoudi, Matthew J Colloff
Globally, anthropogenic environmental change is exacerbating the already vulnerable conditions of many people and ecosystems. In order to obtain food, water, raw materials and shelter, rural people modify forests and other ecosystems, affecting the supply of ecosystem services that contribute to livelihoods and well-being. Despite widespread awareness of the nature and extent of multiple impacts of land-use changes, there remains limited understanding of how these impacts affect trade-offs among ecosystem services and their beneficiaries across spatial scales...
2018: PloS One
Hiroyasu Yamaguchi
Ornamental plants that have a rich variety of flower colors and shapes are highly prized in the commercial flower market, and therefore, mutant cultivars that produce different types of flowers while retaining their growth habits are in demand. Furthermore, mutation breeding is well suited for ornamental plants because many species can be easily vegetatively propagated, facilitating the production of spontaneous and induced mutants. The use of ion beams in mutation breeding has rapidly expanded since the 1990s in Japan, with the prospect that more ion beam-specific mutants will be generated...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Poppy C S Sephton-Clark, Kerstin Voelz
Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Their resistance to high levels of UV, desiccation, pressure, heat, and cold enables the survival of spores in the harshest conditions (Setlow, 2016)...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
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