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Plant propagation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151275/rav-transcription-factors-are-essential-for-disease-resistance-against-cassava-bacterial-blight-via-activation-of-melatonin-biosynthesis-genes
#1
Yunxie Wei, Yanli Chang, Hongqiu Zeng, Guoyin Liu, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
With one AP2 domain and one B3 domain, 7 MeRAVs in apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) gene family have been identified in cassava. However, the in vivo roles of these remain unknown. Gene expression assays showed that the transcripts of MeRAVs were commonly regulated after Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) and MeRAVs were specifically located in plant cell nuclei. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cassava, we found that MeRAV1 and MeRAV2 are essential for plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight, as shown by the bacterial propagation of Xam in plant leaves...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140990/cultivar-architecture-modulates-spore-dispersal-by-rain-splash-a-new-perspective-to-reduce-disease-progression-in-cultivar-mixtures
#2
Tiphaine Vidal, Pauline Lusley, Marc Leconte, Claude de Vallavieille-Pope, Laurent Huber, Sébastien Saint-Jean
Cultivar mixtures can be used to improve the sustainability of disease management within farming systems by growing cultivars that differ in their disease resistance level in the same field. The impact of canopy aerial architecture on rain-splash dispersal could amplify disease reduction within mixtures. We designed a controlled conditions experiment to study single splash-dispersal events and their consequences for disease. We quantified this impact through the spore interception capacities of the component cultivars of a mixture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140305/probabilistic-prognosis-of-environmental-radioactivity-concentrations-due-to-radioisotopes-discharged-to-water-bodies-from-nuclear-power-plants
#3
Juan Tomás Zerquera, Juan C Mora, Beatriz Robles
Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used...
November 15, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134724/biogeography-of-mutualistic-fungi-cultivated-by-leafcutter-ants
#4
Ulrich G Mueller, Heather D Ishak, Sofia M Bruschi, Chad C Smith, Jacob J Herman, Scott E Solomon, Alexander S Mikheyev, Christian Rabeling, Jarrod J Scott, Michael Cooper, Andre Rodrigues, Adriana Ortiz, Carlos Roberto F Brandão, John E Lattke, Fernando C Pagnocca, Stephen A Rehner, Ted R Schultz, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Rachelle M M Adams, Martin Bollazzi, Rebecca M Clark, Anna G Himler, John S LaPolla, Inara R Leal, Robert A Johnson, Flavio Roces, Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Rainer Wirth, Maurício Bacci
Leafcutter ants propagate co-evolving fungi for food. The nearly 50 species of leafcutter ants (Atta, Acromyrmex) range from Argentina to the USA, with the greatest species diversity in southern South America. We elucidate the biogeography of fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants using DNA-sequence and microsatellite-marker analyses of 474 cultivars collected across the leafcutter range. Fungal cultivars belong to two clades (Clade-A, Clade-B). The dominant and widespread Clade-A cultivars form three genotype-clusters, with their relative prevalence corresponding to southern South America, northern South America, and Central & North America...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134290/re-emergence-of-lilium-callosum-sieb-et-zucc-in-taiwan-after-a-fire-allows-propagation-and-renews-the-possibility-of-conservation
#5
Ying Chun Chen, Yang Jung Huang, Chiu Mei Wang, Chin An Chiu, Huey Ling Lin, Pei Fang Lee, Ya Ming Cheng, Chen Chang
BACKGROUND: Lilium callosum is native to Taiwan, but little is known about it since it has been considered extinct since 1915. After the rediscovery of this rare species after a fire in 2011 in Tunghsiao Township, intensive work has been conducted to count the number in the wild population, to develop a conservation strategy, and to understand its reproductive characteristics and even economic potential. RESULTS: To conserve the germplasm of this population, three scales from a wild L...
November 13, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126189/comparative-genome-analysis-reveals-adaptation-to-the-ectophytic-lifestyle-of-sooty-blotch-and-flyspeck-fungi
#6
Chao Xu, Rong Zhang, Guangyu Sun, Mark L Gleason
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are a distinctive group of plant pathogens which, although phylogenetically diverse, occupy an exclusively surface-dwelling niche. They cause economic losses by superficially blemishing the fruit of several tree crops, principally apple, in moist temperate regions worldwide. In this study, we performed genome-wide comparative analyses separately within three pairs of species of ascomycete pathogens; each pair contained an SBFS species as well as a closely related but plant-penetrating parasite (PPP) species...
November 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117217/morphological-and-genetic-divergence-between-agave-inaequidens-a-cupreata-and-the-domesticated-a-hookeri-analysis-of-their-evolutionary-relationships
#7
Carmen J Figueredo-Urbina, Alejandro Casas, Ignacio Torres-García
Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111964/a-phylogenetic-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-antimycin-biosynthesis
#8
Rebecca Joynt, Ryan F Seipke
Streptomyces species and other Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in diverse environments worldwide and are the source of, or inspiration for, the majority of antibiotics. The genomic era has enhanced biosynthetic understanding of these valuable chemical entities and has also provided a window into the diversity and distribution of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Antimycin is an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c reductase and more recently was shown to inhibit Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-related anti-apoptotic proteins commonly overproduced by cancerous cells...
November 7, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101888/cadmium-and-lead-bioaccumulation-potentials-of-an-aquatic-macrophyte-ceratophyllum-demersum-l-a-laboratory-study
#9
Muhammet Dogan, Mehmet Karatas, Muhammad Aasim
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollutions caused by industrial activities are one of the most serious threats to aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study is to investigate the Cd and Pb bioaccumulations and diverse physiological and biochemical properties of Ceratophyllum demersum L. exposed to different concentrations of Cd (0.5-2.0mg/L) and Pb (25-100mg/L) in aqueous media for 1, 3 and 5 days. Cd and Pb accumulations increased with increase in the exposure times and concentrations, and the highest accumulation values of Cd and Pb were recorded at 2mg/L (2668...
November 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100924/a-practical-method-to-calculate-the-r1-index-of-waste-to-energy-facilities
#10
Federico Viganò
According to Directive 98/2008/EC, the operation carried out by an incinerator of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is classified either as energy recovery (R1) or as disposal (D10) depending on the result achieved by the application of the R1 formula. In 2011 the DG Environment of the European Commission (EC) issued some non-binding guidelines on the interpretation of such a formula that clarified many aspects related to its application. A point not fully clarified by the EC guidelines is the determination of the energy contained in the treated waste (EW)...
October 31, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093725/dynamic-labeling-reveals-temporal-changes-in-carbon-re-allocation-within-the-central-metabolism-of-developing-apple-fruit
#11
Wasiye F Beshir, Victor B M Mbong, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Annemie H Geeraerd, Wim Van den Ende, Bart M Nicolaï
In recent years, the application of isotopically labeled substrates has received extensive attention in plant physiology. Measuring the propagation of the label through metabolic networks may provide information on carbon allocation in sink fruit during fruit development. In this research, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling was used to characterize the changing metabolic pool sizes in developing apple fruit at five growth stages (30, 58, 93, 121, and 149 days after full bloom) using (13)C-isotope feeding experiments on hypanthium tissue discs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093722/osmotic-and-salt-stresses-modulate-spontaneous-and-glutamate-induced-action-potentials-and-distinguish-between-growth-and-circumnutation-in-helianthus-annuus-seedlings
#12
Maria Stolarz, Halina Dziubinska
Action potentials (APs), i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN), i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0-500 mOsm) were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089950/histogen-layers-contributing-to-adventitious-bud-formation-are-determined-by-their-cell-division-activities
#13
Tomoyuki Nabeshima, Soo-Jung Yang, Sho Ohno, Keita Honda, Ayumi Deguchi, Motoaki Doi, Fumi Tatsuzawa, Munetaka Hosokawa
Saintpaulia ionantha is propagated by adventitious buds in horticulture, and periclinal chimeral cultivars are usually difficult to propagate. However, some periclinal chimeral cultivars can be propagated with adventitious buds, and the mechanism of which has been unknown. Striped flower cultivars "Kaname," "Concord," and "Monique" were used to investigate what causes flower color separation in adventitious shoot-derived plants by tissue culture. These cultivars were revealed to have mutated flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (SiF3'5'H), WDR1 (SiWDR1), or flavonoid 3 hydroxylase (SiF3H), respectively, in their L1 layer...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080611/annona-muricata-is-the-natural-therapy-to-most-disease-conditions-including-cancer-growing-in-our-backyard-a-systematic-review-of-its-research-history-and-future-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Yahaya Gavamukulya, Fred Wamunyokoli, Hany A El-Shemy
Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer...
September 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078119/habitat-template-approach-for-green-roofs-using-a-native-rocky-sea-coast-plant-community-in-japan
#15
Ayako Nagase, Yurika Tashiro-Ishii
The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077040/fast-detection-of-striped-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis-walker-infested-rice-seedling-based-on-visible-near-infrared-hyperspectral-imaging-system
#16
Yangyang Fan, Tao Wang, Zhengjun Qiu, Jiyu Peng, Chu Zhang, Yong He
Striped stem-borer (SSB) infestation is one of the most serious sources of damage to rice growth. A rapid and non-destructive method of early SSB detection is essential for rice-growth protection. In this study, hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometrics was used to detect early SSB infestation in rice and identify the degree of infestation (DI). Visible/near-infrared hyperspectral images (in the spectral range of 380 nm to 1030 nm) were taken of the healthy rice plants and infested rice plants by SSB for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days...
October 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062834/micropropagation-and-subsequent-enrichment-of-carotenoids-fatty-acids-and-tocopherol-contents-in-sedum-dasyphyllum-l
#17
Han Yong Park, Ramesh Kumar Saini, Judy Gopal, Young-Soo Keum, Doo Hwan Kim, Onew Lee, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan
A promising micropropagation protocol has been systematically established and demonstrated for the enhanced production of carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of Sedum dasyphyllum. Shoot tip explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Different concentrations of N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were tested in order to stimulate multiple shoot production. Ideal shoot induction (100%) and maximized shoot numbers (36...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044323/mini-incubators-improve-the-adventitious-rooting-performance-of-corymbia-and-eucalyptus-microcuttings-according-to-the-environment-in-which-they-are-conditioned
#18
Gilvano E Brondani, Leandro S DE Oliveira, Enéas R Konzen, André L L DA Silva, Jefferson L Costa
We addressed a major challenge in the in vitro clonal propagation of Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and E. benthamii by using an ex vitro adventitious rooting strategy in a mini-incubator. Mini-incubators were placed in four environments for rooting. A shade house with no fogging system and a greenhouse with no ventilation but with a fogging environment had the best performance in terms of rooting, root growth and survival of microcuttings. Daily recording of the temperature within each mini-incubator in each environment allowed the verification of negative correlations between the maximum average temperature and the survival, adventitious rooting and root growth...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042518/evolutionary-genomics-of-grape-vitis-vinifera-ssp-vinifera-domestication
#19
Yongfeng Zhou, Mélanie Massonnet, Jaleal S Sanjak, Dario Cantu, Brandon S Gaut
We gathered genomic data from grapes (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera), a clonally propagated perennial crop, to address three ongoing mysteries about plant domestication. The first is the duration of domestication; archaeological evidence suggests that domestication occurs over millennia, but genetic evidence indicates that it can occur rapidly. We estimated that our wild and cultivated grape samples diverged ∼22,000 years ago and that the cultivated lineage experienced a steady decline in population size (Ne ) thereafter...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#20
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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