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Plant propagation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#1
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412632/seed-dormancy-and-germination-of-the-medicinal-holoparasitic-plant-cistanche-deserticola-from-the-cold-desert-of-northwest-china
#2
Jia Wang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Guofang Liu, Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang
Cistanche deserticola is a holoparasitic plant with high medicinal value that reproduces only by seeds. However, the requirements for seed dormancy break and germination of this species remain unclear. The freshly matured dust-like seeds consist of a water-permeable seed coat and an undifferentiated oval-shaped embryo embedded in endosperm. No fresh seeds germinated in water or a 10(-5) M fluridone solution at any incubation temperature within 60 days. Length of embryos in seeds incubated in warm- and cold-started stratification sequences had increased 10...
April 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403500/nir-spectroscopy-of-actaea-racemosa-l-%C3%A2-rhizome-en-route-to-fast-and-low-cost-quality-assessment
#3
Marian Bittner, Andrea Krähmer, Regina Schenk, Andreas Springer, Gennadi Gudi, Matthias F Melzig
Rhizomes of Actaea racemosa L. (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa) gained increasing interest as a plant-derived drug due to its hormone-like activity and the absence of estrogenic activity. According to the Current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines and pharmacopeial standards, quality assessment of herbal starting materials includes tests on identity and substitution, as well as quantification of secondary metabolites, usually by HPTLC and LC methods. To reduce the laboratory effort, we investigated near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid species authentication and quantification of metabolites of interest...
April 12, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402000/x-chromosome-drive-in-a-widespread-palearctic-woodland-fly-drosophila-testacea
#4
Graeme L Keais, Mark A Hanson, Brent E Gowen, Steve J Perlman
Selfish genes that bias their own transmission during meiosis can spread rapidly in populations, even if they contribute negatively to the fitness of their host. Driving X chromosomes provide a clear example of this type of selfish propagation. These chromosomes have important evolutionary and ecological consequences, and can be found in a broad range of taxa including plants, mammals, and insects. Here we report a new case of X chromosome drive (X drive) in a widespread woodland fly, Drosophila testacea. We show that males carrying the driving X (SR males) sire 80-100% female offspring, and possess a diagnostic X chromosome haplotype that is perfectly associated with the sex ratio distortion phenotype...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401460/enhanced-production-of-berberine-in-in-vitro-regenerated-cell-of-tinospora-cordifolia-and-its-analysis-through-lcms-qtof
#5
Jitendra Mittal, Madan Mohan Sharma
Tinospora cordifolia is a prioritized medicinal plant and having an immense medicinal importance especially in Indian medicinal system. But this plant needs a regeneration protocol for its rapid propagation. An efficient regeneration protocol was developed for T. cordifolia using nodal explants. High frequency of multiple shoot formation was induced when the nodal segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg L(-1)) and 2-iP (0.5 mg L(-1)). The highest mean number of shoots per nodal explant (7...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395198/propagation-and-some-physiological-effects-of-citrus-bark-cracking-viroid-and-apple-fruit-crinkle-viroid-in-multiple-infected-hop-humulus-lupulus-l
#6
J Matoušek, K Siglová, J Jakše, S Radišek, Joseph R J Brass, T Tsushima, T Guček, G S Duraisamy, T Sano, G Steger
The hop metabolome important for the brewing industry and for medical purposes is endangered worldwide due to multiple viroid infections affecting hop physiology. Combinatorial biolistic hop inoculation with Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd), Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd), Hop latent viroid, and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) showed a low CBCVd compatibility with HSVd, while all other viroid combinations were highly compatible. Unlike to other viroids, single CBCVd propagation showed a significant excess of (-) over (+) strands in hop, tomato, and Nicotiana benthamiana, but not in citruses...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391471/population-and-function-analysis-of-cultivable-bacteria-associated-with-spores-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-gigaspora-margarita
#7
Liangkun Long, Qunying Lin, Qing Yao, Honghui Zhu
This study was aimed to investigate the diversity and function of bacterial population associated with Gigaspora margarita spores. The fungus was propagated in sterilized sand/soil pots using alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), or maize (Zea mays) as host plants, or in sterilized vermiculite pots using alfalfa as host plants, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the new-formed spores using diluted plate method, and typical bacterial isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390097/preponderance-of-clonality-triggers-loss-of-sex-in-bulbophyllum-bicolor-an-obligately-outcrossing-epiphytic-orchid
#8
Ai-Qun Hu, Stephan W Gale, Pankaj Kumar, Richard M K Saunders, Mei Sun, Gunter A Fischer
Vegetative propagation (clonal growth) conveys several evolutionary advantages that positively affect life history fitness and is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms that also reproduce sexually. However, a bias towards clonality can interfere with sexual reproduction and lead to sexual extinction, although a dearth of effective genetic tools and mathematical models for clonal plants has hampered assessment of these impacts. Using the endangered tropical epiphytic or lithophytic orchid Bulbophyllum bicolor as a model, we integrated an examination of breeding system with 12 microsatellite loci and models valid for clonal species to test for the 'loss of sex' and infer likely consequences for long-term reproductive dynamics...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387771/who-lives-in-a-fungus-the-diversity-origins-and-functions-of-fungal-endobacteria-living-in-mucoromycota
#9
Paola Bonfante, Alessandro Desirò
Bacterial interactions with plants and animals have been examined for many years; differently, only with the new millennium the study of bacterial-fungal interactions blossomed, becoming a new field of microbiology with relevance to microbial ecology, human health and biotechnology. Bacteria and fungi interact at different levels and bacterial endosymbionts, which dwell inside fungal cells, provide the most intimate example. Bacterial endosymbionts mostly occur in fungi of the phylum Mucoromycota and include Betaproteobacteria (Burkhoderia-related) and Mollicutes (Mycoplasma-related)...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382031/virus-induced-tubules-a-vehicle-for-spread-of-virions-into-ovary-oocyte-cells-of-an-insect-vector
#10
Zhenfeng Liao, Qianzhuo Mao, Jiajia Li, Chengcong Lu, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Qian Chen, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many arthropod-borne viruses are persistently propagated and transovarially transmitted by female insect vectors through eggs, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Insect oocytes are surrounded by a layer of follicular cells, which are connected to the oocyte through actin-based microvilli. Here, we demonstrate that a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of viral non-structural protein Pns11 to pass through actin-based junctions between follicular cells or through actin-based microvilli from follicular cells into oocyte of its leafhopper vector Recilia dorsalis, thus overcoming transovarial transmission barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365386/antibacterial-function-of-herbal-extracts-on-growth-survival-and-immunoprotection-in-the-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#11
Sheikh AftabUddin, Mohammad Abdul Momin Siddique, Shaharin Salma Romkey, William L Shelton
This study examined the effects of an herbal extract composed of nine herbs i.e Aloe vera, Andrographis pariculata, Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Citrus aurantifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Ocimum sanctum, Ollium cepa and Psidium guajava on growth, survival rate and immunoprotection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The petroleum ether, methanol and N-hexen extracts of different herbal plants were selected, processed and thoroughly mixed in equal proportions and added to the shrimp diets at a concentration of 1...
March 29, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364791/effect-of-nitrogen-sources-on-some-morphological-characteristics-of-in-vitro-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni
#12
F Akbari, A Arminian, D Kahrizi, A Fazeli
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni belongs to Asteraceae family that leaves 200-300 times sweeter than sugar. Low seed fertility is one of the most important problems in Stevia production. So, Plant tissue culture is an efficient method for mass propagation of Stevia. In this research, we studied the effect of various concentrations of nitrogen on some morphological traits of stevia under in vitro conditions. We used axillary nodes as explants and they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing inorganic nitrogen sources i...
February 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355249/barley-hordeum-vulgare-in-the-okhotsk-culture-5th-10th-century-ad-of-northern-japan-and-the-role-of-cultivated-plants-in-hunter-gatherer-economies
#13
Christian Leipe, Elena A Sergusheva, Stefanie Müller, Robert N Spengler, Tomasz Goslar, Hirofumi Kato, Mayke Wagner, Andrzej W Weber, Pavel E Tarasov
This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343360/tsunami-run-up-and-inundation-along-the-coast-of-sabah-and-sarawak-malaysia-due-to-a-potential-brunei-submarine-mass-failure
#14
Wai Kiat Tan, Su Yean Teh, Hock Lye Koh
Submarine landslides, also known as submarine mass failures (SMFs), are major natural marine disasters that could critically damage coastal facilities such as nuclear power plants and oil and gas platforms. It is therefore essential to investigate submarine landslides for potential tsunami hazard assessment. Three-dimensional seismic data from offshore Brunei have revealed a giant seabed mass deposited by a previous SMF. The submarine mass extends over 120 km from the continental slope of the Baram Canyon at 200 m water depth to the deep basin floor of the Northwest Borneo Trough...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342277/climatic-variation-modulates-the-indirect-effects-of-large-herbivores-on-small-mammal-habitat-use
#15
Ryan A Long, Alois Wambua, Jacob R Goheen, Todd M Palmer, Robert M Pringle
Large mammalian herbivores (LMH) strongly shape the composition and architecture of plant communities. A growing literature shows that negative direct effects of LMH on vegetation frequently propagate to suppress the abundance of smaller consumers. Indirect effects of LMH on the behaviour of these consumers, however, have received comparatively little attention despite their potential ecological significance. We sought to understand (i) how LMH indirectly shape small-mammal habitat use by altering the density and distribution of understory plants; (ii) how these effects vary with climatic context (here, seasonality in rainfall); and (iii) the extent to which behavioural responses of small mammals are contingent upon small-mammal density...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330243/micropropagation-and-validation-of-genetic-and-biochemical-fidelity-among-regenerants-of-nothapodytes-nimmoniana-graham-mabb-employing-issr-markers-and-hplc
#16
Lokesh Prakash, Sushil Kumar Middha, Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Mallappa Kumara Swamy
An in vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Nothapodytes nimmoniana which is an important source of Camptothecin (CPT). Elite source was identified based on the chemical potency to accumulate the optimum level of CPT. Different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to study their effect on inducing multiple shoots from the explants regenerated from embryos of N. nimmoniana. Of these, a combination of N6-benzyladenine (0.2 mg L(-1)) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330161/in-vitro-propagation-carotenoid-fatty-acid-and-tocopherol-content-of-ajuga-multiflora-bunge
#17
Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Ramesh Kumar Saini, Rafi Noorzai, Ahmad Jawid Zamany, Doo Hwan Kim
The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation from shoot tip explants of Ajuga multiflora was studied. The highest number of shoots (17.1) was observed when shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 8.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 2.7 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The mean number of shoots per explant was increased 1.6-fold in liquid medium as compared with semi-solid medium. Maximum rooting (100 %) with an average of 7.2 roots per shoot was obtained on MS basal medium...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330124/somaclonal-variations-and-their-applications-in-horticultural-crops-improvement
#18
REVIEW
Hare Krishna, Mahdi Alizadeh, Dhurendra Singh, Udayvir Singh, Nitesh Chauhan, Maliheh Eftekhari, Radha Kishan Sadh
The advancements made in tissue culture techniques has made it possible to regenerate various horticultural species in vitro as micropropagation protocols for commercial scale multiplication are available for a wide range of crops. Clonal propagation and preservation of elite genotypes, selected for their superior characteristics, require high degree of genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plants. However, plant tissue culture may generate genetic variability, i.e., somaclonal variations as a result of gene mutation or changes in epigenetic marks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316790/plant-grafting-insights-into-tissue-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303391/transcriptional-sequencing-and-analysis-of-major-genes-involved-in-the-adventitious-root-formation-of-mango-cotyledon-segments
#20
Yun-He Li, Hong-Na Zhang, Qing-Song Wu, Gloria K Muday
A total of 74,745 unigenes were generated and 1975 DEGs were identified. Candidate genes that may be involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segment were revealed. Adventitious root formation is a crucial step in plant vegetative propagation, but the molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation remains unclear. Adventitious roots formed only at the proximal cut surface (PCS) of mango cotyledon segments, whereas no roots were formed on the opposite, distal cut surface (DCS). To identify the transcript abundance changes linked to adventitious root development, RNA was isolated from PCS and DCS at 0, 4 and 7 days after culture, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Planta
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