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Ornamental plants

Vivek Kumar, Antonio Francis, Pasco B Avery, Cindy L McKenzie, Lance S Osborne
Rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a new invasive whitefly pest in the Florida landscape, known to feed on a wide range of plants including palms, woody ornamentals, shrubs, and fruits. With the objective to find an alternative to neonicotinoid insecticides, and develop an ecofriendly management program for RSW, in the current study we evaluated the efficacy of a biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and an insect growth regulator buprofezin applied alone and in combination under laboratory and field conditions...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Siraj Bahadur, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sehrosh Mir, Muhammad Zafar, Shazia Sultana, Shomaila Ashfaq, Muhammad Arfan
Pollen used to track structural and functional evolution in plants as well as to investigate the problems relative to plant classification. Pollen characters including ornamentation, shape, apertural pattern, pollen symmetry, colpus length, width, and margins used to detect the similarities and dissimilarities between genera and also species of the same genus. In this study pollen features of 20 monocot species belonging to 15 genera of the Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Iridaceae, Ixioliriaceae, Liliaceae, and Xanthorrhoeaceae were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Paola Mattei, Alessandro Gnesini, Cristina Gonnelli, Chiara Marraccini, Grazia Masciandaro, Cristina Macci, Serena Doni, Renato Iannelli, Stefano Lucchetti, Francesco P Nicese, Giancarlo Renella
Sediments dredged by an industrial port, slightly contaminated by heavy metals and petroleoum hydrocarbons, were phytoremediated and used as peat-free growing media for the red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri L.). Plants were grown on sediment only (S), sediment mixed with composted pruning residues (S + PR), sediment fertilized with controlled release fertilizers (S + F) and peat-based growing media as control (C). Plant elongation and dry weight, leaf contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), macronutrients and heavy metals were determined at the end of one growing season...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Diana Wrigley de Basanta, Arturo Estrada-Torres, Iván García-Cunchillos, Asunción Cano Echevarría, Carlos Lado
A new species of Didymium (Myxomycetes), D. azorellae, isolated from plant debris in a moist chamber, collected during studies of cold arid areas of Argentina and Peru, is described. It can be distinguished by its small size, the tightly packed layer of lime crystals on the peridium, the very scant, or absent, capillitium, and the unique spore ornamentation, especially by scanning electron microscopy. The species developed on dead leaves of cushion plants growing in the extremely harsh environments of the central Andean puna at almost 5000 m elevation and the Andino-Patagonian steppe...
January 25, 2018: Mycologia
Rashmi Raj, Charanjeet Kaur, Lalit Agrawal, P S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar, S K Raj
Narcissus tazetta L. is a bulbous ornamental plant popular for its notable fragrant flowers which make it the plant of high importance. In spite of its economic value, narcissus is found to be susceptible for a number of diseases borne by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. A potyvirus, Cyrtanthus elatus virus - A isolate NBRI16 (CEVA-NBRI16), associated with leaf chlorotic stripe disease of N . tazetta cv. Paperwhite was reported for first time in India from our laboratory based on the partial coat protein gene sequence...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Biao Jin
Ginkgo biloba is grown worldwide as an ornamental plant for its golden leaf color. However, the regulatory mechanism of leaf coloration in G. biloba remains unclear. Here, we compared G. biloba gold-colored mutant leaves and normal green leaves in cytological, physiological and transcriptomic terms. We found that chloroplasts of the mutant were fewer and smaller, and exhibited ruptured thylakoid membranes, indistinct stromal lamellae and irregularly arranged vesicles. Physiological experiments also showed that the mutant had a lower chlorophyll, lower flavonoid and higher carotenoid contents (especially lutein)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Mark van Kleunen, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Giuseppe Brundu, Marta Carboni, Stefan Dullinger, Regan Early, Pablo González-Moreno, Quentin J Groom, Philip E Hulme, Christoph Kueffer, Ingolf Kühn, Cristina Máguas, Noëlie Maurel, Ana Novoa, Madalin Parepa, Petr Pyšek, Hanno Seebens, Rob Tanner, Julia Touza, Laura Verbrugge, Ewald Weber, Wayne Dawson, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter, Günther Klonner, Matthew V Talluto, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz
The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged...
March 5, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Hoang Chinh Nguyen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Tung-Chuan Hsiung, Meng-Yuan Huang, Chi-Ming Yang, Jen-Hsien Weng, Ming-Huang Hsu, Po-Yen Chen, Kai-Chieh Chang
Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 μmol photons·m-2 ·s-1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Merel Steenbergen, Ahmed Abd-El-Haliem, Petra Bleeker, Marcel Dicke, Rocio Escobar-Bravo, Gang Cheng, Michel A Haring, Merijn R Kant, Iris Kappers, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Kirsten A Leiss, Saioa Legarrea, Mirka Macel, Sanae Mouden, Corné M J Pieterse, Sandeep J Sarde, Robert C Schuurink, Martin De Vos, Saskia C M Van Wees, Colette Broekgaarden
Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25 to 40 percent annually. Not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests in vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, encompassing virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex life style, and they are vectors of destructive viruses...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Blas Agut, Victoria Pastor, Josep A Jaques, Victor Flors
Tetranychus urticae ( T. urticae ) Koch is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous mite which causes economic losses in both agricultural and ornamental plants. Some traits of T. urticae hamper its management, including a short life cycle, arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, its haplodiploid sex determination system, and its extraordinary ability to adapt to different hosts and environmental conditions. Currently, the use of chemical and biological control are the major control methods used against this mite. In recent years, some studies have focused on plant defence mechanisms against herbivores...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yun-Yun Yan, Jun-Jun Wang, Xin-Yu Lan, Qing-Mei Wang, Fu-Liu Xu
To better monitor and remediate environments contaminated by cadmium (Cd), plants are used as hyperaccumulators or biomonitors; however, few have been identified for aquatic Cd pollution. In our study, two aquatic ornamental plants, Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. and Echinodorus grisebachii Small, were studied for their Cd accumulation capacity, morphological characteristics, and leaf physiological indexes. Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. leaf has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd (166 mg/kg dry weight for 1 mg/L exposure), with no significant physiological difference under exposure...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yik Ling Chew, Adlina Maisarah Mahadi, Kak Ming Wong, Joo Kheng Goh
BACKGROUND: Bauhinia kockiana originates from Peninsular Malaysia and it is grown as a garden ornamental plant. Our previous study reported that this plant exhibited fairly strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial activity of B. kockiana towards methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), to purify and to identify the antibacterial compounds, and to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity. METHODS: Antibacterial activity of B...
February 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jianguo Zhou, Yingxian Cui, Xinlian Chen, Ying Li, Zhichao Xu, Baozhong Duan, Yonghua Li, Jingyuan Song, Hui Yao
Papaver rhoeas L. and P. orientale L., which belong to the family Papaveraceae, are used as ornamental and medicinal plants. The chloroplast genome has been used for molecular markers, evolutionary biology, and barcoding identification. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of P. rhoeas and P. orientale are reported. Results show that the complete chloroplast genomes of P. rhoeas and P. orientale have typical quadripartite structures, which are comprised of circular 152,905 and 152,799-bp-long molecules, respectively...
February 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Young-Ho Ha, Changkyun Kim, Kyung Choi, Joo-Hwan Kim
Tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae), containing two genera ( Abeliophyllum and Forsythia ) and 13 species, is economically important plants used as ornamentals and in traditional medicine. This tribe species occur primarily in mountainous regions of Eurasia with the highest species diversity in East Asia. Here, we examine 11 complete chloroplast genome and nuclear cycloidea2 ( cyc2 ) DNA sequences of 10 Forsythia species and Abeliophyllum distichum using Illumina platform to provide the phylogeny and biogeographic history of the tribe...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shikha Srivastava, Chris Kadooka, Janice Y Uchida
The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Taiqiang Li, Xiongfang Liu, Zhenghong Li, Hong Ma, Youming Wan, Xiuxian Liu, Liyong Fu
Rhododendron longipedicellatum is a narrow endemic species and a subject of urgent demand in the domestic market and overseas. Its fascinating shapes, brilliantly gilvous flowers, and unusual flowering time endow this species with extremely high ornamental value. However, only five wild populations of R. longipedicellatum surviving in limestone habitat have been found through elaborate field investigation, and the number of the populations decreases further or is even confronted with risk of extinction due to the damage of human activities...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiangfeng He, Awraris Getachew Shenkute, Wenhe Wang, Shufa Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are among the class of noncoding small RNA molecules and play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation in plants. Although Lilium is one of the most popular ornamental flowers worldwide, however, there is no report on miRNAs identification. In the present study, therefore, miRNAs and their targets were identified from flower, leaf, bulblet and bulb of Lilium lancifolium Thunb. by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. In this study, a total of 38 conserved miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families and 44 novel miRNAs were identified...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhuang Meng, Xiaoxu Hu, Zhiliang Zhang, Zhanjie Li, Qingfang Lin, Mei Yang, Pingfang Yang, Ray Ming, Qingyi Yu, Kai Wang
Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot plant that has been cultivated in Asia for over 7,000 years for its agricultural, ornamental, religious, and medicinal importance. A notable characteristic of lotus is the seed longevity. Extensive endeavors have been devoted to dissect its genome assembly, including the variety China Antique, which germinated from a 1,300-year-old seed. Here, cytogenetic markers representing the 10 largest megascaffolds, which constitute approximately 70% of the lotus genome assembly, were developed...
February 14, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Leilani Sumabat, Robert C Kemerait, Marin Talbot Brewer
Corynespora cassiicola is a ubiquitous fungus causing emerging plant diseases worldwide, including target spot of cotton, soybean, and tomato, which have rapidly increased in incidence and severity throughout the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to understand the causes for the emerging target spot epidemics in the U.S. by comparing phylogenetic relationships of isolates from cotton, tomato, soybean, and other crop plants and ornamental hosts, and through the determination of the host range of isolates from emerging populations...
February 13, 2018: Phytopathology
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