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Ornamental plants

Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Ariel A Beltramino, Roberto E Vogler, Alejandra Rumi, Leila B Guzmán, Stella M Martín, Juana G Peso
The exotic land gastropod Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900), aka the jumping snail, was registered in Eldorado city, Misiones province, constituting the first documented record of that species in Argentina-and for all of South America as well. Identities of the individuals were confirmed through morphological examination, and by a DNA sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. DNA sequences for the mitochondrial 16S-rRNA and the nuclear 18S-rRNA genes were also obtained from the morphologically-confirmed specimens to gain insights into the genetic background of this species in Argentina, and as additional markers for enhancing the rapidity of identification by governmental authorities who are responsible for managing the presence of exotic species...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Marcin Pietras, Monika Litkowiec, Joanna Gołębiewska
Suillus lakei is an ectomycorrhizal fungus native to North America and known in Europe, South America, and New Zealand. This contribution aims to illustrate the worldwide biogeography of S. lakei based on sporocarp records. Species distribution modeling was used to assess the suitable niche distribution of S. lakei, based on the climatic variables as well as distribution of its ectomycorrhizal partner, Douglas fir. In general, distribution of suitable niches of S. lakei greatly overlaps with the distribution of Douglas fir in North America...
May 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
E Baldi, L Cavani, A Margon, M Quartieri, G Sorrenti, C Marzadori, M Toselli
The aim of the present study was to compare the quantity and the type of carbon (C) stored during the 14-year lifetime of a commercial nectarine orchard ecosystem fertilized with mineral or organic fertilizers. The study was carried out in the Po valley, Italy, in a nectarine orchard of the variety Stark RedGold, grafted on GF677 hybrid peach × almond. Since orchard planting in August 2001, the following treatments were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replicates per block and compared: 1...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kaixi Zhao, Paolo Margaria, Cristina Rosa
OBJECTIVE: Impatiens necrotic spot orthotospovirus (INSV) can impact economically important ornamental plants and vegetables worldwide. Characterization studies on INSV are limited. For most INSV isolates, there are no complete genome sequences available. This lack of genomic information has a negative impact on the understanding of the INSV genetic diversity and evolution. Here we report the first complete nucleotide sequence of a US INSV isolate. RESULTS: INSV-UP01 was isolated from an impatiens in Pennsylvania, US...
May 10, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Víctor Sarto I Monteys, Glòria Torras I Tutusaus
In this paper, the invasion of a new alien beetle species to Europe, the longhorn Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae), originating from East Asia, is revealed. It has settled in Catalonia (Spain), occupying at present an area of at least 44.1 km², where it has been shown to severely infest (ca. 10 to 45%) and eventually kill mulberry trees in private and public grounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate its impact and provide new significant insights into its life history, seasonality, reproductive capacity (females produce an average of 83...
May 9, 2018: Insects
Kenichi Shibuya, Kenta Watanabe, Michiyuki Ono
Flower longevity is one of the most important traits in ornamental plants. In Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), EPHEMERAL1 (EPH1), a NAC transcription factor, is reportedly a key regulator of petal senescence. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis is a powerful tool for crop breeding as well as for biological research. Here we report the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to targeted mutagenesis of the EPH1 gene in I. nil. Three regions within the EPH1 gene were simultaneously targeted by a single binary vector containing three single-guide RNA cassettes...
April 27, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xuelian Guo, Chao Yu, Le Luo, Huihua Wan, Ni Zhen, Yushu Li, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Huitang Pan, Qixiang Zhang
Expression analyses revealed that floral transition of Rosa odorata var. gigantea is mainly regulated by VRN1, COLs, DELLA and KSN, with contributions by the effects of phytohormone and starch metabolism. Seasonal plants utilize changing environmental and developmental cues to control the transition from vegetative growth to flowering at the correct time of year. This study investigated global gene expression profiles at different developmental stages of Rosa odorata var. gigantea by RNA-sequencing, combined with phenotypic characterization and physiological changes...
May 7, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
K S Ping, R R Poobathy, R Zakaria, S Subramaniam
  BACKGROUND: Conservation of commercially important ornamental plants is important to maintain its unique beauty to cater the market demands. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for Aranda Broga Blue orchid PLBs using droplet-vitrification method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several critical factors in cryopreservation were accessed such as preculture concentrations and durations, choice of vitrification solutions, two-step or three-step vitrification, growth recovery medium and PVS2 exposure duration...
July 2017: Cryo Letters
D Kulus, A Abratowska
  BACKGROUND: Ajania pacifica, a novelty on the horticultural market, is valued as an ornamental and a medicinal plant. Breeding programs led to the creation of numerous cultivars. Therefore, it is important to develop species storage methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study has been to develop an encapsulation-based cryopreservation protocol of Ajania pacifica shoot tips. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Shoot tips of ajania 'Bengo' were precultured on media with different sucrose and ABA concentrations, encapsulated and dehydrated for various periods and stored in liquid nitrogen...
September 2017: Cryo Letters
S A Abbasi, S M Tauseef
The ornamental plant Alternanthera ficoidea (also named A. tenella), which is common and widespread throughout the tropics and is being increasingly regarded as an invasive, problematic weed, has been explored as a bioagent in greywater treatment. In the recently developed SHEFROL® bioreactor, it was seen to treat greywater of varying strengths (250-1,300 mg/L chemical oxygen demand, COD) quickly and substantially to the extent of 75-77%. Biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended solids, and heavy metals copper, nickel, manganese, and zinc were also removed to the extents of 83...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Peter Hempel, Annette Hohe, Conny Tränkner
The ornamental crop species Hydrangea macrophylla exhibits diploid and triploid levels of ploidy and develops lacecap (wild type) or mophead inflorescences. In order to characterize a H. macrophylla germplasm collection, we determined the inflorescence type and the 2C DNA content of 120 plants representing 43 cultivars. We identified 78 putative diploid and 39 putative triploid plants by flow cytometry. In our collection 69 out of 98 flowering plants produced lacecap inflorescences, whereas 29 plants developed mophead inflorescences...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ke Wang, Zhen-Yu Bai, Qian-Yu Liang, Qing-Lin Liu, Lei Zhang, Yuan-Zhi Pan, Guang-Li Liu, Bei-Bei Jiang, Fan Zhang, Yin Jia
BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum is one kind of ornamental plant well-known and widely used in the world. However, its quality and production were severely affected by low temperature conditions in winter and early spring periods. Therefore, we used the RNA-Seq platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly to analyze chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) transcription response to low temperature. RESULTS: Using Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 86,444,237 high-quality clean reads and 93,837 unigenes were generated from four libraries: T01, controls; T02, 4 °C cold acclimation (CA) for 24 h; T03, - 4 °C freezing treatments for 4 h with prior CA; and T04, - 4 °C freezing treatments for 4 h without prior CA...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Marianne Elliott, Jennifer Yuzon, Mathu Malar C, Sucheta Tripathy, Mai Bui, Gary A Chastagner, Katie Coats, David M Rizzo, Matteo Garbelotto, Takao Kasuga
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that genome plasticity allows filamentous plant pathogens to adapt to changing environments. Recently, the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has been documented to undergo irreversible phenotypic alterations accompanied by chromosomal aberrations when infecting trunks of mature oak trees (genus Quercus). In contrast, genomes and phenotypes of the pathogen derived from the foliage of California bay (Umbellularia californica) are usually stable...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Henry I Miller, Brenda Silva
The genetic engineering of plants over the past two decades has led to significant scientific, commercial and humanitarian successes, with more than 2.1 billion hectares cultivated worldwide. The vast majority of cultivation has been huge-scale commodity crops - corn, cotton, canola, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa - while specialty crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables and ornamental plants have been underrepresented. The commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) flowers has been especially neglected...
May 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Cindy Callens, Matthew R Tucker, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Many monocot plants have high social and economic value. These include grasses such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which produce soft commodities for many food and beverage industries, and ornamental flowers such ase lily (Lilium longiflorum) and orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), which represent an important component of international flower markets. There is constant pressure to improve the development and diversity of these species, with a significant emphasis on flower development, and this is particularly relevant considering the impact of changing environments on reproduction and thus yield...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Faheem Afzal Shah, Jun Ni, Jing Chen, Qiaojian Wang, Wenbo Liu, Xue Chen, Caiguo Tang, Songling Fu, Lifang Wu
Sapium sebiferum , an ornamental and bio-energetic plant, is propagated by seed. Its seed coat contains germination inhibitors and takes a long time to stratify for germination. In this study, we discovered that the S. sebiferum seed coat (especially the tegmen) and endospermic cap (ESC) contained high levels of proanthocyanidins (PAs). Seed coat and ESC removal induced seed germination, whereas exogenous application with seed coat extract (SCE) or PAs significantly inhibited this process, suggesting that PAs in the seed coat played a major role in regulating seed germination in S...
2018: PeerJ
Olivier Raymond, Jérôme Gouzy, Jérémy Just, Hélène Badouin, Marion Verdenaud, Arnaud Lemainque, Philippe Vergne, Sandrine Moja, Nathalie Choisne, Caroline Pont, Sébastien Carrère, Jean-Claude Caissard, Arnaud Couloux, Ludovic Cottret, Jean-Marc Aury, Judit Szécsi, David Latrasse, Mohammed-Amin Madoui, Léa François, Xiaopeng Fu, Shu-Hua Yang, Annick Dubois, Florence Piola, Antoine Larrieu, Magali Perez, Karine Labadie, Lauriane Perrier, Benjamin Govetto, Yoan Labrousse, Priscilla Villand, Claudia Bardoux, Véronique Boltz, Céline Lopez-Roques, Pascal Heitzler, Teva Vernoux, Michiel Vandenbussche, Hadi Quesneville, Adnane Boualem, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Chang Liu, Manuel Le Bris, Jérôme Salse, Sylvie Baudino, Moussa Benhamed, Patrick Wincker, Mohammed Bendahmane
Roses have high cultural and economic importance as ornamental plants and in the perfume industry. We report the rose whole-genome sequencing and assembly and resequencing of major genotypes that contributed to rose domestication. We generated a homozygous genotype from a heterozygous diploid modern rose progenitor, Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush'. Using single-molecule real-time sequencing and a meta-assembly approach, we obtained one of the most comprehensive plant genomes to date. Diversity analyses highlighted the mosaic origin of 'La France', one of the first hybrids combining the growth vigor of European species and the recurrent blooming of Chinese species...
April 30, 2018: Nature Genetics
Courtney A Hollender, Thierry Pascal, Amy Tabb, Toto Hadiarto, Chinnathambi Srinivasan, Wanpeng Wang, Zhongchi Liu, Ralph Scorza, Chris Dardick
Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cong Chen, Lanting Zeng, Qingsheng Ye
Phalaenopsis flowers are some of the most popular ornamental flowers in the world. For most ornamental plants, petal longevity determines postharvest quality and garden performance. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the senescence mechanism of Phalaenopsis . In the present study, a proteomic approach combined with ultrastructural observation and activity analysis of antioxidant enzymes was used to profile the molecular and biochemical changes during pollination-induced petal senescence in Phalaenopsis “Red Dragon”...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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