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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087616/pathways-to-false-positive-diagnoses-using-molecular-genetic-detection-methods-phytophthora-cinnamomi-a-case-study
#1
Manisha Kunadiya, Diane White, William A Dunstan, Giles E St, J Hardy, Vera Andjic, Treena I Burgess
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the world's most invasive plant pathogens affecting ornamental plants, horticultural crops and natural ecosystems. Accurate diagnosis is very important to determine the presence or absence of this pathogen in diseased and asymptomatic plants. In previous studies, P. cinnamomi species-specific primers were designed and tested using various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques including conventional PCR, nested PCR, and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). In all cases, the primers were stated to be highly specific and sensitive to P...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078623/identification-of-host-fruit-volatiles-from-snowberry-symphoricarpos-albus-attractive-to-rhagoletis-zephyria-flies-from-the-western-united-states
#2
Dong H Cha, Shannon B Olsson, Wee L Yee, Robert B Goughnour, Glen R Hood, Monte Mattsson, Dietmar Schwarz, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074500/level-of-environmental-threat-posed-by-horticultural-trade-in-cactaceae
#3
Ana Novoa, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, John R U Wilson
Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and the major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly interesting and challenging for three main reasons-it is considered the fifth most threatened major taxonomic group in the world; several cactus species are amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on CITES trade data and the eleven main auction sites selling cacti on the internet we document a substantial global trade from and to almost all continents...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059122/study-on-relationship-between-pollen-exine-ornamentation-pattern-and-germplasm-evolution-in-flowering-crabapple
#4
Wang-Xiang Zhang, Ming-Ming Zhao, Jun-Jun Fan, Ting Zhou, Yong-Xia Chen, Fu-Liang Cao
Pollen ornamentation patterns are important in the study of plant genetic evolution and systematic taxonomy. However, they are normally difficult to quantify. Based on observations of pollen exine ornamentation characteristics of 128 flowering crabapple germplasms (44 natural species and 84 varieties), three qualitative variables with binary properties (Xi: regularity of pollen exine ornamentation; Yi: scope of ornamentation arrangement regularity; Zi: ornamentation arrangement patterns) were extracted to establish a binary three-dimensional data matrix (Xi Yi Zi) and the matrix data were converted to decimal data through weight assignment, which facilitated the unification of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049122/generation-of-gene-edited-chrysanthemum-morifolium-using-multi-copy-transgenes-as-targets-and-markers
#5
Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Ryutaro Aida, Katsutomo Sasaki
The most widely used gene editing technology-the CRISPR/Cas9 system-employs a bacterial monomeric DNA endonuclease known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that directs Cas9 to a complementary target DNA. However, introducing mutations into higher polyploid plant species, especially for species without genome information, has been difficult. Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum) is one of the most important ornamental plants, but it is a hexaploid with a large genome; moreover, it lacks whole genome information...
January 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025305/dispersal-of-amblyseius-swirskii-acari-phytoseiidae-on-high-tunnel-bell-peppers-in-presence-or-absence-of-polyphagotarsonemus-latus-acari-tarsonemidae
#6
L Lopez, H A Smith, M A Hoy, R D Cave
Amblyseius swirskiiAthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite used to control thrips (Thysanoptera), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and broad mites (BMs) (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acari: Tarsonemidae). Dispersal of A. swirskii, using the ornamental pepper "Explosive Ember" as a banker plant was evaluated for control of BMs in high-tunnel peppers. Open-canopy plants (5 weeks old) versus closed-canopy plants (10-weeks old) were used to evaluate the effect of plant connectedness in A...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018399/the-onion-allium-cepa-l-r2r3-myb-gene-myb1-regulates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis
#7
Kathy E Schwinn, Hanh Ngo, Fernand Kenel, David A Brummell, Nick W Albert, John A McCallum, Meeghan Pither-Joyce, Ross N Crowhurst, Colin Eady, Kevin M Davies
Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013274/duplication-and-whorl-specific-downregulation-of-the-obligate-ap3-pi-heterodimer-genes-explain-the-origin-of-paeonia-lactiflora-plants-with-spontaneous-corolla-mutation
#8
Pichang Gong, Xiang Ao, Gaixiu Liu, Fangyun Cheng, Chaoying He
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora) is a globally important ornamental plant. Spontaneous floral mutations occur frequently during cultivation, and are selected as a way to release new cultivars, but the underlying evolutionary developmental genetics remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated a collection of spontaneous corolla mutational plants (SCMP) whose other floral organs were virtually unaffected. Unlike the corolla in normal plants (NP) that withered soon after fertilization, the transformed corolla (petals) in SCMP was greenish and persistent similar to the calyx (sepals)...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011362/designing-living-walls-for-greywater-treatment
#9
Harsha S Fowdar, Belinda E Hatt, Peter Breen, Perran L M Cook, Ana Deletic
Greywater is being increasingly used as an alternative water source to reduce potable water demand and to alleviate pressure on sewerage systems. This paper presents the development of a low energy and low maintenance greywater treatment technology: a living wall system, employing ornamental plants (including vines) grown in a sand filter on a side of a building to treat shower, bath, and washing basin wastewaters. The system can, at the same time, provide critical amenity and micro-climate benefits to our cities...
December 14, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995002/reproductive-biology-and-breeding-system-of-saraca-asoca-roxb-de-wilde-a-vulnerable-medicinal-plant
#10
G R Smitha, V Thondaiman
Ashoka (Saraca asoca) is a perennial, evergreen tree valued for its ornamental flowers and medicinal values. This species is classified as 'vulnerable' under IUCN list due to its dwindling population because of destructive harvesting from natural habitats. Therefore, conservation and multiplication of this species is need of the hour to utilize its astonishing medicinal uses eternally. Conservation approaches of any plant species require in-depth study of its reproductive biology, which is lacking in this species...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964782/the-pathogen-inducible-promoter-of-defense-related-lsgrp1-gene-from-lilium-functioning-in-phylogenetically-distinct-species-of-plants
#11
Chia-Hua Lin, Chao-Ying Chen
A suitable promoter greatly enhances the efficiency of target gene expression of plant molecular breeding and farming; however, only very few promoters are available for economically important non-graminaceous ornamental monocots. In this study, an 868-bp upstream region of defense-related LsGRP1 of Lilium, named PLsGRP1, was cloned by genome walking and proven to exhibit promoter activity in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lilium 'Stargazer' as assayed by agroinfiltration-based β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression system...
January 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935668/chemical-composition-antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-activities-of-flowers-essential-oils-of-alpinia-zerumbet-pers-from-martinique-island
#12
Audrey Kerdudo, Emy Njoh Ellong, Pauline Burger, Vanessa Gonnot, Laurent Boyer, Fabrice Chandre, Sandra Adenet, Katia Rochefort, Thomas Michel, Xavier Fernandez
Alpinia species, used as ornamental plants and flavoring agents, are renowned for their therapeutic properties and their subsequent use in traditional medicines throughout the world. Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm. is the most common Alpinia species encountered in Martinique. Several essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation of A. zerumbet flowers collected in various locations on the island at different seasons were analysed to evaluate the influence of the collection period and area on the EOs' chemical compositions and to assess their bioactivity...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929123/rnai-mediated-mortality-of-the-whitefly-through-transgenic-expression-of-double-stranded-rna-homologous-to-acetylcholinesterase-and-ecdysone-receptor-in-tobacco-plants
#13
Hassan Jamil Malik, Amir Raza, Imran Amin, Jodi A Scheffler, Brian E Scheffler, Judith K Brown, Shahid Mansoor
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) is a pest and vector of plant viruses to crop and ornamental plants worldwide. Using RNA interference (RNAi) to down regulate whitefly genes by expressing their homologous double stranded RNAs in plants has great potential for management of whiteflies to reduce plant virus disease spread. Using a Tobacco rattle virus-derived plasmid for in planta transient expression of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ecdysone receptor (EcR) genes of B...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917290/functional-analysis-of-alternative-splicing-of-the-flowering-locus-t-orthologous-gene-in-chrysanthemum-morifolium
#14
Yachao Mao, Jing Sun, Peipei Cao, Rong Zhang, Qike Fu, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called 'florigen' plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar 'Jimba'. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917188/crispr-cas9-tool-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-plant-genome-editing
#15
REVIEW
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel, Shuilin He
Recent developments in genome editing techniques have aroused substantial excitement among agricultural scientists. These techniques offer new opportunities for developing improved plant lines with addition of important traits or removal of undesirable traits. Increased adoption of genome editing has been geared by swiftly developing Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). This is appearing as driving force for innovative utilization in diverse branches of plant biology. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is being used for rapid, easy and efficient alteration of genes among diverse plant species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889244/medicinal-uses-chemistry-and-pharmacology-of-dillenia-species-dilleniaceae
#16
REVIEW
Carla W Sabandar, Juriyati Jalil, Norizan Ahmat, Nor-Ashila Aladdin
The genus Dillenia is comprised of about 100 species of evergreen and deciduous trees or shrubs of disjunct distribution in the seasonal tropics of Madagascar through South and South East Asia, Malaysia, North Australia, and Fiji. Species from this genus have been widely used in medicinal folklore to treat cancers, wounds, jaundice, fever, cough, diabetes mellitus, and diarrhea as well as hair tonics. The plants of the genus also produce edible fruits and are cultivated as ornamental plants. Flavonoids, triterpenoids, and miscellaneous compounds have been identified in the genus...
February 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877182/insights-from-the-cold-transcriptome-and-metabolome-of-dendrobium-officinale-global-reprogramming-of-metabolic-and-gene-regulation-networks-during-cold-acclimation
#17
Zhi-Gang Wu, Wu Jiang, Song-Lin Chen, Nitin Mantri, Zheng-Ming Tao, Cheng-Xi Jiang
Plant cold acclimation (CA) is a genetically complex phenomenon involving gene regulation and expression. Little is known about the cascading pattern of gene regulatroy network and the link between genes and metabolites during CA. Dendrobium officinale (DOKM) is an important medicinal and ornamental plant and hypersensitive to low temperature. Here, we used the large scale metabolomic and transcriptomic technologies to reveal the response to CA in DOKM seedlings based on the physiological profile analyses. Lowering temperature from 4 to -2°C resulted in significant increase (P < 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872631/identification-and-characterization-of-cyc-like-genes-in-regulation-of-ray-floret-development-in-chrysanthemum-morifolium
#18
Di Huang, Xiaowei Li, Ming Sun, Tengxun Zhang, Huitang Pan, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Chrysanthemum morifolium, one of the most economically important ornamental crops worldwide, is well-known for the elaborate and complex inflorescence which is composed of both bilaterally symmetrical ray florets and radially symmetrical disc florets. Despite continuing efforts, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of the two flower types are still unclear so far. CYC-like proteins have been shown to control flower symmetry or regulate flower-type identity in several angiosperm plant lineages. In this study, we conducted comparative analysis of the CmCYC2 genes in two chrysanthemum cultivars and their F1 progenies with various whorls of ray florets...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866941/vayg1-is-required-for-microsclerotium-formation-and-melanin-production-in-verticillium-dahliae
#19
Rong Fan, Steven J Klosterman, Conghao Wang, Krishna V Subbarao, Xiangming Xu, Wenjing Shang, Xiaoping Hu
The fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt disease on many plant species, including economically important crop and ornamental plants worldwide. It produces darkly pigmented resting structures known as microsclerotia, which are able to survive for up to 14years in soil, and represent one of the defining characteristics of this species. The pigment produced in V. dahliae is dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin, a form of melanin common among fungi and named so for the intermediary of this melanin biosynthetic pathway...
November 17, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829168/acute-and-subacute-toxicity-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-alibertia-edulis-rich-a-rich-ex-dc-in-rats
#20
Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei Menegati, Fernando Freitas de Lima, Giseli Karenina Traesel, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho Souza, Ariany Carvalho Dos Santos, Diana Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Vinícius Soares de Oliveira, Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Alibertia edulis, popularly known as "marmelo do Cerrado" is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado. It has high food and ornamental potential and the tea leaves are currently used as hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and diuretic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to evaluate the safety of the aqueous extract of Alibertia edulis leaves (AEAE), the acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed in male and female Wistar albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were performed in accordance with the OECD guidelines 425 and 407...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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