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Seed science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713412/the-emerging-oilseed-crop-sesamum-indicum-enters-the-omics-era
#1
REVIEW
Komivi Dossa, Diaga Diouf, Linhai Wang, Xin Wei, Yanxin Zhang, Mareme Niang, Daniel Fonceka, Jingyin Yu, Marie A Mmadi, Louis W Yehouessi, Boshou Liao, Xiurong Zhang, Ndiaga Cisse
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops widely grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional seeds. It is well adapted to harsh environments and constitutes an alternative cash crop for smallholders in developing countries. Despite its economic and nutritional importance, sesame is considered as an orphan crop because it has received very little attention from science. As a consequence, it lags behind the other major oil crops as far as genetic improvement is concerned. In recent years, the scenario has considerably changed with the decoding of the sesame nuclear genome leading to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, comprehensive genetic maps, high-quality transcriptome assemblies, web-based functional databases and diverse daft genome sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707186/natural-oils-for-skin-barrier-repair-ancient-compounds-now-backed-by-modern-science
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra R Vaughn, Ashley K Clark, Raja K Sivamani, Vivian Y Shi
Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701046/a-review-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-celery-apium-graveolens-l
#3
Wesam Kooti, Nahid Daraei
Plants are an important source of natural active products that are different, based on mechanism and biological properties. Celery ( Apium graveolens L) is a plant from the apiaceae family and phenolic and antioxidant compounds of this plant have been studied by several scientists. The aim of this study was to review systematically the antioxidant activity of celery. Required articles were searched from databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Springer. Keywords used in this study were Apium graveolens L, celery, antioxidant, free radical, leaf, and seed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680783/johann-gaspar-spurzheim-a-life-dedicated-to-phrenology
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Bilal, Bryan Edwards, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Loved for his empathetic nature but admired for his analytical mind, Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a prominent contributor to phrenology, a field of neuroscience focused on studying the shapes of the skulls in relation to the activity levels of certain functional areas of the brain. This curiosity about the connection between physical characteristics and brain function was seeded in the young mind of Spurzheim when he observed that classmates with seemingly superb memories also appeared to have bright eyes...
May 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677044/ren%C3%A3-dubos-tuberculosis-and-the-ecological-facets-of-virulence
#5
Mark Honigsbaum
Reflecting on his scientific career toward the end of his life, the French-educated medical researcher René Dubos presented his flowering as an ecological thinker as a story of linear progression-the inevitable product of the intellectual seeds planted in his youth. But how much store should we set by Dubos's account of his ecological journey? Resisting retrospective biographical readings, this paper seeks to relate the development of Dubos's ecological ideas to his experimental practices and his career as a laboratory researcher...
September 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675073/designing-interaction-voice-and-inclusion-in-aac-research
#6
Graham Pullin, Jutta Treviranus, Rupal Patel, Jeff Higginbotham
The ISAAC 2016 Research Symposium included a Design Stream that examined timely issues across augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), framed in terms of designing interaction, designing voice, and designing inclusion. Each is a complex term with multiple meanings; together they represent challenging yet important frontiers of AAC research. The Design Stream was conceived by the four authors, researchers who have been exploring AAC and disability-related design throughout their careers, brought together by a shared conviction that designing for communication implies more than ensuring access to words and utterances...
July 4, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660257/inducing-domain-specific-sentiment-lexicons-from-unlabeled-corpora
#7
William L Hamilton, Kevin Clark, Jure Leskovec, Dan Jurafsky
A word's sentiment depends on the domain in which it is used. Computational social science research thus requires sentiment lexicons that are specific to the domains being studied. We combine domain-specific word embeddings with a label propagation framework to induce accurate domain-specific sentiment lexicons using small sets of seed words. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on inducing sentiment lexicons from domain-specific corpora and that our purely corpus-based approach outperforms methods that rely on hand-curated resources (e...
November 2016: Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646886/implementation-science-for-ambulatory-care-safety-a-novel-method-to-develop-context-sensitive-interventions-to-reduce-quality-gaps-in-monitoring-high-risk-patients
#8
Kathryn M McDonald, George Su, Sarah Lisker, Emily S Patterson, Urmimala Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Missed evidence-based monitoring in high-risk conditions (e.g., cancer) leads to delayed diagnosis. Current technological solutions fail to close this safety gap. In response, we aim to demonstrate a novel method to identify common vulnerabilities across clinics and generate attributes for context-flexible population-level monitoring solutions for widespread implementation to improve quality. METHODS: Based on interviews with staff in otolaryngology, pulmonary, urology, breast, and gastroenterology clinics at a large urban publicly funded health system, we applied journey mapping to co-develop a visual representation of how patients are monitored for high-risk conditions...
June 24, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623249/sequential-self-assembly-of-dna-functionalized-droplets
#9
Yin Zhang, Angus McMullen, Lea-Laetitia Pontani, Xiaojin He, Ruojie Sha, Nadrian C Seeman, Jasna Brujic, Paul M Chaikin
Complex structures and devices, both natural and manmade, are often constructed sequentially. From crystallization to embryogenesis, a nucleus or seed is formed and built upon. Sequential assembly allows for initiation, signaling, and logical programming, which are necessary for making enclosed, hierarchical structures. Although biology relies on such schemes, they have not been available in materials science. Here, we demonstrate programmed sequential self-assembly of DNA functionalized emulsions. The droplets are initially inert because the grafted DNA strands are pre-hybridized in pairs...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603037/species-boundaries-in-the-astragalus-cusickii-complex-delimited-using-molecular-phylogenetic-techniques
#10
J C Zimmers, M Thomas, L Yang, A Bombarely, M M Mancuso, M F Wojciechowski, J F Smith
Understanding the source of phenotypic variability is a challenge in the biological sciences. Variation in phenotypes is the result of variation in the genetics and environment the organism experiences, but elucidating the relative contribution of these two parameters can pose problems, especially in the field of systematics. Systematists are challenged to classify biological diversity into groups that share common ancestry. Phenotypic variation can be useful to demonstrate common ancestry, but only when the primary contributor to the variation is under strong genetic control, and thus heritable...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560643/in-vitro-seed-germination-and-biochemical-profiling-of-artemisia-absinthium-exposed-to-various-metallic-nanoparticles
#11
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Zia-Ur-Rehman Mashwani, Muhammad Iqbal, Sidra Sabir, Farhat Yasmeen
In the recent years, nanotechnology has attained much attention in the every field of science. The synthesis, characterisation and applications of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In the current study, MNPs were synthesised through polyols process and applied in vitro to study their effect on medicinally important plant : Artemisia absinthium. The current study strives to check the effect of MNPs, i.e., Ag, Cu and Au on seed germination, root and shoot length, seedling vigour index (SVI) and biochemical profiling in A...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546559/mapping-few-femtosecond-slices-of-ultra-relativistic-electron-bunches
#12
Tim Plath, Christoph Lechner, Velizar Miltchev, Philipp Amstutz, Nagitha Ekanayake, Leslie Lamberto Lazzarino, Theophilos Maltezopoulos, Jörn Bödewadt, Tim Laarmann, Jörg Roßbach
Free-electron lasers are unique sources of intense and ultra-short x-ray pulses that led to major scientific breakthroughs across disciplines from matter to materials and life sciences. The essential element of these devices are micrometer-sized electron bunches with high peak currents, low energy spread, and low emittance. Advanced FEL concepts such as seeded amplifiers rely on the capability of analyzing and controlling the electron beam properties with few-femtosecond time resolution. One major challenge is to extract tomographic slice parameters instead of projected electron beam properties...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510186/broomcorn-and-foxtail-millet-were-cultivated-in-taiwan-about-5000%C3%A2-years-ago
#13
Chen-Hwa Tsang, Kuang-Ti Li, Tze-Fu Hsu, Yuan-Ching Tsai, Po-Hsuan Fang, Yue-Ie Caroline Hsing
BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical remains of millet were found at the Nan-kuan-li East site in Tainan Science Park, southern Taiwan. This site, dated around 5000-4300 BP, is characterized by remains of the Tapenkeng culture, the earliest Neolithic culture found so far in Taiwan. A large number of millet-like carbonized and charred seeds with varied sizes and shapes were unearthed from the site by the flotation method. Since no millet grain was ever found archaeologically in Taiwan previously, this discovery is of great importance and significance...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507358/effect-of-citrullus-colocynthis-aqueous-seed-extract-on-beta-cell-regeneration-and-intra-islet-vasculature-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-male-albino-rats
#14
Alia Amin, Mohammad Tahir, Khalid Pervez Lone
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on beta cell regeneration and intra-islet vasculature. METHODS: This experimental study was conducted at the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, from February 2013 to January 2014. It comprised male wistar rats weighing 100-150gand aged 6-8 weeks. The animals were divided into 6 groups. Group A1 served as control. Diabetes was induced in groups A2, B2 and C2 using single intravenous injection of 50mg/kg of alloxan...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506900/chinese-materia-medica-used-in-medicinal-diets
#15
Fang Tan, Yalin Chen, Xiaolei Tan, Yunyun Ma, Yong Peng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476982/effects-of-bimetallic-nanoparticles-on-seed-germination-frequency-and-biochemical-characterisation-of-eruca-sativa
#16
Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi
In the modern era of science and technology, nanotechnology is becoming popular science field because materials at nanoscale contain improved physical, chemical and biological properties. This study aimed to explore the capacity of bimetallic nanoparticle alloys of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), gold (Au) in different ratios to evaluate the effects on medicinally important plant Eruca sativa. Biochemical parameters of Eruca sativa were studied by applying bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Seeds of Eruca sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension employed in concentration of (30 µg/ml)...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462457/how-lost-passenger-ants-find-their-way-home
#17
Mandyam V Srinivasan
Animal navigation has fascinated biologists and engineers for centuries, and some of the most illuminating discoveries have come from the study of creatures with a brain no larger than a sesame seed. In an elegant recent study, Pfeiffer and Wittlinger (Science, 353, 1155-1157, 2016) have shown the means by which desert ants, carried from one nest to another by a relative, find their own way back home if they are accidentally dropped en route.
May 1, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444473/contrasting-effects-of-engineered-carbon-nanotubes-on-plants-a-review
#18
Meththika Vithanage, Mihiri Seneviratne, Mahtab Ahmad, Binoy Sarkar, Yong Sik Ok
Rapid surge of interest for carbon nanotube (CNT) in the last decade has made it an imperative member of nanomaterial family. Because of the distinctive physicochemical properties, CNTs are widely used in a number of scientific applications including plant sciences. This review mainly describes the role of CNT in plant sciences. Contradictory effects of CNT on plants physiology are reported. CNT can act as plant growth inducer causing enhanced plant dry biomass and root/shoot lengths. At the same time, CNT can cause negative effects on plants by forming reactive oxygen species in plant tissues, consequently leading to cell death...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#19
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412621/xanthium-strumarium-l-seed-hull-as-a-zero-cost-alternative-for-rhodamine-b-dye-removal
#20
Shraddha Khamparia, Dipika Kaur Jaspal
Treatment of polluted water has been considered as one of the most important aspects in environmental sciences. Present study explores the decolorization potential of a low cost natural adsorbent Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull for the adsorption of a toxic xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RHB). The characterization of the adsorbent revealed the presence of high amount of carbon, when exposed to Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Further appreciable decolorization took place which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis noticing shift in peaks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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