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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#1
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302268/time-capsules-in-natural-sediment-archives-tracking-phytoplankton-population-genetic-diversity-and-adaptation-over-multidecadal-timescales-in-the-face-of-environmental-change
#2
REVIEW
Marianne Ellegaard, Anna Godhe, Sofia Ribeiro
Undisturbed records of resting stages produced in the past and stored in coastal sediments are very valuable to science, because they may provide unique insights into past evolutionary and ecological trajectories. Within marine phytoplankton, multidecadal time series of monoclonal strains germinated from resting stages have been established for diatoms (Skeletonema marinoi) and dinoflagellates (Pentapharsodinium dalei), spanning ca. a century. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of these time series have revealed effects of past environmental changes on population genetic structure...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297414/an-automatic-approach-for-constructing-a-knowledge-base-of-symptoms-in-chinese
#3
Tong Ruan, Mengjie Wang, Jian Sun, Ting Wang, Lu Zeng, Yichao Yin, Ju Gao
BACKGROUND: While a large number of well-known knowledge bases (KBs) in life science have been published as Linked Open Data, there are few KBs in Chinese. However, KBs in Chinese are necessary when we want to automatically process and analyze electronic medical records (EMRs) in Chinese. Of all, the symptom KB in Chinese is the most seriously in need, since symptoms are the starting point of clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: We publish a public KB of symptoms in Chinese, including symptoms, departments, diseases, medicines, and examinations as well as relations between symptoms and the above related entities...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258356/grave-fraudulence-in-medical-device-research-a-narrative-review-of-the-pin-seeding-study-for-the-pinnacle-hip-system
#4
Joan E Steffen, Ella A Fassler, Kevin J Reardon, David S Egilman
In 2001, DePuy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson (J&J/DePuy), initiated a seeding study called the "Multi-center, Prospective, Clinical Evaluation of Pinnacle Acetabular Implants in Total Hip Arthroplasty" (PIN Study). J&J/DePuy designed this study to develop new business opportunities during the launch of their Pinnacle Hip System (PHS) and generate survivorship data for marketing. This article, the first review of a seeding trial for a medical device, examines internal company documents relating to the PIN Study; the analysis herein focuses on the integrity of J&J/DePuy's research practices in conception, implementation, and analysis...
2018: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#5
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238978/use-of-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-creation-of-laryngeal-cartilage
#6
Hongji Zhang, Sherry Voytik-Harbin, Sarah Brookes, Lujuan Zhang, Joseph Wallace, Noah Parker, Stacey Halum
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are an exciting potential cell source for tissue engineering because cells can be derived from the simple excision of autologous fat. This study introduces a novel approach for tissue-engineering cartilage from ASCs and a customized collagen oligomer solution, and demonstrates that the resultant cartilage can be used for laryngeal cartilage reconstruction in an animal model. STUDY DESIGN: Basic science experimental design...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238507/kinetic-parameters-and-nitrate-nitrite-changes-in-bioremediation-of-toxic-pentaerythritol-tetranitrate-petn-contaminated-soil
#7
Mohsen Sadani, Mohammad Amin Karami, Fahimeh Teimouri, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Seyed Mahdi Moosavi, Bahare Dehdashti
Background: Cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is a public health concern. Some explosives can be carcinogenic in humans. Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), a powerful explosive with very low water solubility, can be easily transported to ground waters. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the removal efficiencies of PETN from soil by bioremediation, and obtain kinetic parameters of biological process. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Environmental Health Engineering Lab (Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran) in 2015-2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237931/tau-mediated-neurodegeneration-and-potential-implications-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Xi-Lin Wu, Juan Piña-Crespo, Yun-Wu Zhang, Xiao-Chun Chen, Hua-Xi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To review recent research advances on tau, a major player in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, a biomarker for AD onset, and potential target for AD therapy. DATA SOURCES: This review was based on a comprehensive search using online literature databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Literature search was based on the following keywords: Alzheimer's disease, tau protein, biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), therapeutics, plasma, imaging, propagation, spreading, seeding, prion, conformational templating, and posttranslational modification...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235937/the-impact-of-genetically-modified-gm-crops-in-modern-agriculture-a-review
#9
Ruchir Raman
Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries...
December 13, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228298/seedstor-a-germplasm-information-management-system-and-public-database
#10
R S P Horler, A Turner, P Fretter, M Ambrose
SeedStor (https://www.seedstor.ac.uk) acts as the publicly available database for the seed collections held by the Germplasm Resources Unit (GRU) based at the John Inness Centre, Norwich, UK. The GRU is a national capability supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The GRU curates' germplasm collections of a range of temperate cereal, legume and Brassica crops and their associated wild relatives as well as precise genetic stocks, near-isogenic lines and mapping populations...
December 8, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219380/generating-carrier-envelope-phase-stabilized-few-cycle-pulses-from-a-free-electron-laser-oscillator
#11
Ryoichi Hajima, Ryoji Nagai
We propose a scheme to generate carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stabilized few-cycle optical pulses from a free-electron laser oscillator. The CEP stabilization is realized by the continuous injection of CEP-stabilized seed pulses from an external laser to the free-electron laser oscillator whose cavity length is perfectly synchronized to the electron bunch repetition. Operated at a midinfrared wavelength, the proposed method is able to drive a photon source based on high harmonic generation (HHG) to explore the generation of isolated attosecond pulses at photon energies above 1 keV with a repetition of >10  MHz...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206399/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#12
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John Sweeney, Su Lui
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta­-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151876/-comment-on-saumitou-et%C3%A2-al-2017-elucidation-of-the-genetic-architecture-of-self-incompatibility-in-olive-evolutionary-consequences-and-perspectives-for-orchard-management
#13
Catherine Breton, Georgios Koubouris, Pierre Villemur, André Jean Bervillé
The new self-incompatibility system (SI) was presented by Saumitou-Laprade, Vernet, Vekemans et al. (2017). Evolutionary Applications based on 89 crosses between varieties in the olive tree. Four main points are not clear. We are examining here as follows: (i) the assertion that the self-incompatibility system is sporophytic was not sustained by pollen germination data; (ii) surprisingly, the new model does not explain that about one-third of pairwise combinations of olive varieties leads to asymmetric fruit setting; (iii) DNA preparation from one seed may contain two embryos, and thus, embryos should be separated before seed extraction; (iv) although effective self-fertility in olive varieties was reported by many studies, the DSI model fails to explain self-fertility in some olive varieties...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144733/a-mechanism-for-symmetry-breaking-and-shape-control-in-single-crystal-gold-nanorods
#14
Michael J Walsh, Wenming Tong, Hadas Katz-Boon, Paul Mulvaney, Joanne Etheridge, Alison M Funston
The phenomenon of symmetry breaking-in which the order of symmetry of a system is reduced despite manifest higher-order symmetry in the underlying fundamental laws-is pervasive throughout science and nature, playing a critical role in fields ranging from particle physics and quantum theory to cosmology and general relativity. For the growth of crystals, symmetry breaking is the crucial step required to generate a macroscopic shape that has fewer symmetry elements than the unit cell and/or seed crystal from which it grew...
November 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139499/the-role-of-phase-separation-and-related-topography-in-the-exceptional-ice-nucleating-ability-of-alkali-feldspars
#15
Thomas F Whale, Mark A Holden, Alexander N Kulak, Yi-Yeoun Kim, Fiona C Meldrum, Hugo K Christenson, Benjamin J Murray
Our understanding of crystal nucleation is a limiting factor in many fields, not least in the atmospheric sciences. It was recently found that feldspar, a component of airborne desert dust, plays a dominant role in triggering ice formation in clouds, but the origin of this effect was unclear. By investigating the structure/property relationships of a wide range of feldspars, we demonstrate that alkali feldspars with certain microtextures, related to phase separation into Na and K-rich regions, show exceptional ice-nucleating abilities in supercooled water...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133027/nutrient-analysis-of-kunapa-jala-and-pancha-gavya-and-their-evaluation-on-germination-of-ashwagandha-withania-somnifera-dunal-and-kalamegha-andrographis-paniculata-nees-seeds-a-comparative-study
#16
Gireesh M Ankad, Jagadishchandra Hiremath, R T Patil, H J Pramod, Harsha V Hegde
BACKGROUND: Vrikshayurveda, an ancient science of plant life described by Surapala, deals with healthy growth and productivity of plants, which has clearly outlined a systematized agricultural practice that insisted the use of Kunapa jala (KJ) and Pancha gavya (PG). OBJECTIVE: An experiment was conducted to validate KJ and PG by nutrient analysis and their effect on the germination parameters of Ashwagandha and Kalamegha seeds in comparison with other treatment groups...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122293/placental-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-seeded-on-clinical-grade-extracellular-matrix-improve-ambulation-in-ovine-myelomeningocele
#17
Sandra Kabagambe, Benjamin Keller, James Becker, Laura Goodman, Christopher Pivetti, Lee Lankford, Karen Chung, Chelsey Lee, Y Julia Chen, Priyadarsini Kumar, Melissa Vanover, Aijun Wang, Diana Farmer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of placental mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) seeded on a clinical grade porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS)-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) on hindlimb motor function in an ovine fetal repair model of myelomeningocele (MMC). METHODS: MMC defects were surgically created in 21 fetuses at median gestational age 78 (range 76-83) days. Fetuses were randomly assigned to repair 25days later with ECM only or PMSC-ECM...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102342/bioengineered-lungs-a-challenge-and-an-opportunity
#18
Ramon Farré, Jordi Otero, Isaac Almendros, Daniel Navajas
Lung biofabrication is a new tissue engineering and regenerative development aimed at providing organs for potential use in transplantation. Lung biofabrication is based on seeding cells into an acellular organ scaffold and on culturing them in an especial purpose bioreactor. The acellular lung scaffold is obtained by decellularizing a non-transplantable donor lung by means of conventional procedures based on application of physical, enzymatic and detergent agents. To avoid immune recipient's rejection of the transplanted bioengineered lung, autologous bone marrow/adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, lung progenitor cells or induced pluripotent stem cells are used for biofabricating the bioengineered lung...
November 1, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099393/filamentous-phages-as-building-blocks-for-reconfigurable-and-hierarchical-self-assembly
#19
Thomas Gibaud
Filamentous bacteriophages such as fd-like viruses are monodisperse rod-like colloids that have well defined properties: diameter, length, rigidity, charge and chirality. Engineering those viruses leads to a library of colloidal rods which can be used as building blocks for reconfigurable and hierarchical self-assembly. Their condensation in aqueous solution with additive polymers which act as depletants to induce attraction between the rods leads to a myriad of fluid-like micronic structures ranging from isotropic/nematic droplets, colloid membranes, achiral membrane seeds, twisted ribbons, $\pi$-wall, pores, colloidal skyrmions, Möbius anchors, scallop membranes to membrane rafts...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092222/streaking-of-43-attosecond-soft-x-ray-pulses-generated-by-a-passively-cep-stable-mid-infrared-driver
#20
Thomas Gaumnitz, Arohi Jain, Yoann Pertot, Martin Huppert, Inga Jordan, Fernando Ardana-Lamas, Hans Jakob Wörner
Attosecond metrology has so far largely remained limited to titanium:sapphire lasers combined with an active stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). These sources limit the achievable photon energy to ∼100 eV which is too low to access X-ray absorption edges of most second- and third-row elements which are central to chemistry, biology and material science. Therefore, intense efforts are underway to extend attosecond metrology to the soft-X-ray (SXR) domain using mid-infrared (mid-IR) drivers. Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a method that solves the long-standing problem of the complete temporal characterization of ultra-broadband (≫10 eV) attosecond pulses...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
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