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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782994/structural-covariance-of-brain-region-volumes-is-associated-with-both-structural-connectivity-and-transcriptomic-similarity
#1
Yohan Yee, Darren J Fernandes, Leon French, Jacob Ellegood, Lindsay S Cahill, Dulcie A Vousden, Leigh Spencer Noakes, Jan Scholz, Matthijs C van Eede, Brian J Nieman, John G Sled, Jason P Lerch
An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779253/community-based-native-seed-production-for-restoration-in-brazil-the-role-of-science-and-policy
#2
Isabel B Schmidt, Danilo I de Urzedo, Fatima C M Piña-Rodrigues, Daniel L M Vieira, Gustavo M de Rezende, Alexandre B Sampaio, Rodrigo G P Junqueira
Large-scale restoration programs in the tropics require large volumes of high quality, genetically diverse and locally adapted seeds from large number of species. However, scarcity of native seeds is a critical restriction to achieve restoration targets. In this paper, we analyze three successful community-based networks that supply native seeds and seedlings for Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado restoration projects. In addition, we propose directions to promote local participation, legal, technical and commercialization issues for upscaling the market of native seeds for restoration with high quality and social justice...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770300/tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts-for-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Toshihiro Shoji, Toshiharu Shinoka
New technologies and science have contributed to improved surgical outcomes in patients with congenital cardiovascular diseases. However, current materials display shortcomings, such as risk of infection and lack of growth capacity when applied to the pediatric patient population. Tissue engineering has the potential to address these limitations as the ideal tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) would be durable, biocompatible, nonthrombogenic, and ultimately remodel into native tissue. The traditional TEVG paradigm consists of a scaffold, cell source, and the integration of the scaffold and cells via seeding...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738443/mineral-surface-templated-self-assembling-systems-case-studies-from-nanoscience-and-surface-science-towards-origins-of-life-research
#4
REVIEW
Richard J Gillams, Tony Z Jia
An increasing body of evidence relates the wide range of benefits mineral surfaces offer for the development of early living systems, including adsorption of small molecules from the aqueous phase, formation of monomeric subunits and their subsequent polymerization, and supramolecular assembly of biopolymers and other biomolecules. Each of these processes was likely a necessary stage in the emergence of life on Earth. Here, we compile evidence that templating and enhancement of prebiotically-relevant self-assembling systems by mineral surfaces offers a route to increased structural, functional, and/or chemical complexity...
May 8, 2018: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695830/development-of-a-3d-seed-morphological-tool-for-grapevine-variety-identification-and-its-comparison-with-ssr-analysis
#5
Avshalom Karasik, Oshrit Rahimi, Michal David, Ehud Weiss, Elyashiv Drori
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the classical fruits of the Old World. Among the thousands of domesticated grapevine varieties and variable wild sylvestris populations, the range of variation in pip morphology is very wide. In this study we scanned representative samples of grape pip populations, in an attempt to probe the possibility of using the 3D tool for grape variety identification. The scanning was followed by mathematical and statistical analysis using innovative algorithms from the field of computer sciences...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682850/pyroelectricity-of-agi-crystals-contributes-to-ice-nucleation
#6
Meir Lahav, Sofia Curland, Elena Meirzadeh, Hagai Cohen, David Ehre, Joachim Maier, Igor Lubomirsky
Understanding the formation of ice from super-cooled water, at the molecular level, has recently been identified as one of the top ten open questions in the ice science. In 1947, Vonnegut discovered that crystallites of hexagonal AgI induce heterogeneous icing of super-cooled water around ≈-3 °C. Ever since, the icing mechanism of such crystals is comprehensively investigated, since they are used for glaciogenic cloud seeding for rain precipitation. The interpretation of this effect was considered to arise mostly due to epitaxy, resulting from a close match between the crystallographic parameters of these crystals with those of hexagonal ice...
April 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629064/plantago-major-in-traditional-persian-medicine-and-modern-phytotherapy-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Younes Najafian, Shokouh Sadat Hamedi, Masoumeh Kaboli Farshchi, Zohre Feyzabadi
Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10-18th century AD, such as "The Canon of Medicine", "Makhzan-Al- Advia" and so on...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596415/assessing-scientists-for-hiring-promotion-and-tenure
#8
David Moher, Florian Naudet, Ioana A Cristea, Frank Miedema, John P A Ioannidis, Steven N Goodman
Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017...
March 29, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538457/impact-of-non-thermal-plasma-surface-modification-on-porous-calcium-hydroxyapatite-ceramics-for-bone-regeneration
#9
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488910/compact-coherence-enhancement-by-subharmonic-self-seeding-in-x-ray-free-electron-laser-facilities
#10
Eduard Prat, Sven Reiche
X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are cutting-edge scientific tools able to generate transversely coherent radiation with very high power and ultra-short pulse durations. The self-seeding mechanism has been proven to increase the longitudinal coherence of the FEL radiation but its efficiency could be significantly improved, especially for soft X-rays. This paper proposes the enhancement of the performance of self-seeding by combining it with the harmonic generation mechanism. In particular, by starting the process with a subharmonic of the wavelength of interest, the coherence of the produced radiation is improved, the undulator beamline becomes more compact, and the monochromator realization is simplified...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481320/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#11
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473532/the-promising-pharmacological-effects-and-therapeutic-medicinal-applications-of-punica-granatum-l-pomegranate-as-a-functional-food-in-humans-and-animals
#12
Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Naveed, Jannat BiBi, Asghar Ali Kamboh, Muhammad Asif Arain, Qurban Ali Shah, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mervat A. Abdel-Latif, Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Kuldeep Dhama
BACKGROUND: Punica granatum L (pomegranate), is a shrub mostly available in the Mediterranean Sea region. The fruits have gained the substantial attention among researchers due to its promising biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, immune modulatory, antitumor, wound healing and antifungal that have been attributed to various constituents of seeds, bark, juice, pericarp and leaf of this tree across the globe. The phenolic compounds of pomegranate have been documented to possess numbers of prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various pathological infections as well as non-infectious disorders...
February 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466809/an-update-on-the-biological-activities-of-euterpe-edulis-ju%C3%A3-ara
#13
Alyne Lizane Cardoso, Sheyla de Liz, Débora Kurrle Rieger, Ana Carolina Aguiar Farah, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi Vieira, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Patricia Faria Di Pietro
The palm tree Euterpe edulis , known as juçara, produces spherical and purple fruits, similar to those of the Euterpe oleracea and Euterpe precatoria palm trees, from which the common name açaí originates. Juçara fruit has been gaining prominence in the scientific world for its interesting nutritional composition, which is rich in antioxidants, and for its sustainable production model. Recently, relevant biological activities have been associated with the juçara fruit, and its use in alimentation has become an important nutritional, environmental, and economic alternative...
May 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426543/silica-nanoparticles-coated-by-poly-acrylic-acid-brushes-via-host-guest-interactions-for-detecting-dna-sequence-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#14
Lu Ding, Chunlan Xiang, Gang Zhou
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes coated onto silica nanoparticles have been widely utilized in bioassays due to their abilities of providing favorable microenvironments and ensuring good biological activities for biomolecules. However, traditional PAA brushes are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Hence, it is generally difficult to control and characterize the molecular weight of the PAA brushes, which may depress the reproducibility and bring more uncertain results...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417891/a-comparison-of-food-habits-between-japanese-marten-and-raccoon-dog-in-western-tokyo-with-reference-to-fruit-use
#15
Seiki Takatsuki, Risako Miyaoka, Keita Sugaya
We studied the food habits of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procionoides) at the Tama Forest Science Garden, western Tokyo, Japan by fecal analysis in 2014/15. Martens were dependent on fruits throughout the year and showed less marked seasonal changes. Raccoon dogs were less dependent on fruits than martens were, and more dependent on mammals in spring, insects in summer and winter, and seeds throughout the year. Martens fed on more fruits containing tiny seeds, such as Actinidia arguta and Stachyurus praecox, whereas raccoon dogs fed on more large-seeded fruits, such as Ginkgo biloba and Diospyros kaki...
February 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408539/triple-representation-of-language-working-memory-social-and-emotion-processing-in-the-cerebellum-convergent-evidence-from-task-and-seed-based-resting-state-fmri-analyses-in-a-single-large-cohort
#16
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Delineation of functional topography is critical to the evolving understanding of the cerebellum's role in a wide range of nervous system functions. We used data from the Human Connectome Project (n = 787) to analyze cerebellar fMRI task activation (motor, working memory, language, social and emotion processing) and resting-state functional connectivity calculated from cerebral cortical seeds corresponding to the peak Cohen's d of each task contrast. The combination of exceptional statistical power, activation from both motor and multiple non-motor tasks in the same participants, and convergent resting-state networks in the same participants revealed novel aspects of the functional topography of the human cerebellum...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#17
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302268/time-capsules-in-natural-sediment-archives-tracking-phytoplankton-population-genetic-diversity-and-adaptation-over-multidecadal-timescales-in-the-face-of-environmental-change
#18
REVIEW
Marianne Ellegaard, Anna Godhe, Sofia Ribeiro
Undisturbed records of resting stages produced in the past and stored in coastal sediments are very valuable to science, because they may provide unique insights into past evolutionary and ecological trajectories. Within marine phytoplankton, multidecadal time series of monoclonal strains germinated from resting stages have been established for diatoms ( Skeletonema marinoi ) and dinoflagellates ( Pentapharsodinium dalei ), spanning ca. a century. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of these time series have revealed effects of past environmental changes on population genetic structure...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297414/an-automatic-approach-for-constructing-a-knowledge-base-of-symptoms-in-chinese
#19
Tong Ruan, Mengjie Wang, Jian Sun, Ting Wang, Lu Zeng, Yichao Yin, Ju Gao
BACKGROUND: While a large number of well-known knowledge bases (KBs) in life science have been published as Linked Open Data, there are few KBs in Chinese. However, KBs in Chinese are necessary when we want to automatically process and analyze electronic medical records (EMRs) in Chinese. Of all, the symptom KB in Chinese is the most seriously in need, since symptoms are the starting point of clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: We publish a public KB of symptoms in Chinese, including symptoms, departments, diseases, medicines, and examinations as well as relations between symptoms and the above related entities...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258356/grave-fraudulence-in-medical-device-research-a-narrative-review-of-the-pin-seeding-study-for-the-pinnacle-hip-system
#20
Joan E Steffen, Ella A Fassler, Kevin J Reardon, David S Egilman
In 2001, DePuy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson (J&J/DePuy), initiated a seeding study called the "Multi-center, Prospective, Clinical Evaluation of Pinnacle Acetabular Implants in Total Hip Arthroplasty" (PIN Study). J&J/DePuy designed this study to develop new business opportunities during the launch of their Pinnacle Hip System (PHS) and generate survivorship data for marketing. This article, the first review of a seeding trial for a medical device, examines internal company documents relating to the PIN Study; the analysis herein focuses on the integrity of J&J/DePuy's research practices in conception, implementation, and analysis...
2018: Accountability in Research
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