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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145471/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-strategy-for-zinc-mycoremediation-and-diminished-translocation-to-shoots-and-grains-in-wheat
#1
Abdelghafar M Abu-Elsaoud, Nivien A Nafady, Ahmed M Abdel-Azeem
Mycoremediation is an on-site remediation strategy, which employs fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants from the environment. The present work focused on the bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc by the use of a native mycorrhizal fungi (AM) called Funneliformis geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Schüßler. Experiments were performed using Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gemmeza-10 at different concentrations of Zn (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) and inoculated with or without F. geosporum. The results showed that the dry weight of mycorrhizal wheat increased at Zn stressed plants as compared to the non-Zn-stressed control plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144294/higher-alkyl-sulfatase-activity-required-by-microbial-inhabitants-to-remove-anionic-surfactants-in-the-contaminated-surface-waters
#2
Bulent Icgen, Salih Batuhan Salik, Lale Goksu, Huseyin Ulusoy, Fadime Yilmaz
Biodegradation of anionic surfactants, like sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are challenged by some bacteria through the function of the enzyme alkyl sulfatases. Therefore, identifying and characterizing bacteria capable of degrading SDS with high alkyl sulfatase enzyme activity are pivotal. In this study, bacteria isolated from surfactant contaminated river water were screened for their potential to degrade SDS. Primary screening carried out by the conventional enrichment culture technique and assessment of SDS-degrading ability through methylene blue active substance assay revealed 12, out of 290, SDS-degrading surface water bacteria with maximum SDS degrading abilities of 46-94% in 24-54 h...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143601/morphological-description-and-dna-barcoding-study-of-sand-rice-agriophyllum-squarrosum-chenopodiaceae-collected-in-kazakhstan
#3
Yuliya Genievskaya, Saule Abugalieva, Aibatsha Zhubanysheva, Yerlan Turuspekov
BACKGROUND: Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142432/inhibition-of-glycation-induced-cytotoxicity-protein-glycation-and-activity-of-proteolytic-enzymes-by-extract-from-perovskia-atriplicifolia-roots
#4
Mehran Miroliaei, Akram Aminjafari, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Izabela Nawrot-Hadzik, Mehdi Rahimmalek, Adam Matkowski
Background: Protein glycation and glycotoxicity belong to the main oxidative-stress related complications in diabetes. Perovskia species are used in Asian folk medicine as antidiabetic herbs. Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the ability of the methanolic extract from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. roots to diminish glycation of albumin and to prevent cell damage in vitro. Furthermore, we tested the extract for in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of elastase and collagenase...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142430/topical-delivery-of-withania-somnifera-crude-extracts-in-niosomes-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#5
Tawona N Chinembiri, Minja Gerber, Lissinda H du Plessis, Jan L du Preez, Josias H Hamman, Jeanetta du Plessis
Background: Withania somnifera is a medicinal plant native to India and is known to have anticancer properties. It has been investigated for its anti-melanoma properties, and since melanoma presents on the skin, it is prudent to probe the use of W. somnifera in topical formulations. To enhance topical drug delivery and to allow for controlled release, the use of niosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as delivery vesicles were explored. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the stability and topical delivery of W...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142388/analysis-of-free-amino-acids-in-different-extracts-of-orthosiphon-stamineus-leaves-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-combined-with-solid-phase-extraction
#6
Armaghan Shafaei, Nor Hidayah Ab Halim, Norhidayah Zakaria, Zhari Ismail
Background: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. Objective: To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140577/herbivory-and-drought-generate-short-term-stochasticity-and-long-term-stability-in-a-savanna-understory-community
#7
Corinna Riginos, Lauren M Porensky, Kari E Veblen, Truman P Young
Rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long-term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. Understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. Livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. We examined patterns of change and stability in herbaceous community composition through four dry periods, or droughts, over 15 years of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), which consists of six different combinations of cattle, native wild herbivores (e...
November 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138619/distribution-characterization-and-diversity-of-the-endophytic-fungal-communities-on-korean-seacoasts-showing-contrasting-geographic-conditions
#8
Young-Hyun You, Jong Myong Park, Yeong Gyo Seo, Woong Lee, Myung-Suk Kang, Jong-Guk Kim
This study analyzed the distribution of endophytic fungi in 3 coastal environments with different climatic, geographical, and geological characteristics: the volcanic islands of Dokdo, the East Sea, and the West Sea of Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were characterized and analyzed with respect to the characteristics of their host environments. For this purpose, we selected common native coastal halophyte communities from three regions. Molecular identification of the fungal endophytes showed clear differences among the sampling sites and halophyte host species...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138309/loss-of-popz-at-activity-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-by-deletion-or-depletion-leads-to-multiple-growth-poles-minicells-and-growth-defects
#9
Romain Grangeon, John Zupan, Yeonji Jeon, Patricia C Zambryski
Agrobacterium tumefaciens grows by addition of peptidoglycan (PG) at one pole of the bacterium. During the cell cycle, the cell needs to maintain two different developmental programs, one at the growth pole and another at the inert old pole. Proteins involved in this process are not yet well characterized. To further characterize the role of pole-organizing protein A. tumefaciens PopZ (PopZ At ), we created deletions of the five PopZ At domains and assayed their localization. In addition, we created a popZAt deletion strain (ΔpopZAt ) that exhibited growth and cell division defects with ectopic growth poles and minicells, but the strain is unstable...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137491/characterization-of-biochemical-traits-of-dog-rose-rosa-canina-l-ecotypes-in-the-central-part-of-iran
#10
Milad Javanmard, Hossein Ali Asadi-Gharneh, Pejman Nikneshan
Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) is a wild native species in Iran, with a significant genetic diversity. This plant serves as a rich source of vitamin C, anthocyanins, phenolic contents and carotenoids. Rose hips have been used in several food products, as well as perfumery and cosmetics industries. In this research, we investigate biochemical characteristics of five dog rose ecotypes (Kopehjamshid, Zarneh, Miyankish, Aghcheh and Sadeghiyeh), that were collected from the central part of Iran (Isfahan province). Amounts of vitamin C, total carotenoids, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, macro and micro minerals were measured...
November 14, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136171/mating-system-and-effective-population-size-of-the-overexploited-neotropical-tree-myroxylon-peruiferum-l-f-and-their-impact-on-seedling-production
#11
Ellida de Aguiar Silvestre, Kaiser Dias Schwarcz, Carolina Grando, Jaqueline Bueno de Campos, Patricia Sanae Sujii, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi, Camila Menezes Trindade Macrini, José Baldin Pinheiro, Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion, Maria Imaculada Zucchi
The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134858/ancel-benjamin-keys-1904-2004-his-early-works-and-the-legacy-of-the-modern-mediterranean-diet
#12
Basil H Aboul-Enein, William C Puddy, Joshua Bernstein
Culturally congruent dietary patterns have evolved with geographic and societal traditions and can be traced as far back as pre-Hellenistic Greece. Today, the modern Mediterranean diet (MDiet) is recognized internationally as an anti-obesogenic cardioprotective dietary model consisting of plant-based foods native to the Mediterranean basin, fish, olive oil, and an active lifestyle. With the assumption that obesity and heart disease rates adversely affected life expectancy, the MDiet was identified by Dr Ancel Keys as a primary characteristic among people-groups largely immune to these trends...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134290/re-emergence-of-lilium-callosum-sieb-et-zucc-in-taiwan-after-a-fire-allows-propagation-and-renews-the-possibility-of-conservation
#13
Ying Chun Chen, Yang Jung Huang, Chiu Mei Wang, Chin An Chiu, Huey Ling Lin, Pei Fang Lee, Ya Ming Cheng, Chen Chang
BACKGROUND: Lilium callosum is native to Taiwan, but little is known about it since it has been considered extinct since 1915. After the rediscovery of this rare species after a fire in 2011 in Tunghsiao Township, intensive work has been conducted to count the number in the wild population, to develop a conservation strategy, and to understand its reproductive characteristics and even economic potential. RESULTS: To conserve the germplasm of this population, three scales from a wild L...
November 13, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134155/foliar-microbiome-transplants-confer-disease-resistance-in-a-critically-endangered-plant
#14
Geoffrey Zahn, Anthony S Amend
There has been very little effort to incorporate foliar microbiomes into plant conservation efforts even though foliar endophytes are critically important to the fitness and function of hosts. Many critically endangered plants that have been extirpated from the wild are dependent on regular fungicidal applications in greenhouses that cannot be maintained for remote out-planted populations, which quickly perish. These fungicides negatively impact potentially beneficial fungal symbionts, which may reduce plant defenses to pathogens once fungicide treatments are stopped...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132300/plant-mediated-rnai-silences-midgut-expressed-genes-in-congeneric-lepidopteran-insects-in-nature
#15
Spoorthi Poreddy, Jiancai Li, Ian T Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Plant-mediated RNAi (PMRi) silencing of insect genes has enormous potential for crop protection, but whether it works robustly under field conditions, particularly with lepidopteran pests, remains controversial. Wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and cultivated tobacco (N. tabacum) (Solanaceae) is attacked by two closely related specialist herbivores Manduca sexta and M. quinquemaculata (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). When M. sexta larvae attack transgenic N. attenuata plants expressing double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) targeting M...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129944/verbenanone-an-octahydro-5h-chromen-5-one-from-a-hawaiian-plant-associated-fungus-ft431
#16
Chunshun Li, Ariel M Sarotti, James Turkson, Shugeng Cao
A new secondary metabolite verbenanone (1) with a unique (4aS,8aS)-octahydro-5H-chromen-5-one moiety has been obtained from the endophytic fungus FT431, which was isolated from the native Hawaiian plant Verbena sp. The structure of compound 1 was characterized based on NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration (AC) of compound 1 was determined by Mosher acids. Compound 1 was tested against A2780 and A2780cisR, but it was inactive.
June 7, 2017: Tetrahedron Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129278/effects-of-global-change-on-insect-pollinators-multiple-drivers-lead-to-novel-communities
#17
REVIEW
Nicole E Rafferty
Global change drivers, in particular climate change, exotic species introduction, and habitat alteration, affect insect pollinators in numerous ways. In response, insect pollinators show shifts in range and phenology, interactions with plants and other taxa are altered, and in some cases pollination services have diminished. Recent studies show some pollinators are tracking climate change by moving latitudinally and elevationally, while others are not. Shifts in insect pollinator phenology generally keep pace with advances in flowering, although there are exceptions...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129002/histological-characterization-of-passiflora-pohlii-mast-root-tips-cryopreserved-using-the-v-cryo-plate-technique
#18
Mariela J Simão, Myriam Collin, Renata O Garcia, Elisabeth Mansur, Georgia Pacheco, Florent Engelmann
Cryopreservation stands out as the main strategy to ensure safe and cost efficient long-term conservation of plant germplasm, especially for biotechnological materials. However, the injuries associated with the procedure may result in structural damage and low recovery rates after cooling. Histological analysis provides useful information on the effects of osmotic dehydration, LN exposure, and recovery conditions on cellular integrity and tissue organization, allowing the determination of the critical steps of the cryopreservation protocol and, thus, the use of optimized treatments...
November 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127501/characterization-of-a-novel-yeast-species-metschnikowia-persimmonesis-kctc-12991bp-kiom-g15050-type-strain-isolated-from-a-medicinal-plant-korean-persimmon-calyx-diospyros-kaki-thumb
#19
Young Min Kang, Ji Eun Choi, Richard Komakech, Jeong Hwan Park, Dae Wook Kim, Kye Man Cho, Seung Mi Kang, Sang Haeng Choi, Kun Chul Song, Chung Min Ryu, Keun Chul Lee, Jung-Sook Lee
The yeast strain Metschnikowia persimmonesis Kang and Choi et al., sp. nov. [type strain KIOM_G15050 = Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 12991BP] was isolated from the stalk of native persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki Thumb) obtained from different regions of South Korea and was characterized phenotypically, genetically, and physiologically. The isolate grew between 4 and 40 °C (optimum temperature: 24-28 °C), pH 3-8 (pH optimum = 6.0), and in 0-4% NaCl solution (with optimal growth in absence of NaCl)...
November 10, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126799/mitodepressive-antioxidant-antifungal-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-wild-growing-romanian-native-arctium-lappa-l-asteraceae-and-veronica-persica-poiret-plantaginaceae
#20
Radu Claudiu Fierascu, Milen I Georgiev, Irina Fierascu, Camelia Ungureanu, Sorin Marius Avramescu, Alina Ortan, Mihaela Ioana Georgescu, Anca Nicoleta Sutan, Anca Zanfirescu, Cristina Elena Dinu-Pirvu, Bruno Stefan Velescu, Valentina Anuta
The present study aims to evaluate the potential uses of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from Romanian native wild-growing plants. The hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained from the burdock roots and respectively the aerial parts of birdeye speedwell. The extracts were characterised by HPLC (quantifying 13 compounds in the V. persica extract, 6 compounds in the A. lappa extract and confirming the presence of arctiin and arctigenin in the burdock extract). The antioxidant potential of the crude extracts was evaluated using two methods: the DPPH assay (79...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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