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Native plants

Lejon Kralemann, Romain Scalone, Lars Andersson, Lars Hennig
During the last centuries, the North-American common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) invaded a large part of the globe. Local adaptation of this species was revealed by a common garden experiment, demonstrating that the distribution of the species in Europe could extend considerably to the North. Our study compares two populations of common ragweed (one from the native range and one from the invaded range) that differ in flowering time in the wild: the invasive population flowers earlier than the native population under non-inductive long-day photoperiods...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Schwann cells are the primary inducers of regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells can be isolated from adult peripheral nerves, expanded in large numbers, and genetically transduced by viral vectors in vitro prior to their use in vivo. Here we describe how to use lentiviral vectors to transduce primary Schwann cells in vitro. We also describe how cultured Schwann cells can be used in conjunction with decellularized peripheral nerve sheaths prepared by multiple freeze thawing of peripheral nerve tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eloi Parladé, Andrea Hom-Diaz, Paqui Blánquez, Maira Martínez-Alonso, Teresa Vicent, Nuria Gaju
The use of microalgal consortia for urban wastewater treatment is an increasing trend, as it allows simultaneous nutrient removal and biomass production. Emerging contaminants proposed for the list of priority substances such as the hormone 17β-estradiol are commonly found in urban wastewater, and their removal using algal monocultures has been accomplished. Due to the inherent potential of algae-based systems, this study aimed to assess the capability of native photobioreactor biomass to remove 17β-estradiol under indoor and outdoor conditions...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Youfa Luo, Yonggui Wu, Hu Wang, Rongrong Xing, Zhilin Zheng, Jing Qiu, Lian Yang
This comparative field study examined the responses of bacterial community structure and diversity to the revegetation of zinc (Zn) smelting waste slag with eight plant species after 5 years. The microbial community structure of waste slag with and without vegetation was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing. The physiochemical properties of Zn smelting slag after revegetation with eight plant rhizospheres for 5 years were improved compared to those of bulk slag. Revegetation significantly increased the microbial community diversity in plant rhizospheres, and at the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were notably more abundant in rhizosphere slags than those in bulk waste slag...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christian Haselmair-Gosch, Silvija Miosic, Daria Nitarska, Barbara L Roth, Benjamin Walliser, Renate Paltram, Rares C Lucaciu, Lukas Eidenberger, Thomas Rattei, Klaus Olbricht, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth
A recall campaign for commercial, orange flowering petunia varieties in spring 2017 caused economic losses worldwide. The orange varieties were identified as undeclared genetically engineered (GE)-plants, harboring a maize dihydroflavonol 4-reductase ( DFR, A 1 ), which was used in former scientific transgenic breeding attempts to enable formation of orange pelargonidin derivatives from the precursor dihydrokaempferol (DHK) in petunia. How and when the A 1 cDNA entered the commercial breeding process is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Héctor Miranda-Astudillo, Lilia Colina-Tenorio, Alejandra Jiménez-Suárez, Miriam Vázquez-Acevedo, Bénédicte Salin, Marie-France Giraud, Claire Remacle, Pierre Cardol, Diego González-Halphen
The proposal that the respiratory complexes can associate with each other in larger structures named supercomplexes (SC) is generally accepted. In the last decade's most of the data about this association came from studies in yeasts, mammals and plants, and information is scarce in other lineages. Here we studied the supramolecular association of the F1 FO -ATP synthase (complex V) and the respiratory complexes I, III and IV of the colorless alga Polytomella sp. with an approach that involves solubilization using mild detergents, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) or digitonin, followed by separation of native protein complexes by electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), after which we identified oligomeric forms of complex V (mainly V2 and V4 ) and different respiratory supercomplexes (I/IV6 , I/III4 , I/IV)...
March 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
X A Liu, Y Peng, J J Li, P H Peng
Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations)...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Belén Cotes, Mónica González, Emilio Benítez, Eva De Mas, Gemma Clemente-Orta, Mercedes Campos, Estefanía Rodríguez
The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis , and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Alain Manceau, Jianxu Wang, Mauro Rovezzi, Pieter Glatzel, Xinbin Feng
Plant leaves serve both as a sink for gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere and a source of toxic mercury to terrestrial ecosystems. Litterfall is the primary deposition pathway of atmospheric Hg to vegetated soils, yet the chemical form of this major Hg input remains elusive. We report the first observation of in vivo formation of mercury sulfur nanoparticles in intact leaves of 22 native plants from six different species across two sampling areas from China. The plants grew naturally in soils from a mercury sulfide mining and retorting region at ambient-air gaseous-Hg concentrations ranging from 131 ± 19 to 636 ± 186 ng m-3 and had foliar Hg concentration between 1...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sunghyun Kim, Jiyoung Kang, J Patrick Megonigal, Hojeong Kang, Jooyoung Seo, Weixin Ding
The rapid expansion of Phragmites australis in brackish marshes of the East Coast of the USA has drawn much attention, because it may change vegetation diversity and ecosystem functions. In particular, higher primary production of Phragmites than that of other native species such as Spartina patens and Schoenoplectus americanus has been noted, suggesting possible changes in carbon storage potential in salt marshes. To better understand the long-term effect of the invasion of Phragmites on carbon storage, however, information on decomposition rates of soil organic matter is essential...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Megan A Martinez, Eric J Baack, Stephen M Hovick, Kenneth D Whitney
Background and Aims: Genome size is hypothesized to affect invasiveness in plants. Key evidence comes from a previous study of invasive eastern North American populations of the grass Phalaris arundinacea: invasive genotypes with smaller genomes had higher growth rates, and genome sizes were smaller in the invasive vs. native range. This study aimed to re-investigate those patterns by examining a broader range of North American populations and by employing the modern best-practice protocol for plant genome size estimation in addition to the previously used protocol...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
Mingyan Li, Weihua Guo, Ning Du, Zhenwei Xu, Xiao Guo
Light and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are among the important environmental factors influencing plant growth and forest regeneration. We used Quercus acutissima, a dominant broadleaf tree species native to the deciduous forests of Northern China, to study the combined effects of light exposure and N addition on leaf physiology and individual plant growth. In the greenhouse, we exposed Quercus acutissima seedlings to one of two light conditions (8% and 80% of full irradiation) and one of three N treatments (0, 6, and 12 g N m-2 y-1)...
2018: PloS One
Amanda S Gallinat, Luca Russo, Eli K Melaas, Charles G Willis, Richard B Primack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. METHODS: We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Matthew B G J Brown, Chrissen E C Gemmill, Steven Miller, Priscilla M Wehi
Insects are important but overlooked components of forest ecosystems in New Zealand. For many insect species, information on foraging patterns and trophic relationships is lacking. We examined diet composition and selectivity in a large-bodied insect, the Auckland tree wētā Hemideina thoracica , in three habitat zones in a lowland New Zealand forest. We asked whether H. thoracica selectively forage from available plant food sources, and whether these choices were lipid-rich compared to nonpreferred available plants...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Wen-Yong Guo, Carla Lambertini, Petr Pyšek, Laura A Meyerson, Hans Brix
Identifying the factors that influence spatial genetic structure among populations can provide insights into the evolution of invasive plants. In this study, we used the common reed ( Phragmites australis ), a grass native in Europe and invading North America, to examine the relative importance of geographic, environmental (represented by climate here), and human effects on population genetic structure and its changes during invasion. We collected samples of P. australis from both the invaded North American and native European ranges and used molecular markers to investigate the population genetic structure within and between ranges...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Natalie Niepoth, Jacintha Ellers, Lee M Henry
BACKGROUND: Facultative symbionts are common in eukaryotes and can provide their hosts with significant fitness benefits. Despite the advantage of carrying these microbes, they are typically only found in a fraction of the individuals within a population and are often non-randomly distributed among host populations. It is currently unclear why facultative symbionts are only found in certain host individuals and populations. Here we provide evidence for a mechanism to help explain this phenomenon: that when symbionts interact with non-native host genotypes it can limit the horizontal transfer of symbionts to particular host lineages and populations of related hosts...
March 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Thibaut Thery, Elke K Arendt
Plant defensins are small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides of the immune system found in several organs during plant development. A synthetic peptide, KT43C, a linear analogue of the native Cp-thionin II found in cowpea seeds, was evaluated for its antifungal potential. It was found that KT43C displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger. Like native plant defensins, KT43C showed thermostability up to 100 °C and cation sensitivity. The synthetic peptide decreased the fungal growth without inducing morphogenic changes in the fungal hyphae...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
S Mykolenko, V Liedienov, M Kharytonov, N Makieieva, T Kuliush, I Queralt, E Marguí, M Hidalgo, G Pardini, M Gispert
The work was conducted to establish contamination from improper disposal of hazardous wastes containing lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) into nearby soils. Besides other elements in the affected area, the biological role of Sb, its behaviour in the pedosphere and uptake by plants and the food chain was considered. Wastes contained 139532 ± 9601 mg kg-1 (≈14%) Pb and 3645 ± 194 mg kg-1 (≈0.4%) Sb respectively and variability was extremely high at a decimetre scale. Dramatically high concentrations were also found for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sn and Zn...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Bianca Braz Mattos, Caroline Montebianco, Elisson Romanel, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Renato Barroso Bernabé, Fernanda Simas-Tosin, Lauro M Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maite F S Vaslin, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Cladosporium herbarum is a plant pathogen associated with passion fruit scab and mild diseases in pea and soybean. In this study, a peptidogalactomannan (pGM) of C. herbarum mycelium was isolated and structurally characterized, and its role in plant-fungus interactions was evaluated. C. herbarum pGM is composed of carbohydrates (76%) and contains mannose, galactose and glucose as its main monosaccharides (molar ratio, 52:36:12). Methylation and13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis have shown the presence of a main chain containing (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Manp residues, and β-D-Galf residues are present as (1 → 5)-interlinked side chains...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Daniel Tabas-Madrid, Belén Méndez-Vigo, Noelia Arteaga, Arnald Marcer, Alberto Pascual-Montano, Detlef Weigel, F Xavier Picó, Carlos Alonso-Blanco
Current global change is fueling an interest to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to climate. In particular, altered flowering time is a common strategy for escape from unfavorable climate temperature. In order to determine the genomic bases underlying flowering time adaptation to this climatic factor, we have systematically analysed a collection of 174 highly diverse A. thaliana accessions from the Iberian Peninsula. Analyses of 1.88 million SNPs provide evidence for a spatially heterogeneous contribution of demographic and adaptive processes to geographic patterns of genetic variation...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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