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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647603/effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate-on-non-target-plant-native-species-from-chaco-forest-argentina
#1
Ferreira María Florencia, Torres Carolina, Bracamonte Enzo, Galetto Leonardo
Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647581/development-of-field-applicable-tests-for-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-candidatus-phytoplasma-oryzae
#2
Lillian Wambua, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones, Daniel Masiga, Charles Midega, Zeyaur Khan, Joerg Jores, Anne Fischer
Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD) is a severe disease of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in Eastern Africa, caused by the leafhopper-transmitted bacterium Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae. The pathogen severely impairs the growth of Napier grass, the major fodder for dairy cattle in Eastern Africa. NSD is associated with biomass losses of up to 70% of infected plants. Diagnosis of NSD is done by nested PCR targeting the phytoplasma DNA, which is difficult to perform in developing countries with little infrastructure...
June 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647119/in-vitro-pgpr-properties-and-osmotic-tolerance-of-different-azospirillum-native-strains-and-their-effects-on-growth-of-maize-under-drought-stress
#3
Julia E García, Guillermo Maroniche, Cecilia Creus, Ramón Suárez-Rodríguez, José Augusto Ramirez-Trujillo, María D Groppa
Osmotic variations in the soil can affect bacterial growth diminishing the number of inoculated bacteria. In a scenario of water deficit having tolerant bacteria would be beneficial to achieve a better response of the plant to stress. Thus, selection of more resistant bacteria could be useful to design new inoculants to be used in arid zones. In this sense, a group of Azospirillum isolates deposited in INTA collection was characterized in order to select strains tolerant to osmotic stress. The results obtained demonstrated that Az19 strain has similar in vitro PGPR characteristics to Az39, the most used strain in Argentina for inoculants industries, with the advantage of a better tolerance to osmotic and salt stress...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646313/domestic-wastewater-treatment-by-constructed-wetlands-enhanced-with-bioremediating-rhizobacteria
#4
Irina Salgado, Herlen Cárcamo, María Elena Carballo, Mario Cruz, María Del Carmen Durán
Constructed wetlands (CWs) offer several advantages for treating waters; however, the successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Practical solutions to pollution through CWs remain incipient because wetlands are still studied as "black boxes"; further studies are required regarding the involvement of rhizosphere bacteria in the removal of pollutants. This research focused on increasing the performance of CWs treatment systems for the removal of inorganic and organic pollutants from domestic wastewater, by the application of native bioremediating rhizobacteria...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646189/heterogeneous-environments-shape-invader-impacts-integrating-environmental-structural-and-functional-effects-by-isoscapes-and-remote-sensing
#5
Christine Hellmann, André Große-Stoltenberg, Jan Thiele, Jens Oldeland, Christiane Werner
Spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems crucially influences plant performance, while in return plant feedbacks on their environment may increase heterogeneous patterns. This is of particular relevance for exotic plant invaders that transform native ecosystems, yet, approaches integrating geospatial information of environmental heterogeneity and plant-plant interaction are lacking. Here, we combined remotely sensed information of site topography and vegetation cover with a functional tracer of the N cycle, δ(15)N...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645773/abc-protein-cgabcf2-is-required-for-asexual-and-sexual-development-appressorial-formation-and-plant-infection-in-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides
#6
Zongshan Zhou, Jianyuan Wu, Meiyu Wang, Junxiang Zhang
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are exclusively found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we have characterized a gene from Glomerella leaf spot pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that encodes an ABC protein, whose function to date remains unknown. We designated this gene as CgABCF2. Deletion of CgABCF2 showed drastic reduction both growing rate and conidial production in C. gloeosporioides. The Δcgabcf2 mutant did not form the appressoria, lost the capability to infect apple and failed to form lesions on the wounded leaves and fruits...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643122/symbiotic-performance-and-induction-of-systemic-resistance-against-cercospora-sojina-in-soybean-plants-co-inoculated-with-bacillus-sp-chep5-and-bradyrhizobium-japonicum-e109
#7
María Laura Tonelli, C Magallanes-Noguera, A Fabra
Soybean is an economically very important crop throughout the word and particularly in Argentina. Soybean yield may be affected by many factors such as the lack of some essential nutrients or pathogens attack. In this work we demonstrated that the co-inoculation of the native biocontrol bacterium Bacillus sp. CHEP5 which induces resistance against Cercospora sojina in soybean and the nitrogen fixing strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, was more effective in reducing frog leaf spot severity than the inoculation of the biocontrol agent alone...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642702/amorpha-fruticosa-a-noxious-invasive-alien-plant-in-europe-or-a-medicinal-plant-against-metabolic-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ekaterina Kozuharova, Adam Matkowski, Dorota Woźniak, Rumiana Simeonova, Zheko Naychov, Clemens Malainer, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Atanas G Atanasov
Amorpha fruticosa L. (Fabaceae) is a shrub native to North America which has been cultivated mainly for its ornamental features, honey plant value and protective properties against soil erosion. It is registered amongst the most noxious invasive species in Europe. However, a growing body of scientific literature also points to the therapeutic potential of its chemical constituents. Due to the fact that A. fruticosa is an aggressive invasive species, it can provide an abundant and cheap resource of plant chemical constituents which can be utilized for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641017/nanpdb-a-resource-for-natural-products-from-northern-african-sources
#9
Fidele Ntie-Kang, Kiran K Telukunta, Kersten Döring, Conrad V Simoben, Aurélien F A Moumbock, Yvette I Malange, Leonel E Njume, Joseph N Yong, Wolfgang Sippl, Stefan Günther
Natural products (NPs) are often regarded as sources of drugs or drug leads or simply as a "source of inspiration" for the discovery of novel drugs. We have built the Northern African Natural Products Database (NANPDB) by collecting information on ∼4500 NPs, covering literature data for the period from 1962 to 2016. The data cover compounds isolated mainly from plants, with contributions from some endophyte, animal (e.g., coral), fungal, and bacterial sources. The compounds were identified from 617 source species, belonging to 146 families...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640922/changes-in-hemp-secondary-fiber-production-related-to-technical-fiber-variability-revealed-by-light-microscopy-and-attenuated-total-reflectance-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Eva Fernandez-Tendero, Arnaud Day, Sandrine Legros, Anouck Habrant, Simon Hawkins, Brigitte Chabbert
Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is increasing due to the development of a new range of industrial applications based on bast fibers. However the variability of bast fiber yield and quality represents an important barrier to further exploitation. Primary and secondary fiber content was examined in two commercial hemp varieties (Fedora 17, Santhica 27) grown under contrasted sowing density and irrigation conditions. Both growing conditions and hemp varieties impact stem tissue architecture with a large effect on the proportion of secondary fibers but not primary fibers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635663/assessing-genetic-diversity-and-population-differentiation-of-colored-calla-lily-zantedeschia-hybrid-for-an-efficient-breeding-program
#11
Zunzheng Wei, Huali Zhang, Yi Wang, Youli Li, Min Xiong, Xian Wang, Di Zhou
Plastome-genome incompatibility (PGI) is prevalent in several plants including the Zantedeschia species, a worldwide commercial flower crop native to South Africa. Generally, hybrids suffering from PGI appear less vigorous and more susceptible than normal plants. Previous reports revealed that the PGI level in interspecific hybrids is correlated with the relatedness of the parental species in the genus Zantedeschia. To provide a basis for utilizing and improving resources in breeding programs, a total of 117 accessions of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia hybrid), collected from New Zealand, the Netherlands and the United States, were genotyped using 31 transferable expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) markers from the white calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica)...
June 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634471/a-chitin-binding-protein-purified-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-presents-anticandidal-activity-by-increasing-cell-membrane-permeability-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#12
João X S Neto, Mirella L Pereira, Jose T A Oliveira, Lady C B Rocha-Bezerra, Tiago D P Lopes, Helen P S Costa, Daniele O B Sousa, Bruno A M Rocha, Thalles B Grangeiro, José E C Freire, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Marina D P Lobo, Raimunda S N Brilhante, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633358/phylogeography-of-herbarium-specimens-of-asexually-propagated-paper-mulberry-broussonetia-papyrifera-l-l-h%C3%A3-r-ex-vent-moraceae-reveals-genetic-diversity-across-the-pacific
#13
Claudia Payacan, Ximena Moncada, Gloria Rojas, Andrew Clarke, Kuo-Fang Chung, Robin Allaby, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
Background and Aims: Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627377/mikania-glomerata-sprengel-extract-and-its-major-compound-ent-kaurenoic-acid-display-activity-against-bacteria-present-in-endodontic-infections
#14
Dora Lúcia Carrara Moreti, Luís Fernando Leandro, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Brenda Paula Figueiredo Almeida Gomes, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
The search for new, effective and safe antimicrobial compounds from plant sources has continued to play an important role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Such compounds can be used to help to eradicate microorganisms from the root canal system, preventing/healing periapical diseases. Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), commonly known as "guaco," is a native climbing plant from Brazil that displays a wide range of pharmacological properties. Many of its activities have been attributed to its phytochemical composition, which is mainly composed of diterpenes, such as ent-kaurenoic acid (KA)...
June 13, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626951/considering-the-unintentional-consequences-of-pollinator-gardens-for-urban-native-plants-is-the-road-to-extinction-paved-with-good-intentions
#15
Anna L Johnson, Andrea M Fetters, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Urban centers are important foci for plant biodiversity and yet widespread planting of wildflower gardens in cities to sustain pollinator biodiversity is on the rise, without full consideration of potential ecological consequences. The impact of intentional wildflower plantings on remnant native plant diversity in urban and peri-urban settings has not received attention, although shared pollinators are likely to mediate several types of biotic interactions between human-introduced plants and remnant native ones...
June 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626038/phenology-of-perennial-native-grass-belowground-axillary-buds-in-the-northern-mixed-grass-prairie
#16
Morgan L Russell, Lance T Vermeire, Amy C Ganguli, John R Hendrickson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of bud banks, the timing of recruitment and the crucial link between formation and maintenance is unknown. METHODS: We assessed patterns of belowground bud development, dormancy, and mortality associated with three perennial native grasses in the northern Great Plains. Temperature and soil moisture were measured below the soil surface to determine relationships with belowground bud development...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623270/behavioural-and-physiological-responses-to-prey-related-cues-reflect-higher-competitiveness-of-invasive-vs-native-ladybirds
#17
Gabriele Rondoni, Fulvio Ielo, Carlo Ricci, Eric Conti
Understanding the traits that might be linked with biological invasions represents a great challenge for preventing non-target effects on local biodiversity. In predatory insects, the ability to exploit habitats for oviposition and the physiological response to prey availability differs between species. Those species that respond more readily to environmental changes may confer to their offspring a competitive advantage over other species. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the invasive Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) makes better use of information from a plant-prey (Vicia faba - Aphis fabae) system compared to the native Oenopia conglobata...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620457/early-fruiting-in-synsepalum-dulcificum-schumach-thonn-daniell-juveniles-induced-by-water-and-inorganic-nutrient-management
#18
Dèdéou Apocalypse Tchokponhoué, Sognigbé N'Danikou, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, Enoch Gbènato Achigan-Dako
Background. The miracle plant, Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell is a native African orphan crop species that has recently received increased attention due to its promise as a sweetener and source of antioxidants in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, a major obstacle to the species' widespread utilization is its relatively slow growth rate and prolonged juvenile period. Method. In this study, we tested twelve treatments made up of various watering regimes and exogenous nutrient application (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, at varying dosages) on the relative survival, growth, and reproductive development of 15-months-old S...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620400/comparing-pixel-and-object-based-approaches-to-map-an-understorey-invasive-shrub-in-tropical-mixed-forests
#19
Madhura Niphadkar, Harini Nagendra, Cristina Tarantino, Maria Adamo, Palma Blonda
The establishment of invasive alien species in varied habitats across the world is now recognized as a genuine threat to the preservation of biodiversity. Specifically, plant invasions in understory tropical forests are detrimental to the persistence of healthy ecosystems. Monitoring such invasions using Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite remote sensing has been shown to be valuable in designing management interventions for conservation of native habitats. Object-based classification methods are very helpful in identifying invasive plants in various habitats, by their inherent nature of imitating the ability of the human brain in pattern recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618258/differential-physiological-and-genetic-responses-of-five-european-scots-pine-provenances-to-induced-water-stress
#20
Ana Carvalho, Ivo Pavia, Cláudia Fernandes, Jani Pires, Carlos Correia, Eunice Bacelar, José Moutinho-Pereira, Maria João Gaspar, João Bento, Maria Emília Silva, José Luís Lousada, José Lima-Brito
Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) is the conifer with widest natural distribution area. Portugal constitutes its westernmost limit of distribution. Most of the Portuguese populations were planted but two autochthonous populations were recently ascribed to 'Serra do Gerês' (NW Portugal), and seem to be well adapted to the temperate climate. However, the ongoing climate changes may compromise their survival. With this study we intend to evaluate the anatomic-physiological and genetic responses of Scots pine from five European provenances ('Gerês', 'Puebla de Lillo', 'Montes Universales', Germany and Sweden) to three water availability regimes, in order to determine which one(s) present higher resistance to drought...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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