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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334620/evaluation-of-abundance-of-artificial-radionuclides-in-food-products-in-south-korea-and-sources
#1
S H Lee, J S Oh, K B Lee, J M Lee, S H Hwang, M K Lee, E H Kwon, C S Kim, I H Choi, I Y Yeo, J Y Yoon, J M Im
Food samples are collected nationwide from January 2016 to February 2017 and their contents of artificial radionuclides are measured to address the growing concerns regarding the radioactive contamination of food products in Korea. Specifically, 900 food samples are collected for this study and their contents of representative artificial radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 239,240Pu, and 90Sr are analyzed. The analysis shows that the activity concentrations of 137Cs in fish range from minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 340 mBq/kg of fresh weight...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333341/preventive-effects-of-salvia-officinalis-leaf-extract-on-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-a-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-that-responds-to-rosiglitazone
#2
Mohamed R Ben Khedher, Mohamed Hammami, Jonathan R S Arch, David C Hislop, Dominic Eze, Edward T Wargent, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Mohamed S Zaibi
Background: Salvia officinalis (sage) is a native plant to the Mediterranean region and has been used for a long time in traditional medicine for various diseases. We investigated possible anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of sage methanol (MetOH) extract in a nutritional mouse model of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as its effects on lipolysis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were treated for five weeks with sage methanol extract (100 and 400 mg kg-1/day bid), or rosiglitazone (3 mg kg-1/day bid), as a positive control...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332147/phosphorus-allocation-and-phosphatase-activity-in-grasses-with-different-growth-rates
#3
Leandro Bittencourt de Oliveira, Anderson Cesar Ramos Marques, Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros, Júlia Gomes Farias, Rogério Piccin, Gustavo Brunetto, Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso
Different growth rates of grasses from South American natural grasslands are adaptations to soils of low fertility. Grasses with fast growth rate are species with an accumulation of nutrients in soluble forms, with a high metabolic rate. This work aimed to study whether grasses with different growth rates have different phosphorus (P) uptake and efficiency of P use with high and low P availability in soil, as well as whether phosphatase activity is related to the species growth rate and variations in P biochemical forms in the tissues...
January 13, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331085/verification-of-dna-motifs-in-arabidopsis-using-crispr-cas9-mediated-mutagenesis
#4
Chenlong Li, Chen Chen, Huhui Chen, Suikang Wang, Xuemei Chen, Yuhai Cui
Transcription factors (TFs) and chromatin-modifying factors (CMFs) access chromatin by recognizing specific DNA motifs in their target genes. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been widely used to discover the potential DNA binding motifs for both TFs and CMFs. Yet, an in vivo method for verifying DNA motifs captured by ChIP-seq is lacking in plants. Here, we describe the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) to verify DNA motifs in their native genomic context in Arabidopsis...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331014/biochemical-characterization-of-recombinant-thermostable-cohnella-sp-a01-%C3%AE-glucanase
#5
Meysam Rezaie, Saeed Aminzadeh, Farid Heidari, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, Ali Asghar Karkhane
Background: Typically, non-cellulytic glucanase, including fungi and yeast cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes, are release by some symbiotic fungi and plants during the mycoparasitic fungi attack on plants. These enzymes are known as the defense mechanisms of plants. This study intends to investigate the biochemical properties of β-1,6-glucanase (bg16M) from native thermophilic bacteria, Cohnella A01. Methods: bg16M gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 13, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330702/ptac10-an-s1-domain-containing-component-of-the-transcriptionally-active-chromosome-complex-is-essential-for-plastid-gene-expression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-is-phosphorylated-by-chloroplast-targeted-casein-kinase-ii
#6
Qing-Bo Yu, Tuan-Tuan Zhao, Lin-Shan Ye, Ling Cheng, Ying-Qian Wu, Chao Huang, Zhong-Nan Yang
In higher plant chloroplasts, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) consists of four catalytic subunits and numerous nuclear-encoded accessory proteins, including pTAC10, an S1-domain-containing protein. In this study, pTAC10 knockout lines were characterized. Two ptac10 mutants had an albino phenotype and severely impaired chloroplast development. The pTAC10 genomic sequence fused to a four-tandem MYC tag driven by its own promoter functionally complemented the ptac10-1 mutant phenotype. pTAC10 was present in both the chloroplast stroma and thylakoids...
January 12, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330518/spartina-alterniflora-invasion-affects-soil-carbon-in-a-c3-plant-dominated-tidal-marsh
#7
Min Wang, Qing Wang, Chenyan Sha, Jiakuan Chen
The carbon cycle is significantly affected by Spartina alterniflora invasion through its impact on blue carbon in many salt marshes. To determine the impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC), we studied the vertical and horizontal distribution of SOC. And stable carbon isotopes were used to explore the impact of the age of S. alterniflora invasion on SOC in Chongming Dongtan wetland located in the Yangtze River estuary, China. The results showed that the SOC concentration was higher in the S. alterniflora community than that in the native Phragmites australis community...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329609/garcinia-xanthochymus-extract-protects-pc12-cells-from-h2o2-induced-apoptosis-through-modulation-of-pi3k-akt-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathways
#8
Jing Xu, Sheng Gan, Jun Li, De-Bing Wand, Yu Chen, Xin Hu, Guang-Zhong Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Garcinia xanthochymus, a perennial medicinal plant native to Yunnan, China, against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rat pheochromacytoma PC12 cells. Preincubation of PC12 cells with fruit EtOAc fraction (fruit-EFr., 12.5-50 µmol·L-1) of G. xanthochymus for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure markedly improved cell viability and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1]), prevented lactate dehydrogenase release and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde production, attenuated the decrease of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329403/host-tree-selection-by-the-invasive-argentine-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-relation-to-honeydew-producing-insects
#9
Yugo Seko, Daisuke Hayasaka, Atsushi Nishino, Taizo Uchida, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Takuo Sawahata
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is one of the world's most hazardous invasive species, and thus its eradication from Japan is important. Physical and chemical controls can be expensive and cause strong adverse effects on local terrestrial ecosystems regardless of their high efficacy. Here, presence/absence of host-tree selection by Argentine ants was investigated to understand the ant-honeydew-producing insects interactions in order to develop new cultural controls compatible with biodiversity conservation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324992/increasing-and-declining-native-species-in-urban-remnant-grasslands-respond-differently-to-nitrogen-addition-and-disturbance
#10
Ben J Zeeman, John W Morgan
Background and Aims: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and natural fire regime suppression are key drivers of vegetation change in urbanizing grasslands. Some species thrive under these conditions, while others face local extinction. In the natural grasslands that surround Melbourne, Australia, biotic homogenization has occurred with intensifying urbanization. Some native species have become rarer (decreaser species) across the landscape, while others have become more widespread (increaser species)...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321910/why-does-oriental-arborvitae-grow-better-when-mixed-with-black-locust-insight-on-nutrient-cycling
#11
Xuedong Chen, Ming Tang, Xinlu Zhang, Chantal Hamel, Wei Li, Min Sheng
To identify why tree growth differs by afforestation type is a matter of prime concern in forestry. A study was conducted to determine why oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) grows better in the presence of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) than in monoculture. Different types of stands (i.e., monocultures and mixture of black locust and oriental arborvitae, and native grassland as a control) were selected in the Loess Plateau, China. The height and diameter at breast height of each tree species were measured, and soil, shoot, and root samples were sampled...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321862/assessing-the-utility-of-metabarcoding-for-diet-analyses-of-the-omnivorous-wild-pig-sus-scrofa
#12
Michael S Robeson, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M Wisely, Michael D White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, Antoinette J Piaggio
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species descended from both domestic swine and Eurasian wild boar that was introduced to North America during the early 1500s. Wild pigs have since become the most abundant free-ranging exotic ungulate in the United States. Large and ever-increasing populations of wild pigs negatively impact agriculture, sport hunting, and native ecosystems with costs estimated to exceed $1.5 billion/year within the United States. Wild pigs are recognized as generalist feeders, able to exploit a broad array of locally available food resources, yet their feeding behaviors remain poorly understood as partially digested material is often unidentifiable through traditional stomach content analyses...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321854/phylogenetic-relationships-and-phylogeography-of-relevant-lineages-within-the-complex-campanulaceae-family-in-macaronesia
#13
Tiago Menezes, Maria M Romeiras, Miguel M de Sequeira, Mónica Moura
Macaronesia has long been recognized as a natural model for studying evolutionary processes in plant diversification. Several studies have attempted to focus on single lineages, and few have covered the diversification of a family across all the archipelagos. We used a comprehensive sample to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic history of the Macaronesian Campanulaceae. Hypotheses related to the colonization of these archipelagos will be used to examine the diversification patterns of different lineages...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321851/specificity-of-herbivore-induced-responses-in-an-invasive-species-alternanthera-philoxeroides-alligator-weed
#14
Mu Liu, Fang Zhou, Xiaoyun Pan, Zhijie Zhang, Milton B Traw, Bo Li
Herbivory-induced responses in plants can both negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores and mitigate the effect of herbivory on the host. However, it is still less known whether plants exhibit specific responses to specialist and generalist herbivores in non-secondary metabolite traits and how specificity to specialists and generalists differs between invasive and native plant populations. We exposed an invasive plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides, to Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; specialist), Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae; generalist), manual clipping, or application of exogenous jasmonic acid and examined both the specificity of elicitation in traits of fitness (e...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321298/the-worldwide-importance-of-honey-bees-as-pollinators-in-natural-habitats
#15
Keng-Lou James Hung, Jennifer M Kingston, Matthias Albrecht, David A Holway, Joshua R Kohn
The western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most frequent floral visitor of crops worldwide, but quantitative knowledge of its role as a pollinator outside of managed habitats is largely lacking. Here we use a global dataset of 80 published plant-pollinator interaction networks as well as pollinator effectiveness measures from 34 plant species to assess the importance of A. mellifera in natural habitats. Apis mellifera is the most frequent floral visitor in natural habitats worldwide, averaging 13% of floral visits across all networks (range 0-85%), with 5% of plant species recorded as being exclusively visited by A...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320520/not-seeing-the-grass-for-the-trees-timber-plantations-and-agriculture-shrink-tropical-montane-grassland-by-two-thirds-over-four-decades-in-the-palani-hills-a-western-ghats-sky-island
#16
M Arasumani, Danish Khan, Arundhati Das, Ian Lockwood, Robert Stewart, Ravi A Kiran, M Muthukumar, Milind Bunyan, V V Robin
Tropical montane habitats, grasslands, in particular, merit urgent conservation attention owing to the disproportionate levels of endemic biodiversity they harbour, the ecosystem services they provide, and the fact that they are among the most threatened habitats globally. The Shola Sky Islands in the Western Ghats host a matrix of native forest-grassland matrix that has been planted over the last century, with exotic timber plantations. The popular discourse on the landscape change is that mainly forests have been lost to the timber plantations and recent court directives are to restore Shola forest trees...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316385/analysis-of-recombinant-human-serum-albumin-extraction-degradation-in-transgenic-rice-extracts
#17
Kseniya A Sheshukova, Lisa R Wilken
Transgenic plant systems have successfully been used to express recombinant proteins, including rice seed-expressed recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA), without the risk of contamination of human pathogens. Developing an efficient extraction process is critical as the step determines recombinant protein concentration and purity, quantity of impurities, and process volume. This paper evaluates the effect of pH and time on the extraction and stability of rHSA. The amount of rHSA in clarified extract after 60 min of solubilization increased with pH from 0...
January 8, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316275/functional-trait-ecology-of-the-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae-hodgson-1858-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-ecosystem
#18
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314469/beneficial-changes-in-rumen-bacterial-community-profile-in-sheep-and-dairy-calves-as-a-result-of-feeding-the-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-h57
#19
Benjamin J Schofield, Nancy Lachner, Oanh T Le, David M McNeill, Peter Dart, Diane Ouwerkerk, Philip Hugenholtz, Athol V Klieve
AIMS: The probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 increased weight gain, increased nitrogen retention and increased feed intake in ruminants when administered to the diet. This study aims to develop a better understanding of this probiotic effect by analysing changes in the rumen prokaryotic community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of the rumen microbiome, revealed that ewes fed H57 had a significantly different rumen microbial community structure to Control sheep...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314434/disturbance-reduces-the-differentiation-of-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-in-grasslands-along-a-precipitation-gradient
#20
Geoffrey L House, James D Bever
Given that mycorrhizal fungi play key roles in shaping plant communities, greater attention should be focused on factors that determine the composition of mycorrhizal fungal communities and their sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance. We investigate changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community composition across a precipitation gradient in North American grasslands as well as changes occurring with varying degrees of site disturbance that have resulted in invasive plant establishment. We find strong differentiation of AM fungal communities in undisturbed remnant grasslands across the precipitation gradient, whereas communities in disturbed grasslands were more homogeneous...
January 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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