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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434066/toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-three-antimicrobials-commonly-used-in-veterinary-medicine
#1
Anahí Magdaleno, Sofía Carusso, Juan Moretton
The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENF) was tested on two green algal species: the international standard Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the native Argentine species Ankistrodesmus fusiformis. All three antibiotics inhibited the algal growth. The most sensitive species was P. subcapitata, for which the EC50 for CTC, OTC and ENF were 1.19 ± 0.53, 0.92 ± 0.30 and 5.18 ± 3.80 mg L(-1), respectively. The EC50 for A. fusiformis, were 3.23 ± 0...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433637/inhibition-of-pro-inflammatory-enzymes-by-medicinal-plants-from-the-argentinean-highlands-puna
#2
Romina Torres-Carro, María Inés Isla, Samanta Thomas-Valdes, Felipe Jiménez-Aspee, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, María Rosa Alberto
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Human groups in the Argentinean Andes highlands (Puna) selected native plants as anti-inflammatory agents. The indications of use are mainly to relieve pain, in infusions, ethanolic extracts or plasters. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from native highland plants as anti-inflammatory according to the traditional indications of use. The chemical profile of the three most active species was analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS to get in insight into the constituents and the effects observed, according to the ethnopharmacological information...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432885/from-laboratory-to-field-studies-the-assessment-of-biscutella-laevigata-suitability-to-biological-reclamation-of-areas-contaminated-with-lead-and-cadmium
#3
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Barbara Piwowarczyk, Joanna Augustynowicz, Krystyna Ciarkowska, Tomasz Czech
The aim of the work was to evaluate the usefulness of the in vitro multiplication of Biscutella laevigata calamine ecotype for in situ reclamation of post-flotation wastes polluted with Pb and Cd. The experiment was conducted on three steps: (i) plant shoots' production under in vitro condition, (ii) establishment of the material in greenhouse experiment, and finally (iii) field cultivation directly on the mining-waste heap of Olkusz Ore-Bearing Region, Poland. This region is known to be one of the most chemically-degraded area in central Europe...
April 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432851/fungal-production-of-the-polysaccharide-pullulan-from-a-plant-hydrolysate
#4
Thomas P West
The ability of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 42023 to produce pullulan from hydrolysates of the native grass known as prairie cordgrass was investigated and examined relative to polysaccharide and cell biomass production, yield, and pullulan content of the polysaccharide. A pullulan concentration of 9.7 g l-1 and yield of 0.78 g g-1 was produced by ATCC 42023 when grown for 168 h at 30°C on a phosphate-buffered hydrolysate. The highest biomass level of 7.7 g l-1 was produced by ATCC 42023 after 168 h on a hydrolysate-containing complete medium...
April 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431521/a-reference-floral-transcriptome-of-sexual-and-apomictic-paspalum-notatum
#5
Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Santiago Revale, Lorena A Siena, Maricel Podio, Luciana Delgado, Juliana Stein, Olivier Leblanc, Silvina C Pessino
BACKGROUND: Paspalum notatum Flügge is a subtropical grass native to South America, which includes sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid biotypes. In the past decade, a number of apomixis-associated genes were discovered in this species through genetic mapping and differential expression surveys. However, the scarce information on Paspalum sequences available in public databanks limited annotations and functional predictions for these candidates. RESULTS: We used a long-read 454/Roche FLX+ sequencing strategy to produce robust reference transcriptome datasets from florets of sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum genotypes and delivered a list of transcripts showing differential representation in both reproductive types...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431195/feeding-behavior-and-activity-budget-of-the-southern-yellow-cheeked-crested-gibbons-nomascus-gabriellae-in-a-lowland-tropical-forest
#6
Thanh H Bach, Jin Chen, Minh D Hoang, Kingsly C Beng, Van T Nguyen
The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431028/hybrid-de-novo-genome-assembly-of-the-chinese-herbal-fleabane-erigeron-breviscapus
#7
Jing Yang, Guanghui Zhang, Jing Zhang, Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Xiao Wang, Yahe Li, Yang Dong, Shengchao Yang
Background: The plants in the Erigeron genus of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family are commonly called fleabanes, possibly due to the belief that certain chemicals in these plants repel fleas. In the traditional Chinese medicine, Erigeron breviscapus , which is native to China, was widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. A handful of bioactive compounds, including scutellarin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, have been isolated from the plant...
April 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#8
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428854/not-all-weeds-are-created-equal-a-database-approach-uncovers-differences-in-the-sexual-system-of-native-and-introduced-weeds
#9
Megan L Van Etten, Jeffrey K Conner, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Weedy species provide excellent opportunities to examine the process of successful colonization of novel environments. Despite the influence of the sexual system on a variety of processes from reproduction to genetic structure, how the sexual system of species influences weediness has received only limited consideration. We examined the hypothesis that weedy plants have an increased likelihood of being self-compatible compared with nonweedy plants; this hypothesis is derived from Baker's law, which states that species that can reproduce uniparentally are more likely to successfully establish in a new habitat where mates are lacking...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428840/an-internet-based-platform-for-the-estimation-of-outcrossing-potential-between-cultivated-and-chilean-vascular-plants
#10
Pablo Cid, Carlos Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Sánchez, Daniel Zamorano, Maritza Mihoc, Erika Salazar, Gustavo Chacón, Humberto Navarrete, Marcelo Rosas, Humberto Prieto
A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (www.flujogenico.cl), in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428776/mapping-and-identification-of-antifungal-peptides-in-the-putative-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-digitatum
#11
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, Paloma Manzanares, Jose F Marcos
Antifungal proteins (AFPs) from Ascomycetes are small cysteine-rich proteins that are abundantly secreted and show antifungal activity against non-producer fungi. A gene coding for a class B AFP (AfpB) was previously identified in the genome of the plant pathogen Penicillium digitatum. However, previous attempts to detect the AfpB protein were not successful despite the high expression of the corresponding afpB gene. In this work, the structure of the putative AfpB was modeled. Based on this model, four synthetic cysteine-containing peptides, PAF109, PAF112, PAF118, and PAF119, were designed and their antimicrobial activity was tested and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427280/progress-in-terpene-synthesis-strategies-through-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Kalaivani Paramasivan, Sarma Mutturi
Terpenes are natural products with a remarkable diversity in their chemical structures and they hold a significant market share commercially owing to their distinct applications. These potential molecules are usually derived from terrestrial plants, marine and microbial sources. In vitro production of terpenes using plant tissue culture and plant metabolic engineering, although receiving some success, the complexity in downstream processing because of the interference of phenolics and product commercialization due to regulations that are significant concerns...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427277/biological-activity-and-lc-ms-ms-profiling-of-extracts-from-the-australian-medicinal-plant-acacia-ligulata-fabaceae
#13
Diana Jæger, Bradley S Simpson, Chi P Ndi, Anna K Jäger, Christoph Crocoll, Birger Lindberg Møller, Philip Weinstein, Susan J Semple
Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is a native Australian plant used traditionally by Australian Aboriginal groups. This study was undertaken to investigate the bioactivity of A. ligulata extracts and to evaluate their chemical composition. Potential antibacterial, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory effects relevant to traditional medicinal and food uses of the species were examined and LC-MS/MS was performed to investigate the chemical composition. Antibacterial activity was observed for bark and leaf extracts with an MIC for the bark extract of 62...
April 21, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426703/effects-of-over-expressing-a-native-gene-encoding-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-epsps-on-glyphosate-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Xiao Yang, Zachery T Beres, Lin Jin, Jason T Parrish, Wanying Zhao, David Mackey, Allison A Snow
Widespread overuse of the herbicide glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, some of which persist by overproducing the herbicide's target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, lignin, and defensive compounds, but little is known about how overproducing EPSPS affects downstream metabolites, growth, or lifetime fitness in the absence of glyphosate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425025/light-induced-formation-of-dimeric-lhcii
#15
Ewa Janik, Joanna Bednarska, Karol Sowinski, Rafal Luchowski, Monika Zubik, Wojciech Grudzinski, Wieslaw I Gruszecki
It emerges from numerous experiments that LHCII, the major photosynthetic antenna complex of plants, can appear not only in the trimeric or monomeric states but also as a dimer. We address the problem whether the dimeric form of the complex is just a simple intermediate element of the trimer-monomer transformation or if it can also be a physiologically relevant molecular organization form? Dimers of LHCII were analyzed with application of native electrophoresis, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
April 19, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423426/the-invasive-liriomyza-huidobrensis-diptera-agromyzidae-understanding-its-pest-status-and-management-globally
#16
Phyllis G Weintraub, Sonja J Scheffer, Diedrich Visser, Graciela Valladares, Alberto Soares Correa, B Merle Shepard, Aunu Rauf, Sean T Murphy, Norma Mujica, Charles MacVean, Jürgen Kroschel, Miriam Kishinevsky, Ravindra C Joshi, Nina S Johansen, Rebecca H Hallett, Hasan S Civelek, Bing Chen, Helga Blanco Metzler
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is native to South America but has expanded its range and invaded many regions of the world, primarily on flowers and to a lesser extent on horticultural product shipments. As a result of initial invasion into an area, damage caused is usually significant but not necessarily sustained. Currently, it is an economic pest in selected native and invaded regions of the world. Adults cause damage by puncturing abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces for feeding and egg laying sites. Larvae mine the leaf parenchyma tissues which can lead to leaves drying and wilting...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423086/evaluation-of-cytogenotoxicity-antioxidant-and-hypoglycemiant-activities-of-isolate-compounds-from-mansoa-hirsuta-d-c-bignoniaceae
#17
Joquebede R Pereira, Raphael F Queiroz, Erlânia A DE Siqueira, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal, Antônio E G Sant'ana, Daniel M Silva, Paulo R A DE Mello Affonso
Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from caatinga in Brazilian semiarid. This plant has been locally used as antimicrobial and hypoglycemiant agents, but their action mechanisms and toxicity remain largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and antioxidant, cytoprotective and hypoglycemiant effects of raw extract, fractions and compounds from leaves of M. hirsuta. The cytogenotoxic effects of ursolic and oleanolic acids, the main phytotherapic components of this plant, were assessed...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421311/long-term-soil-alteration-in-historical-charcoal-hearths-affects-tuber-melanosporum-mycorrhizal-development-and-environmental-conditions-for-fruiting
#18
Sergi Garcia-Barreda, Sara Molina-Grau, Ricardo Forcadell, Sergio Sánchez, Santiago Reyna
Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#19
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418429/chemical-constituents-radical-scavenging-activity-and-enzyme-inhibitory-capacity-of-fruits-from-cotoneaster-pannosus-franch
#20
Francisco Les, Víctor López, Giovanni Caprioli, Romilde Iannarelli, Dennis Fiorini, Marzia Innocenti, Maria Bellumori, Filippo Maggi
Cotoneaster pannosus (Rosaceae) is a semievergreen shrub, producing globose dark red pomes, native to China and widely used as an ornamental plant all over the world. Despite its extensive cultivation, little information is available on the chemical composition and biological activities of its fruits. In this work, the analysis of the chemical composition of C. pannosus fruits, in terms of phenolic components, carotenoids and ascorbic acid by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/ESI-MS and MS/MS as well as in terms of macro- and micro-nutrients was performed...
April 18, 2017: Food & Function
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