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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775107/heavy-metals-contamination-and-accumulation-in-submerged-macrophytes-in-an-urban-river-in-china
#1
Guangqiu Lu, Bei Wang, Cuiping Zhang, Shuying Li, Jiliang Wen, Guoli Lu, Chunrong Zhu, Yuanqing Zhou
Deteriorating urban water quality has attracted considerable attention in China. We investigated the contamination levels and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yuxi River water and sediments, and assessed the heavy metal accumulation capability of five species of submerged macrophytes: Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle, Myriophyllum spicatum L., and Potamogeton crispus L. Samples were collected from upstream and downstream locations in different season...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#2
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#3
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772355/safety-assessment-of-morus-nigra-l-leaves-acute-and-subacute-oral-toxicity-studies-in-wistar-rats
#4
Kassia Caroline Figueredo, Camille Gaube Guex, Fernanda Ziegler Reginato, Andreia Regina Haas da Silva, Gabriela Buzatti Cassanego, Cibele Lima Lhamas, Aline Augusti Boligon, Gilberti Helena Hübscher Lopes, Liliane de Freitas Bauermann
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morus nigra L. is a plant native to Asia, and well adapted to the Brazilian climate. It is popularly known as "amoreira preta", and is part of the National List of Plants of Interest to the Brazilian Unified Health System. It is used in folk medicine mainly to soften the effects of menopause, as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypertensive. However, information on safe doses and use is still precarious. AIM OF THE STUDY: To identify the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Morus nigra L...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771449/intraspecific-variation-in-indirect-plant-soil-feedbacks-influences-a-wetland-plant-invasion
#5
Warwick J Allen, Laura A Meyerson, Andrew J Flick, James T Cronin
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) influence plant competition via direct interactions with pathogens and mutualists or indirectly via apparent competition/mutualisms (i.e., spillover to co-occurring plants) and soil legacy effects. It is currently unknown how intraspecific variation in PSFs interacts with the environment (e.g., nutrient availability) to influence competition between native and invasive plants. We conducted a fully crossed multi-factor greenhouse experiment to determine the effects of Phragmites australis rhizosphere soil biota, interspecific competition, and nutrient availability on biomass of replicate populations from one native and two invasive lineages of common reed (P...
May 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771325/native-bacteria-promote-plant-growth-under-drought-stress-condition-without-impacting-the-rhizomicrobiome
#6
Elisabeth Armada, Márcio F A Leite, Almudena Medina, Rosario Azcón, Eiko E Kuramae
Inoculation of plants with beneficial plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) emerges a valuable strategy for ecosystem recovery. However, drought conditions might compromise plant-microbe interactions especially in semiarid regions. This study highlights the effect of native PGPB after one-year inoculation on autochthonous shrubs growth and rhizosphere microbial community composition and activity under drought stress conditions. We inoculated three plant species of semiarid Mediterranean zones, Thymus vulgaris, Santolina chamaecyparissus and Lavandula dentata with a Bacillus thuringiensis strain IAM 12077 and, evaluated the impact on plant biomass, plant nutrient contents, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) colonization, soil rhizosphere microbial activity, and both the bacterial and fungal communities...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771324/impacts-of-the-invasive-european-red-ant-myrmica-rubra-l-hymenoptera-formicidae-on-a-myrmecochorous-system-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#7
Nicola Gammans, Frank Drummond, Eleanor Groden
We investigated the impact of an invasive ant species from Europe, Myrmica rubra (L.), on a myrmecochorous system (seeds dispersed by ants) in its invaded range in North America. We assessed: 1) how M. rubra process the myrmecochorous diapsores (seeds and elaiosome as a single dispersal unit transported by ants) in comparison with native ants; 2) its preference for common native and invasive diaspore species relative to native ants; 3) how far they disperse diaspores in the field; and 4) the diaspore removal rate by invertebrates and vertebrates in infested areas compared to noninvaded sites...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771321/associational-interactions-between-urban-trees-are-native-neighbors-better-than-non-natives
#8
Carl Scott Clem, David W Held
This project investigated associational interactions (associational resistance or susceptibility) between native and non-native trees commonly found in urban landscapes in the southeastern United States. Non-native plants offer limited ecological services because few native herbivore species are capable of feeding on them. In a 2-yr field study, abundance and species richness of caterpillars, plant damage, and herbivore natural enemies were evaluated in plots where a native red maple (Acer rubrum L. [Sapindales: Aceraceae]) was planted singly (no neighbors) or interplanted with either non-native non-congeneric crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica L...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770982/characterisation-of-phenolic-compounds-by-uplc-qtof-ms-ms-of-geopropolis-from-the-stingless-bee-melipona-subnitida-janda%C3%A3-ra
#9
Silvana Alves de Souza, Telma Maria Guedes da Silva, Eva Monica Sarmento da Silva, Celso Amorim Camara, Tania Maria Sarmento Silva
INTRODUCTION: Melipona subnitida Ducke (jandaíra) is a stingless bee native to north-eastern Brazil, which produces geopropolis, a mixture of beeswax, plant resins, pollens and earth that is used for sealing beehives. OBJECTIVE: To extend the knowledge on phenolic compounds in fractions obtained by C18-solid phase extraction (SPE) of nine geopropolis samples from Melipona subnitida collected at different times. METHODOLOGY: Chromatographic profiles of nine samples of geopropolis from jandaíra were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) and combined with the use of data-independent acquisition (MSE) for the profiling and structural characterisation of the phenolic compounds...
May 17, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770275/plant-fungal-bacterial-and-nitrogen-interactions-in-the-litter-layer-of-a-native-patagonian-forest
#10
Lucía Vivanco, Nicolás Rascovan, Amy T Austin
Plant-microbial interactions in the litter layer represent one of the most relevant interactions for biogeochemical cycling as litter decomposition is a key first step in carbon and nitrogen turnover. However, our understanding of these interactions in the litter layer remains elusive. In an old-growth mixed Nothofagus forest in Patagonia, we studied the effects of single tree species identity and the mixture of three tree species on the fungal and bacterial composition in the litter layer. We also evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) addition on these plant-microbial interactions...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766793/engineering-of-microbial-cell-factories-for-the-production-of-plant-polyphenols-with-health-beneficial-properties
#11
Alexey Dudnik, Paula Gaspar, Ana Rute Neves, Jochen Forster
Polyphenols form a group of important natural bioactive compounds with numerous ascribed health-beneficial attributes (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and tumor-suppressing properties). Some polyphenols can also be used as natural dyes or plastic precursors. Notwithstanding their relevance, production of most of these compounds still relies on extraction from plant material, which for most of it is a costly and an inefficient procedure. The use of microbial cell factories for this purpose is an emerging alternative that could allow a more efficient and sustainable production...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766690/garden-nasturtium-tropaeolum-majus-l-a-source-of-mineral-elements-and-bioactive-compounds
#12
Karolina Jakubczyk, Katarzyna Janda, Katarzyna Watychowicz, Jagoda Łukasiak, Jolanta Wolska
The garden nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) belongs to the family Tropaeolaceae. Native to South America it was brought to Europe in XVI century. It is a plant with numerous healing properties. Medicinal plants such as the garden nasturtium contain trace elements and bioactive compounds which can be easily absorbed by the human body. The flowers and other parts of the garden nasturtium are a good source of micro elements such as potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, and macro elements, especially of zinc, copper and iron...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766532/root-expressed-phytochromes-b1-and-b2-but-not-phya-and-cry2-regulate-shoot-growth-in-nature
#13
Youngjoo Oh, Variluska Fragoso, Francesco Guzzonato, Sang-Gyu Kim, Chung-Mo Park, Ian T Baldwin
While photoreceptors are expressed throughout all plant organs, most studies have focused on their function in aerial parts with laboratory-grown plants. Photoreceptor function in naturally dark-grown roots of plants in their native habitats are lacking. We characterized patterns of photoreceptor expression in field- and glasshouse-grown Nicotiana attenuata plants, silenced the expression of PhyB1/B2/A/Cry2 whose root transcripts levels were greater/equal to those of shoots, and by micrografting combined empty vector transformed shoots onto photoreceptor-silenced roots, creating chimeric plants with "blind" roots but "sighted" shoots...
May 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766279/current-and-potential-distribution-of-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungus-suillus-lakei-murrill-a-h-sm-thiers-in-its-invasion-range
#14
Marcin Pietras, Monika Litkowiec, Joanna Gołębiewska
Suillus lakei is an ectomycorrhizal fungus native to North America and known in Europe, South America, and New Zealand. This contribution aims to illustrate the worldwide biogeography of S. lakei based on sporocarp records. Species distribution modeling was used to assess the suitable niche distribution of S. lakei, based on the climatic variables as well as distribution of its ectomycorrhizal partner, Douglas fir. In general, distribution of suitable niches of S. lakei greatly overlaps with the distribution of Douglas fir in North America...
May 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765619/contrasting-ecological-roles-of-non-native-ungulates-in-a-novel-ecosystem
#15
Ann Marie Gawel, Haldre S Rogers, Ross H Miller, Alexander M Kerr
Conservation has long focused on preserving or restoring pristine ecosystems. However, understanding and managing novel ecosystems has grown in importance as they outnumber pristine ecosystems worldwide. While non-native species may be neutral or detrimental in pristine ecosystems, it is possible that even notorious invaders could play beneficial or mixed roles in novel ecosystems. We examined the effects of two long-established non-native species-Philippine deer ( Rusa marianna ) and feral pigs ( Sus scrofa )-in Guam, Micronesia, where native vertebrate frugivores are functionally absent leaving forests devoid of seed dispersers...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764651/recently-identified-bee-viruses-and-their-impact-on-bee-pollinators
#16
REVIEW
Alexander J McMenamin, Michelle L Flenniken
Bees are agriculturally and ecologically important plant pollinators. Recent high annual losses of honey bee colonies, and reduced populations of native and wild bees in some geographic locations, may impact the availability of affordable food crops and the diversity and abundance of native and wild plant species. Multiple factors including viral infections affect pollinator health. The majority of well-characterized bee viruses are picorna-like RNA viruses, which may be maintained as covert infections or cause symptomatic infections or death...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761046/low-bacterial-community-diversity-in-two-introduced-aphid-pests-revealed-with-16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing
#17
Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760773/high-oleate-yeast-oil-without-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#18
Vasiliki Tsakraklides, Annapurna Kamineni, Andrew L Consiglio, Kyle MacEwen, Jonathan Friedlander, Hannah G Blitzblau, Maureen A Hamilton, Donald V Crabtree, Austin Su, Jonathan Afshar, John E Sullivan, W Greg LaTouf, Colin R South, Emily H Greenhagen, A Joe Shaw, Elena E Brevnova
Background: Oleate-enriched triacylglycerides are well-suited for lubricant applications that require high oxidative stability. Fatty acid carbon chain length and degree of desaturation are key determinants of triacylglyceride properties and the ability to manipulate fatty acid composition in living organisms is critical to developing a source of bio-based oil tailored to meet specific application requirements. Results: We sought to engineer the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for production of high-oleate triacylglyceride oil...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758857/herbivory-induced-non-local-responses-of-the-clonal-invader-carpobrotus-edulis-are-not-mediated-by-clonal-integration
#19
Jonatan Rodríguez, Mariasole Calbi, Sergio R Roiloa, Luís González
The anthropogenic displacement of species around the world results in new environmental situations where native and exotic species coexist. Exotic plants have to face native herbivores, and interactions between introduced plants and native herbivores seem to play an important role in the invasiveness of some exotic plant species. We studied the role of clonal integration in induce morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses in the clonal invader Carpobrotus edulis against the attack of the native snail Theba pisana...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758287/pseudomonas-putida-as-a-functional-chassis-for-industrial-biocatalysis-from-native-biochemistry-to-trans-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
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