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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724071/haplotypes-phased-from-population-transcriptomes-detecting-selection-in-the-initial-adaptation-of-miscanthus-lutarioriparius-to-stressful-environments
#1
Cai-Yun Zhu, Wei Liu, Li-Fang Kang, Qin Xu, Shi-Lai Xing, Yang-Yang Fan, Zhi-Hong Song, Juan Yan, Jian-Qiang Li, Tao Sang
Adaptation is a characteristic that enhances the survival or reproduction of organisms; selection is the critical process leading to adaptive evolution. Therefore, detecting selection is important in studying evolutionary biology. Changes in allele frequency are fundamental to adaptive evolution. The allele frequency of entire genes at the genomic scale is more intensive and precise for analyzing selection effects, compared with simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles from nuclear gene fragments...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723615/nanoformulations-of-curcumin-an-emerging-paradigm-for-improved-remedial-application
#2
REVIEW
Meeta Gera, Neelesh Sharma, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Do Luong Huynh, Sung Jin Lee, Taesun Min, Taeho Kwon, Dong Kee Jeong
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol and essential curcuminoid derived from the rhizome of the medicinal plant Curcuma longa (L.) is universally acknowledged as "Wonder drug of life". It is a vital consumable and restorative herb, commonly keened for several ailments such as cancer, arthritis, pain, bruises, gastrointestinal quandaries, swelling and much more. Despite its enormous curative potential, the poor aqueous solubility and consequently, minimal systemic bioavailability with rapid degradation are some of the major factors which restrict the utilization of curcumin at medical perspective...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723242/interspecific-and-intraspecific-hybrid-epichlo%C3%A3-species-symbiotic-with-the-north-american-native-grass-poa-alsodes
#3
Tatsiana Shymanovich, Nikki D Charlton, Ashleigh M Musso, Jonathan Scheerer, Nadja B Cech, Stanley H Faeth, Carolyn A Young
The endophyte presence and diversity in natural populations of Poa alsodes were evaluated along a latitudinal transect from the southern distribution range in North Carolina to New York. Two distinct Epichloë hybrid taxa were identified from 23 populations. Each taxon could easily be distinguished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping with primers designed to mating type genes and alkaloid biosynthesis genes that encode key pathway steps for ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine...
June 26, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722132/evolution-of-the-selfing-syndrome-anther-orientation-and-herkogamy-together-determine-reproductive-assurance-in-a-self-compatible-plant
#4
Per Toräng, Linus Vikström, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, George Coupland, Jon Ågren
Capacity for autonomous self-fertilization provides reproductive assurance, has evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom, and typically involves several changes in flower morphology and development (the selfing syndrome). Yet, the relative importance of different traits and trait combinations for efficient selfing and reproductive success in pollinator-poor environments is poorly known. In a series of experiments, we tested the importance of anther-stigma distance and the less studied trait anther orientation for efficiency of selfing in the perennial herb Arabis alpina...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721680/evaluation-of-haplotype-diversity-of-achatina-fulica-lissachatina-bowdich-from-indian-sub-continent-by-means-of-16s-rdna-sequence-and-its-phylogenetic-relationships-with-other-global-populations
#5
Vijaya Sai Ayyagari, Krupanidhi Sreerama
Achatina fulica (Lissachatina fulica) is one of the most invasive species found across the globe causing a significant damage to crops, vegetables, and horticultural plants. This terrestrial snail is native to east Africa and spread to different parts of the world by introductions. India, a hot spot for biodiversity of several endemic gastropods, has witnessed an outburst of this snail population in several parts of the country posing a serious threat to crop loss and also to human health. With an objective to evaluate the genetic diversity of this snail, we have sampled this snail from different parts of India and analyzed its haplotype diversity by means of 16S rDNA sequence information...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721187/individual-and-interactive-effects-of-white-tailed-deer-and-an-exotic-shrub-on-artificial-and-natural-regeneration-in-mixed-hardwood-forests
#6
Charlotte F Owings, Douglass F Jacobs, Joshua M Shields, Michael R Saunders, Michael A Jenkins
Underplanting tree seedlings in areas where natural regeneration is limited may offer a tool by which desired overstory composition can be maintained or restored in forests. However, invasive plant species and ungulate browsing may limit the effectiveness of underplanting, and in-turn, the successful restoration of forest ecosystems. Individually, the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been found to negatively affect the regeneration of native tree species in the Midwestern United States, but few studies have examined their interactive or cumulative effects...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718009/relative-salinity-tolerance-of-rice-cultivars-native-to-north-east-india-a-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-perspective
#7
Takhellambam Omisun, Smita Sahoo, Bedabrata Saha, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Salinity is the second most prevalent abiotic stress faced by plants, and rice is not an exception. Through this study, it has been tried upon, to study the relative salinity tolerance of eight local varieties of North East India. Preliminary screening was based on their dose- and time-dependent physiological responses to salinity stress. Among the cultivars, Tampha was found to be relatively more tolerant, whereas MSE9 the most sensitive. To further ascertain their tolerance capacity, MDA and H2O2 content was determined, which also confirmed the tolerance level of the two cultivars...
July 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713920/low%C3%A2-dose-halofuginone-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-type-i-collagen-without-influencing-type-ii-collagen-in-the-extracellular-matrix-of-chondrocytes
#8
Zeng Li, Hao Fei, Zhen Wang, Tianyi Zhu
Full‑thickness and large area defects of articular cartilage are unable to completely repair themselves and require surgical intervention, including microfracture, autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. A large proportion of regenerative cartilage exists as fibrocartilage, which is unable to withstand impacts in the same way as native hyaline cartilage, owing to excess synthesis of type I collagen in the matrix. The present study demonstrated that low‑dose halofuginone (HF), a plant alkaloid isolated from Dichroa febrifuga, may inhibit the synthesis of type I collagen without influencing type II collagen in the extracellular matrix of chondrocytes...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712489/plant-made-virus-like-particles-bearing-influenza-hemagglutinin-ha-recapitulate-early-interactions-of-native-influenza-virions-with-human-monocytes-macrophages
#9
Alexander I Makarkov, Sabrina Chierzi, Stéphane Pillet, Keith K Murai, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward
INTRODUCTION: Plant-made virus-like particles (VLP) bearing influenza virus hemagglutinins (HA) are novel vaccine candidates that induce cross-reactive humoral and poly-functional T cell responses. To better understand the mechanisms that underlie this broad immunogenicity we studied early interactions of VLPs bearing either H1 (A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)) or H5 (A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)) with a human monocytoid cell line (U-937 cells) and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) as model antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710403/plant-recording-across-two-centuries-reveals-dramatic-changes-in-species-diversity-of-a-mediterranean-archipelago
#10
Alessandro Chiarucci, Simone Fattorini, Bruno Foggi, Sara Landi, Lorenzo Lazzaro, János Podani, Daniel Simberloff
Although islands are model systems for investigating assembly of biological communities, long-term changes in archipelago communities are not well understood because of the lack of reliable data. By using a vast amount of floristic data we assembled a dataset of the plant species occurring on 16 islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, Italy, across two periods, 1830-1950 and 1951-2015. We collected 10,892 occurrence records for 1,831 species. We found major changes in the island plant assemblages between the two periods, with native flora significantly decreasing (-10...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709697/effects-of-p-limitation-and-molecules-from-peanut-root-exudates-on-pqqe-gene-expression-and-pqq-promoter-activity-in-the-phosphate-solubilizing-strain-serratia-sp-s119
#11
Liliana M Ludueña, Maria S Anzuay, Cynthia Magallanes-Noguera, Maria L Tonelli, Fernando J Ibañez, Jorge G Angelini, Adriana Fabra, Matthew McIntosh, Tania Taurian
The mineral phosphate-solubilizing phenotype in bacteria is attributed predominantly to secretion of gluconic acid produced by oxidation of glucose by the glucose dehydrogenase enzyme and its cofactor, pyrroloquinoline quinone. This study analyzes pqqE gene expression and pqq promoter activity in the native phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Serratia sp S119 growing under P-limitation, and in the presence of root exudates obtained from peanut plants, also growing under P-limitation. Results indicated that Serratia sp...
July 11, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709614/generation-of-recombinant-protein-shells-of-johnson-grass-chlorotic-stripe-mosaic-virus-in-tobacco-plants-and-their-use-as-drug-carrier
#12
E Alemzadeh, K Izadpanah, F Ahmadi
The development and use of virus-like particles (VLPs) is a growing field with a powerful potential in generation of nanoparticles. In the present study we have attempted to generate and use empty shells of Johnson grass chlorotic stripe mosaic virus (JgCSMV, a member of the genus Aureusvirus, family Tombusviridae) as VLP nanoparticles for drug loading. In order to successfully produce recombinant JgCSMV-derived VLPs, we followed an approach based on cloning of the JgCSMV CP gene into pBI121 vectorand introduction of the latter into Agrobacterium rhizogenes and transformation of tobacco cells for coat protein expression...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706524/evaluation-of-wild-lentil-species-as-genetic-resources-to-improve-drought-tolerance-in-cultivated-lentil
#13
Linda Y Gorim, Albert Vandenberg
Increasingly unpredictable annual rainfall amounts and distribution patterns have far reaching implications for pulse crop biology. Seedling and whole plant survival will be affected given that water is a key factor in plant photosynthesis and also influences the evolving disease spectrum that affects crops. The wild relatives of cultivated lentil are native to drought prone areas, making them good candidates for the evaluation of drought tolerance traits. We evaluated root and shoot traits of genotypes of cultivated lentil and five wild species grown under two water deficit regimes as well as fully watered conditions over a 13 week period indoors...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704449/postfire-responses-of-the-woody-flora-of-central-chile-insights-from-a-germination-experiment
#14
Susana Gómez-González, Susana Paula, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Juli G Pausas
Fire is a selective agent shaping plant traits and community assembly in fire-prone ecosystems. However, in ecosystems with no fire history, it can be a cause of land degradation when it is suddenly introduced by humans, as plant species may not be able to respond to such novel disturbance. Unlike other Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTE) of the world, natural fires have not been frequent during the Quaternary in the matorral of Central Chile, and thus, plant adaptive responses are expected to be uncommon. We evaluated the effect of heat shock on seed survival and germination of 21 native woody plants of the Chilean matorral and compiled information on smoke-stimulation and resprouting, to evaluate the importance of fire-adaptive responses in the context of the other MTE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702162/plant-performance-was-greater-in-the-soils-of-more-distantly-related-plants-for-an-herbaceous-understory-species
#15
Drake D Sweet, Jean H Burns
Growing evidence suggests that plant-soil interactions have important implications for plant community composition. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness in governing interactions between plants and soil biota is unclear, and more case studies are needed to help build a general picture of whether and how phylogeny might influence plant-soil interactions. We performed a glasshouse experiment to test whether degree of phylogenetic relatedness between Aquilegia canadensis and six co-occurring heterospecifics affects A...
January 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700721/niche-shifts-and-the-potential-distribution-of-phenacoccus-solenopsis-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-under-climate-change
#16
Jiufeng Wei, Hufang Zhang, Wanqing Zhao, Qing Zhao
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a serious invasive species that significantly damages plants of approximately 60 families around the world. It is originally from North America and has also been introduced to other continents. Our goals were to create a current and future potential global distribution map for this pest under climate change with MaxEnt software. We tested the hypothesis of niche conservatism for P. solenopsis by comparing its native niche in North America to its invasive niches on other continents using Principal components analyses (PCA) in R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700031/inhibitory-effect-of-the-pseudobrickellia-brasiliensis-spreng-r-m-king-h-rob-aqueous-extract-on-human-lymphocyte-proliferation-and-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-production-in-vitro
#17
V G Almeida, B A Avelar-Freitas, M G Santos, L A Costa, T J Silva, W F Pereira, M L L Amorim, C F F Grael, L E Gregório, E Rocha-Vieira, G E A Brito-Melo
Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P...
July 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694184/engineering-yeasts-as-platform-organisms-for-cannabinoid-biosynthesis
#18
Bastian Zirpel, Friederike Degenhardt, Chantale Martin, Oliver Kayser, Felix Stehle
Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a plant derived secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis sativa l. The discovery of the human endocannabinoid system in the late 1980s resulted in a growing number of known physiological functions of both synthetic and plant derived cannabinoids. Thus, manifold therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of research. Here we reconstituted the final biosynthetic cannabinoid pathway in yeasts. The use of the soluble prenyltransferase NphB from Streptomyces sp...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692816/unique-oestrogen-receptor-ligand-binding-domain-sequence-of-native-parrots-a-possible-link-between-phytoestrogens-and-breeding-success
#19
Catherine E J Davis, Adrian H Bibby, Kevin M Buckley, Kenneth P McNatty, Janet L Pitman
The New Zealand (NZ) native parrots kākāpō, kākā and kea are classified as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable respectively. Successful reproduction of kākāpō and kākā is linked to years of high levels of fruiting in native flora (mast years). To assess a possible hormonal link between native plants and reproductive success in these parrots in mast years, we examined the ligand-binding domains (LBD) of the progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) in NZ native (kākāpō, kākā, kea and kākāriki) and non-native (Australian cockatiel) parrots and compared them with those in the chicken...
July 11, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690824/high-invasion-potential-of-hydrilla-verticillata-in-the-americas-predicted-using-ecological-niche-modeling-combined-with-genetic-data
#20
Jinning Zhu, Xuan Xu, Qing Tao, Panpan Yi, Dan Yu, Xinwei Xu
Ecological niche modeling is an effective tool to characterize the spatial distribution of suitable areas for species, and it is especially useful for predicting the potential distribution of invasive species. The widespread submerged plant Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) has an obvious phylogeographical pattern: Four genetic lineages occupy distinct regions in native range, and only one lineage invades the Americas. Here, we aimed to evaluate climatic niche conservatism of hydrilla in North America at the intraspecific level and explore its invasion potential in the Americas by comparing climatic niches in a phylogenetic context...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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