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Landscape horticulture

Kimberly A Huerth, Jason E Hawkes, Laurence J Meyer, Douglas L Powell
The Euphorbiaceae family (commonly known as "spurge") is a large, diverse, and widely distributed family of plants that encompass around 300 genera and more than 8000 species. Their attractiveness and hearty nature have made them popular for both indoor ornamentation and outdoor landscaping. Despite their ubiquity, the potential to cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is often overlooked in favor of more notorious causes of phytodermatitis, namely, Toxicodendron species and nettles. We examined case reports spanning 40 years and discovered that spurge-induced ICD tends to befall children and middle-aged adults who unwittingly encounter the plant through play or horticulture, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Dermatitis
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Miia Kauppinen, Kari Saikkonen, Marjo Helander, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Piippa R Wäli
There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides...
2016: Nature Plants
Lee A Kalcsits
Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ting Meng, Anna M Klepacka, Wojciech J Florkowski, Kristine Braman
Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly)...
February 2016: Waste Management
Nigel E Gapper, James J Giovannoni, Christopher B Watkins
Next generation sequencing has revolutionized plant biology. Not only has our understanding of plant metabolism advanced using model systems and modern chromatography, but application of 'omics'-based technology has been widely extended to non-model systems as costs have plummeted and efficiency increased. As a result, important fundamental questions relating to important horticultural crops are being answered, and novel approaches with application to industry are in progress. Here we review recent research advances on development and ripening of fruit crops, how next generation sequencing approaches are driving this advance and the emerging future landscape...
2014: Horticulture Research
Alejandro C Costamagna, William N Venables, Nancy A Schellhorn
There is increasing evidence that biological control of agricultural pests is affected by the landscape context, although the mechanisms behind this pattern have received little attention. Ecological theory predicts that one key mechanism mediating successful pest suppression is early predator immigration to agricultural fields. However, the importance of this population process under different landscape contexts remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the relative importance of landscape context and timing of predator immigration on aphid suppression by manipulating exposure to predation in agroecosystems located across a gradient of landscape complexity in a subtropical horticultural region in Australia...
June 2015: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Robert Mattera, Thomas Molnar, Lena Struwe
Big-bracted dogwoods (Cornus sp.) are well-known plants in North America and eastern Asia where they occur as wild, generally spring-flowering understory trees. They are also popular ornamental landscape plants, and many economically important cultivars are propagated and sold across North America, Europe, and Asia. Starting in the late 1960s, Elwin Orton of Rutgers University in New Jersey (USA) utilized three geographically disjunct species of dogwoods, Cornusflorida (eastern North America), Cornusnuttallii (western North America), and Cornuskousa (East Asia), in an extensive interspecific hybridization program...
2015: PhytoKeys
Treena I Burgess
Most Phytophthora hybrids characterized to date have emerged from nurseries and managed landscapes, most likely generated as a consequence of biological invasions associated with the movement of living plants and germplasm for ornamental, horticultural and agricultural purposes. Presented here is evidence for natural hybridization among a group of five closely related indigenous clade 6 Phytophthora species isolated from waterways and riparian ecosystems in Western Australia. Molecular characterization of hybrids consisted of cloning and sequencing two nuclear genes (ITS and ASF), sequencing of two further nuclear loci (BT and HSP) and of two mitochondrial loci (COI and NADH)...
2015: PloS One
Lloyd L Nackley, Corey Barnes, Lorence R Oki
Recycled wastewater is a popular alternative water resource. Recycled water typically has higher salinity than potable water and therefore may not be an appropriate water source for landscapes planted with salt-intolerant plant species. Coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) are an important agricultural, horticultural and ecological species assumed to be salt intolerant. However, no studies have analysed how salinity impacts coast redwood growth. To determine salt-related growth limitations, as well as susceptibility to particular salt ions, we divided 102 S...
2015: AoB Plants
Philip Donkersley, Glenn Rhodes, Roger W Pickup, Kevin C Jones, Kenneth Wilson
Declines in insect pollinators in Europe have been linked to changes in land use. Pollinator nutrition is dependent on floral resources (i.e., nectar and pollen), which are linked to landscape composition. Here, we present a stratified analysis of the nutritional composition of beebread in managed honeybee hives with a view to examining potential sources of variation in its nutritional composition. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that beebread composition correlates with local land use and therefore available floral resources...
November 2014: Ecology and Evolution
Anne Behrend, Thomas Borchert, Monika Spiller, Annette Hohe
BACKGROUND: Calluna vulgaris is one of the most important landscaping plants produced in Germany. Its enormous economic success is due to the prolonged flower attractiveness of mutants in flower morphology, the so-called bud-bloomers. In this study, we present the first genetic linkage map of C. vulgaris in which we mapped a locus of the economically highly desired trait "flower type". RESULTS: The map was constructed in JoinMap 4.1. using 535 AFLP markers from a single mapping population...
2013: BMC Genetics
Lu Wang, Shuang Zhao, Chao Gu, Ying Zhou, Hui Zhou, Juanjuan Ma, Jun Cheng, Yuepeng Han
Peach (Prunus persica) is one of the most important of deciduous fruit trees worldwide. To facilitate isolation of genes controlling important horticultural traits of peach, transcriptome sequencing was conducted in this study. A total of 133 million pair-end RNA-Seq reads were generated from leaf, flower, and fruit, and 90 % of reads were mapped to the peach draft genome. Sequence assembly revealed 1,162 transcription factors and 2,140 novel transcribed regions (NTRs). Of these 2,140 NTRs, 723 contain an open reading frame, while the rest 1,417 are non-coding RNAs...
November 2013: Plant Molecular Biology
Steven D Frank
Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin...
April 2012: Environmental Entomology
Mark Hubbe, Christina Torres-Rouff, Walter Alves Neves, Laura M King, Pedro Da-Gloria, Maria Antonietta Costa
As one of the few areas apt for horticulture in Northern Chile's arid landscape, the prehistory of the Atacama oases is deeply enmeshed with that of the inter-regional networks that promoted societal development in the south central Andes. During the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000), local populations experienced a cultural apex associated with a substantial increase in inter-regional interaction, population density, and quantity and quality of mortuary assemblages. Here, we test if this cultural peak affected dietary practices equally among the distinct local groups of this period...
May 2012: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Brad E Davis
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to understand successes and weaknesses of a rooftop hospital garden used primarily for physical therapy. BACKGROUND: Literature on the healing benefits of nature and designed outdoor spaces in healthcare contexts continues to become more focused on specific patient populations. This study contributes to the knowledge of rooftop hospital gardens and gardens for physical rehabilitation. METHODS: A post-occupancy evaluation was conducted using interviews with a lead therapist and landscape architect, behavior mapping, a staff survey, and a patient questionnaire...
2011: HERD
Víctor M González, Andrej Benjak, Elizabeth Marie Hénaff, Gisela Mir, Josep M Casacuberta, Jordi Garcia-Mas, Pere Puigdomènech
BACKGROUND: Cucumis melo (melon) belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has a high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (454 Mb), which make it suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps, BAC genomic libraries, a BAC-based physical map and EST collections...
2010: BMC Plant Biology
Fengxue Xin, Anli Geng
Horticultural waste collected from a landscape company in Singapore was utilized as the substrate for the production of laccase under solid-state fermentation by Trametes versicolor. The effects of substrate particle size, types of inducers, incubation temperature and time, initial medium pH value, and moisture content on laccase production were investigated. The optimum productivity of laccase (8.6 U/g substrate) was achieved by employing horticultural waste of particle size greater than 500 μm and using veratryl alcohol as the inducer...
January 2011: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Fengxue Xin, Anli Geng
Horticultural waste in wood chips form collected from a landscape company in Singapore was utilized as the substrate for the production of cellulase and hemicellulase under solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. The effects of substrate pretreatment methods, substrate particle size, incubation temperature and time, initial medium pH value, and moisture content on cellulase and hemicellulase production were investigated. Enzyme complex was obtained at the optimal conditions. This enzyme mixture contained FPase (15...
September 2010: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Mark Greskevitch, Greg Kullman, Ki Moon Bang, Jacek M Mazurek
To quantify the respiratory disease burden among agricultural workers, we examined the 1988-1998 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) "Multiple Cause of Death Data" and the 1988-1994 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (NHANES III). Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were determined for 11 respiratory conditions among 6 agricultural groups: crop farm workers, livestock farm workers, farm managers, landscape and horticultural workers, forestry workers, and fishery workers. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were determined for 12 respiratory conditions among 3 agricultural groups: farm workers, farm managers, and other agricultural workers...
2007: Journal of Agromedicine
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