Read by QxMD icon Read

Dilution effect

Marc Sánchez-Morales, Francesc Sabater, Isabel Muñoz
Wastewater discharges into fluvial ecosystems represent a significant and continuous source of fine particles and nutrients that can severely modify stream community composition and functionality. Depending on both wastewater and stream features (e.g., nutrient removal treatments and stream dilution capacity), the ecological effects can be more or less severe. To determine how hyporheic habitat and hyporheos are affected, we analysed eight Mediterranean streams both upstream and downstream of a wastewater effluent...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sophie Marielle van den Belt, Valentina Gracchi, Dick de Zeeuw, Hiddo Jan Lambers Heerspink
OBJECTIVE: Urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) in first morning void (FMV) urine samples collected over three days is the recommended method for measuring and monitoring albuminuria in adults in the clinical setting. Such a guideline is not available for toddlers and young children. We tested several urine collection strategies for albuminuria measurement in toddlers in a prospective observational study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Both a FMV and a random daytime urine sample were collected on three consecutive days at week 0, 4, and 8 in toddlers aged 12-48 months...
2018: PloS One
Ernest R Blatchley, John Cullen, Brian Petri, Keith Bircher, Nicholas Welschmeyer
The shipping industry is critical to international commerce; however, contemporary shipping practices involve uptake and discharge of ballast water, which introduces the potential for transfer of non-indigenous, invasive species among geographically distinct habitats. To counteract this hazard, regulations for ballast water management have been implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and by regulatory agencies such as the United States Coast Guard (USCG). IMO and USCG discharge standards are numerically identical, but involve different definitions of treatment endpoints, which are based on fundamentally-different biological assays for quantification of ballast water treatment effectiveness...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Charles E Rupprecht, Zhiquan Xiang, Alexandre Servat, Richard Franka, Jordona Kirby, Hildegund C J Ertl
Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this study, our objective was to further refine technical aspects of the DRIT using a combination of two monoclonal ABs (MABs), 502 and 802, conduct additional testing among rabies reference laboratories using a diversity of animal species and rabies virus (RV) variants and compare the potential utility of the DRIT for end users via proficiency testing (PT) against the FAT...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Mai Tanabe-Ikegawa, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Churei, Akihiro Mitsuyama, Toshiaki Ueno
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of rehydration with diluted sports drink and water gargling on salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity during exercise. Nineteen participants performed a 30-min bicycle ergometer exercise at 80% of maximal heart rate while consuming a sports drink, followed by gargling with water, or no gargling, immediately after the exercise (Exp. 1). The same experiment was then conducted on 9 participants who drank 1.5-fold diluted sports drink (Exp. 2-A) and 10 who drank 2-fold diluted sports drink (Exp...
2018: Journal of Oral Science
Bhaven A Mistry, Maria R D'Orsogna, Tom Chou
Many biological assays are employed in virology to quantify parameters of interest. Two such classes of assays, virus quantification assays (VQAs) and infectivity assays (IAs), aim to estimate the number of viruses present in a solution and the ability of a viral strain to successfully infect a host cell, respectively. VQAs operate at extremely dilute concentrations, and results can be subject to stochastic variability in virus-cell interactions. At the other extreme, high viral-particle concentrations are used in IAs, resulting in large numbers of viruses infecting each cell, enough for measurable change in total transcription activity...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Eric A Miller, Yara Jabbour Al Maalouf, Hadley D Sikes
In this work, we characterize the impact of large-volume processing upon the analytical sensitivity of flow-through paper-based immunoassays. Larger sample volumes feature greater molar quantities of available analyte, but the assay design principles which would enable the rapid collection of this dilute target are ill-defined. We developed a finite-element model to explore the operat-ing conditions under which processing large sample volumes via pressure-driven convective flow would yield improved binding signal...
June 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Louise Isham, Heidemarie Grafahrend, Alecia Nickless, Katherine Pugh, Steve Pleasants, Nicola Smedley, Daniel Freeman, Alison Mulligan
BACKGROUND: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). AIM: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. METHOD: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). RESULTS: All but one participant completed measures at all time points...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Koji Hosokawa, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Emiel Hendrik Post, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Acute ethanol intoxication has been shown to have contrasting effects on outcomes in sepsis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of acute ethanol intoxication on hemodynamics, renal function, brain perfusion and lactate/pyruvate in an ovine sepsis model. METHODS: Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated female sheep were randomized to an ethanol group (n = 7), which received 1 g/kg ethanol diluted in intravenous (i.v.) saline infusion or a control group (n = 7), which received the same volume of i...
June 19, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Serkan Özbilgin, Özlem Bahadır Acıkara, Esra Küpeli Akkol, Ipek Süntar, Hikmet Keleş, Gülçin Saltan İşcan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The latex and the aerial parts of Euphorbia characias L. (Euphorbiaceae) have been used as medicinal plant to treat wounds and warts in traditional medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The effect of the plant extract was tested in vivo and in vitro with experimental models to find scientific evidence for traditional use in wound healing. Potentially active wound-healer compounds were isolated from the active fraction using fractionation procedures under the guidance of biological assay and the possible role of the compounds in the wound healing process was also determined...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zara Naz, Braira Wahid, Sana Usman, Komal Saleem, Shazia Rafique, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Idrees
Genetics of host plays a significant role in susceptibility and pathogenesis of disease. During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV proteins interfere with interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and upregulate transcription of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 genes (SOCS1 and SOCS3), which results in impaired immune response. In this study, we evaluated relative expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in untreated HCV patients and patients treated with 2 different treatment strategies that are, (IFN therapy and direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drug regimen...
June 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Jose M Diaz, M Shane Gadberry, Paul A Beck, John T Richeson, G Douglas Hufstedler, Don S Hubbell, John D Tucker, Tom Hess, Ky G Pohler
The objective of this study was to evaluate a combination of best management practices strategy for steer calves grazing tall fescue pastures with a range of toxicity. The experiment was conducted over two grazing seasons (fall 2015 for 91 days and spring 2016 for 84 days). Steers (n = 80 within season, BW = 197.0 ± 15.43 kg [fall] and 116.9 ± 4.88 [spring]) were stocked at 2.45 and 4.1 calves/hectare in fall and spring, respectively, to 16 pastures with varying levels of toxicity based on interim ergovaline (EV) concentration within season...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Matthew P Abdel, Brian P Chalmers, Michael J Taunton, Mark W Pagnano, Robert T Trousdale, Rafael J Sierra, Yuo-Yu Lee, Friedrich Boettner, Edwin P Su, Steven B Haas, Mark P Figgie, David J Mayman
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding and the need for transfusion after total knee arthroplasty. Most literature has focused on intravenous (IV) administration of TXA, with less data available on the efficacy of topically administered TXA. This multicenter randomized clinical trial specifically assessed the efficacy of topical TXA compared with IV TXA as measured by calculated blood loss, drain output, and transfusion rates. Complications, including venous thromboembolism (VTE), were reported...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
L Touazi, B Aberkane, Y Bellik, N Moula, M Iguer-Ouada
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oil on rooster sperm motility during 4°C short-term storage. Materials and Methods: R. officinalis essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the active components. 10 of 45-week-old Hubbard commercial broilers were subjected to biweekly semen collections during 3 weeks. At each collection, sperm was pooled and divided into four aliquots and then diluted with Tris extender supplemented with 870, 87, or 8...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Ronja Mathiesen, Mariann Chriél, Tina Struve, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard
BACKGROUND: The significance of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) for the resistance against a number of infections affecting the health of young mink offspring is not known. Here, we present a validated immunoassay for quantification of mink IgG in serum and milk, using a commercially available polyclonal goat anti-ferret IgG antibody cross-reactive with mink IgG as both the catching and the detection antibody, in a sandwich format enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using this ELISA, serum IgG concentrations was analyzed over time in both mothers and kits in order to establish a correlation between maternal IgG serum concentrations and those of the offspring...
June 18, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Mario Corti, Antonio Raudino, Laura Cantù, Johannes Theisen, Maximilian Pleines, Thomas N Zemb
Selectively exchanging metal complexes between emulsified water-poor microemulsions and concentrated solutions of mixed electrolytes is the core technology for strategic metal recycling. Nanostructuration triggered by solutes present in the organic phase is understood, but little is known about fluctuations of the microemulsion-water interface. We use here a modified version of an opto-electric device initially designed for air bubbles, in order to evidence resonant electrically induced surface waves of an oily droplet suspended in an aqueous phase...
June 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anand Archana, Benoit Thibodeau, Naomi Geeraert, Min Nina Xu, Shuh-Ji Kao, David M Baker
Elevated nutrient inputs have led to increased eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems worldwide. An understanding of the relative contribution of different nutrient sources is imperative for effective water quality management. Stable isotope values of nitrate (δ15 NNO3- , δ18 ONO3- ) can complement conventional water quality monitoring programs to help differentiate natural sources of NO3 - from anthropogenic inputs and estimate the processes involved in N cycling within an ecosystem. We measured nutrient concentrations, δ15 NNO3- , and δ18 ONO3- in 76 locations along a salinity gradient from the lower end of the Pearl River Estuary, one of China's largest rivers discharging into the South China Sea, towards the open ocean...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Alexander J-T Lou, Stefania Righetto, Christopher Jeffrey Barger, Cristiano Zuccaccia, Elena Cariati, Alceo Macchioni, Tobin J Marks
Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) chromophores exhibit uniquely large second order optical nonlinearities (). However, their promise as electrooptic (E-O) materials is yet untapped, reflecting a strong tendency to aggregate in low-polarity media, leading to a dramatic fall in  Until now, TICT chromophores in de-aggregating polar solvents suffered decreased response from polarity driven changes in electronic structure. Here we report a new series of benzimidazolium-based TICT chromophores with inter-aryl torsional angles in the range of 64-77°...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Stine Daugaard, Anne Helene Garde, Åse Marie Hansen, Helene Tilma Vistisen, Lars Rejnmark, Henrik Albert Kolstad
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) among indoor, outdoor, permanent and rotating night workers and the association with hours spent outdoors on and off work days. Methods Blood samples were collected from 425 workers (162 indoor, 112 outdoor, 118 rotating night and 33 permanent night workers) throughout all seasons. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) and an automated immune analyzer, respectively...
June 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
G Göransson, J Norrman, M Larson
The potential catastrophic event of a landslide bringing contaminants to surface waters has been highlighted in public media, but there are still few scientific studies analyzing the risk of landslides with contaminated soil. The aim of this study is to present a method to estimate the risk of potential long-term ecological effects on water bodies due to contaminated soil released into a river through a landslide. The study constitutes further development of previous work focusing on the instantaneous (short-term) release of contaminants and associated effects...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"