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Dilution effect

Lucia Černáková, Luisa Jordao, Helena Bujdáková
OBJECTIVE: This work studied the biofilm formed by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans on a hydroxyapatite surface after exposure to the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol (200 μM) in comparison with the diluted mouthwash Corsodyl® (0.0001% chlorhexidine digluconate). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of farnesol was evaluated by Galleria melonella surviving assay. The viability of biofilm cells after exposure to farnesol and Corsodyl® was determined by colony-forming units...
April 18, 2018: Oral Diseases
Moin Ishrat, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad, Asimul Islam
Organisms synthesize sugar osmolytes during environmental stresses to protect proteins against denaturation. These studies were carried out in dilute buffer whereas intracellular milieu within cells has cytoplasmic concentration of macromolecules in the range of 80-400 mg ml-1 . Is the stabilizing effect of sugar osmolytes on the protein in dilute buffer different from that when protein is in cellular environment? To answer this question, we have measured and analysed the effect of sugar osmolytes on the structural and thermodynamic stability of ribonuclease A in the presence of dextran 70 at multiple concentrations of six sugars at different pH values...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
W Kruger, P W A Meyer, J G Nel
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether the current set of evaluation criteria used for dilute Russel Viper Venom Time (dRVVT) investigations in the routine laboratory meet expectation and identify possible shortcomings. METHODS: All dRVVT assays requested from January 2015 to December 2015 were appraised in this cross-sectional study. The raw data panels were compared with the new reference interval, established in 2016, to determine the sequence of assays that should have been performed...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Marius Rehn, Anne Weaver, Karim Brohi, Sarah Eshelby, Laura Green, Jo Røislien, David J Lockey
BACKGROUND: Current management principles of haemorrhagic shock after trauma emphasize earlier transfusion therapy to prevent dilution of clotting factors and correct coagulopathy. London's air ambulance (LAA) was the first UK civilian pre-hospital service to routinely offer pre-hospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (phRTx). We investigated the effect of phRTx on mortality. METHODS: Retrospective trauma database study comparing mortality before-implementation with after-implementation of phRTx in exsanguinating trauma patients...
April 16, 2018: Shock
Marianne E M Yee, Cassandra D Josephson, Anne M Winkler, Jennifer Webb, Naomi L C Luban, Traci Leong, Sean R Stowell, John D Roback, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Chronic transfusion therapy for sickle cell anemia reduces disease complications by diluting sickle-erythrocytes with hemoglobin A (HbA)-containing erythrocytes and suppressing erythropoiesis. Minor antigen mismatches may result in alloimmunization, but it is unknown if antigen mismatches or recipient characteristics influence HbA clearance posttransfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with sickle cell anemia on chronic transfusion therapy were followed prospectively for 12 months...
April 17, 2018: Transfusion
Xianzhi Peng, Ke Zheng, Jun Liu, Yujuan Fan, Caiming Tang, Songsong Xiong
Parabens, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), and triclocarban (TCC) are recognized endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs) and their occurrence in the environment has attracted increasing concerns. Body-size dependent bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, trophic magnification, and maternal transfer of methy-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparabens, 2-phenylphenol (PHP), BPA, TCS, and TCC were investigated in freshwater fish of the Pearl River catchment, China. Most of the EDCs were detected in more than half of the biota samples, ranging from not detected to 6750 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw), with median concentrations of 5-72 ng g-1 lw...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Parveen Fatemeh Rupani, Asha Embrandiri, Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim, Vikram Ghole, Chew Tin Lee, Madjid Abbaspour
Several treatment technologies are available for the treatment of palm oil mill wastes. Vermicomposting is widely recognized as efficient, eco-friendly methods for converting organic waste materials to valuable products. This study evaluates the effect of different vermicompost extracts obtained from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) mixtures on the germination, growth, relative toxicity, and photosynthetic pigments of mung beans (Vigna radiata) plant. POME contains valuable nutrients and can be used as a liquid fertilizer for fertigation...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Quan Niu, Roland Rohloff, Gert-Jan A H Wetzelaer, Paul W M Blom, N Irina Crăciun
Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are attractive for use in large-area displays and lighting panels, but their limited stability under current stress impedes commercialization. In spite of large efforts over the last two decades a fundamental understanding of the degradation mechanisms has not been accomplished. Here we demonstrate that the voltage drift of a PLED driven at constant current is caused by the formation of hole traps, which leads to additional non-radiative recombination between free electrons and trapped holes...
April 16, 2018: Nature Materials
Ganggang Chong, Junhua Di, Cuiluan Ma, Dajing Wang, Chu Wang, Lingling Wang, Pengqi Zhang, Jun Zhu, Yucai He
In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na2 CO3 , 0.032% Na2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kevser Sabanci, Ali Oguz Buyukkileci
The effect of pretreatments on the composition of the hazelnut tree pruning residue (HTPR) and on the digestibility of the cellulose was investigated. The liquid hot water (LHW) and the very dilute acid (VDA) treatments were effective in solubilizing hemicellulose. The cellulose conversion increased up to around 60% (corresponding to 32-36 g/L glucose) with decreasing hemicellulose concentration in the pretreated HTPR. The alkali treatment provided partial delignification, however, the glucose production was comparably lower...
April 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yanxia Chen, Xuehong Min, Xiqi Zhang, Feilong Zhang, Simeng Lu, Li-Ping Xu, Xiaoding Lou, Fan Xia, Xueji Zhang, Shutao Wang
Superwettable microchips with superhydrophilic microwells on superhydrophobic substrate have attracted increasing attention in fluorescence-based biological and medical diagnostics. However, traditional fluorophores often suffer from the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) problem at high concentration or in aggregated state. Here, we developed an AIE-based superwettable microchip by combining the evaporation-induced enrichment of superwettable microchips and the aggregation-induced emission of AIEgens together into one chip...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Renee Zahnow, Peter Miller, Kerri Coomber, Dominique de Andrade, Jason Ferris
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The association between alcohol availability, alcohol consumption and, in turn, alcohol-related harms is well established. Policies to reduce alcohol-related harms focus on limiting accessibility through the regulation of the liquor industry, including trading hours. On 1 July 2016, the Queensland Government introduced legislation to reduce ordinary liquor trading hours, replacing 5 am closing times with 3 am cessation of liquor sales in designated entertainment precincts and 2 am cessation of sales across the rest of the state...
April 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Intan Nirwana, Devi Rianti, R Helal Soekartono, Rr Dwi Listyorini, Desi Putri Basuki
Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment. Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used root canal irrigation, but it has toxic properties if exposed to periradicular tissues. It is necessary to develop an alternative for root canal irrigation. Fig leaf ( Ficus carica Linn.) extract contains active substances such as flavonoid, tannin, and terpenoid which have been known for their antibacterial potency...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Akram Abbasi, Geoffrey D Bothun, Arijit Bose
Alcanivorax borkumensis (AB) is a marine bacterium that dominates bacterial communities around many oil spills because it enzymatically degrades the oil while using it as a nutrient source. Several dispersants have been used to produce oil-in-water emulsions following a spill. Compared to surface slicks, the additional oil-water surface area produced by emulsification provides greater access to the oil, and accelerates its degradation. We deliberately cultured AB cells using hexadecane as the only nutrient source...
April 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mareike Siebert, Ralf G Berger, Annabel Nieter
A p-coumaroyl esterase from Rhizoctonia solani was used to decrease 5-O-chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) content in coffee powder. HPLC-UV showed a decline of up to 98% of 5-CQA after the enzyme treatment. Effects on aroma were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Flavour dilution factors of treated and control extract differed in four volatile compounds only. Effect on aroma and taste was evaluated by sensory tests. No significant differences were perceived, and no off-flavour nor off-taste was noted...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Mohammad H Nafar Sefiddashti, Brian J Edwards, Bamin Khomami
Virtual experimentation of atomistic entangled polyethylene melts undergoing planar elongational flow revealed an amazingly detailed depiction of individual macromolecular dynamics and the resulting effect on bistable configurational states. A clear coil-stretch transition was evident, in much the same form as first envisioned by de Gennes for dilute solutions of high polymers, resulting in an associated hysteresis in the configurational flow profile over the range of strain rates predicted by theory. Simulations conducted at steady state revealed bimodal distribution functions, in which equilibrium configurational states were simultaneously populated by relatively coiled and stretched molecules which could transition from one conformational mode to the other over a relatively long time scale at critical values of strain rates...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mei-Ling Fang, Ching-Yi Wu, Ming-Shean Chou
Some metal etching operations emit limited flow rates of waste gases with reddish-brown NO2 fume which may cause visual and acidic-odor complaints as well as negative healthy effects. In this study, tests were performed by passing caustic-treated waste gases vented from Al-etching operations through columns packed either with virgin or regenerated GAC (granular activated carbon) to test their adsorptive conversion performance of NO2 in the gases. The gases contained 5-55 ppm NO2 and acetic and nitric acids of below 3 ppm...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Huiping Yang, E Hu, John T Buchanan, Terrence R Tiersch
Sperm cryopreservation is an essential tool for long-term storage of genetic resources for aquaculture fishes. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient and streamlined protocol for high-throughput processing for sperm cryopreservation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar . The objectives were to evaluate: 1) osmolality of blood serum for determining extender osmolality; 2) effects of extenders for fresh sperm dilution and refrigerated storage; 3) effects of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on fresh sperm motility, and 4) motility and fertility after thawing...
February 2018: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Pablo Alvarez-Zaldívar, Sylvain Payraudeau, Fatima Meite, Jeremy Masbou, Gwenaël Imfeld
Although pesticides undergo degradation tests prior to use, determining their export, degradation and persistence under field conditions remains a challenge for water resource management. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) can provide evidence of contaminant degradation extent, as it is generally independent of non-destructive dissipation (e.g., dilution, sorption, volatilization) regulating environmental concentrations. While this approach has been successfully implemented in subsurface environments, its application to pesticides in near-surface hydrological contexts at catchment scale is lacking...
March 29, 2018: Water Research
So Yeon Kim, Jeong-Yub Kim, Woon-Seob Shin, Seok Joon Lee, Sung-Gil Chi, Ji-Yun Lee, Myung-Jin Park
Cancer stem cells, a small subpopulation of cells with stem cell-like characteristics found within most solid tumors, are widely reported to be responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells, and targeting these cells presents a sound therapeutic strategy for reducing the risk of tumor relapse. In the present study, we examined the effects of an extract of Saccharina japonica (ESJ) on glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Saccharina japonica is a member of the Phaeophyceae (brown algae) family, which displays biological activities, including antitumor effects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
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