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Dilution effect

Boris Shenkman, Ivan Budnik, Yulia Einav, Hagit Hauschner, Mykhaylo Andrejchin, Uriel Martinowitz
BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is commonly seen among patients with severe injury. The dynamic process of TIC is characterized by variability of the features of the disease. METHODS: A model of TIC was created. Hemodilution was produced by mixing the blood with 40% TRIS/saline solution, fibrinolysis by treating the blood with 160 ng/mL tPA, acidosis by adding 1.2 mg/mL lactic acid achieving pH 7.0-7.1, and hypothermia by running the assay at 31 °C...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yiwen Ouyang, Jingyi Li, Doris M Haverstick, James P Landers
We recently defined a magnetic bead-based assay that exploited an agglutination-like response for DNA and applied it to DNA-containing cell enumeration using inexpensive benchtop hardware [ J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012 , 134 ( 12 ), 5689 - 96 ]. Although cost-efficient, the open-well format assay required numerous manual steps, and the magnetic field actuation scheme was not readily adaptable for integration. Here, we demonstrate a low-cost (<$2 in-lab), higher-throughput "pinwheel assay" platform that relies on a combination of a disposable rotation-driven microdisc (RDM), and a simple bidirectional rotating magnetic field (bi-RMF)...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Shaolong Sun, Weijing Chen, Jianing Tang, Bing Wang, Xuefei Cao, Shaoni Sun, Run-Cang Sun
BACKGROUND: The biorefinery based on an effective and economical process is to fractionate the three primary constituents (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) from lignocellulosic biomass, in which the constituents can be respectively converted into high-value-added products. In this study, a successive treatment with dilute acid (0.25-1.0 % aqueous H2SO4, 100-150 °C, 0.5-3.0 h) and alkali (1.5 % aqueous NaOH, 80 °C, 3 h) was performed to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS), high-purity lignin, and cellulose-rich substrates to produce glucose for ethanol production from rice straw (RS)...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Holjes Salgado-Lugo, Alejandro Sánchez-Arreguín, José Ruiz-Herrera
Chitin synthases are highly important enzymes in nature, where they synthesize structural components in species belonging to different eukaryotic kingdoms, including kingdom Fungi. Unfortunately, their structure and the molecular mechanism of synthesis of their microfibrilar product remain largely unknown, probably because no fungal active chitin synthases have been isolated, possibly due to their extreme hydrophobicity. In this study we have turned to the heterologous expression of the transcript from a small chitin synthase of Rhizopus oryzae (RO3G_00942, Chs1) in Escherichia coli...
October 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Paweł Kościelniak, Marcin Wieczorek
An original focus on univariate calibration as an experimental process of quantitative analysis is presented. A novel classification system is introduced against the background of the present situation concerning nomenclature of calibration methods. Namely, it has been revealed that four methods well-known in analytical chemistry: the conventional method, the internal standard method, the indirect method and the dilution method, can be split into those carried out in both the interpolative and the extrapolative mode...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Jing Li, Aping Niu, Chun-Jiao Lu, Jing-Hui Zhang, Muhammad Junaid, Phyllis R Strauss, Ping Xiao, Xiao Wang, Yi-Wei Ren, De-Sheng Pei
Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Nahla Abdellatif, Radhouane Fekih-Salem, Tewfik Sari
We study a model of the chemostat with several species in competition for a single resource. We take into account the intra-specific interactions between individuals of the same population of micro-organisms and we assume that the growth rates are increasing and the dilution rates are distinct. Using the concept of steady-state characteristics, we present a geometric characterization of the existence and stability of all equilibria. Moreover, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the control parameters of the system to have a positive equilibrium...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Y Lu, K Wang, F-R Chen, W Zhang, M L Sui
It has been fundamentally important and technologically challenging to elucidate the migration behavior of solute atoms in solvents, which can help to understand the growth of nanoparticles. Recently, ascribed to the booming development of start-of-the-art liquid environmental transmission electron microscopes (LETEMs), it has become possible to disclose, in situ, the phase segregation mechanism of elementary units in a solvent at the nanoscale. In addition, bombardment with an electron beam can induce a locally positive potential, with the application of low-conductive Si3N4 and water in LETEMs...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Giorgia La Barbera, Roberto Samperi, Salvatore Ventura, Aldo Laganà
Recently, magnetic solid-phase extraction has gained interest because it presents various operational advantages over classical solid-phase extraction. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles are easy to prepare, and various materials can be used in their synthesis. In the literature, there are only few studies on the determination of mycoestrogens in milk, although their carryover in milk has occurred. In this work, we wanted to develop the first (to the best of our knowledge) magnetic solid-phase extraction protocol for six mycoestrogens from milk, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
Sandra Costa-Böddeker, Philipp Hoelzmann, Lê Xuân Thuyên, Hoang Duc Huy, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Otto Richter, Antje Schwalb
Enrichment of heavy metals was assessed in the Thi Vai Estuary and in the Can Gio Mangrove Forest (SE, Vietnam). Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in water and in sediments were measured. Total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and C/N ratios were determined. Cu and Cr values were higher than threshold effect level of toxicity, while Ni exceeded probable effect level, indicating the risk of probable toxicity effects. Enrichment factors (EF), contamination factor (CF) and Geo-accumulation index (I-geo) were determined...
October 20, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
A new method has been developed for the enantioselective separation of (-) and (+) hyoscyamine in Solanaceaes seeds and contaminated buckwheat. Chromatographic separation was optimized, evaluating two chiral columns, Chirobiotic V and Chiralpal-AY3. Better resolution was obtained using a Chiralpak-AY3 column, utilizing as mobile phase ethanol (0.1% diethanolamine). An extraction procedure based on a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) was applied, using water and acetonitrile containing 1% of acetic acid, and a clean-up step utilizing primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB) as sorbents...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mahboubeh Daryabor, Ali Ahmadi, Hamid Zilouei
This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of ultrasonic irradiation during the solvent extraction of metals, and comparing its efficiency with a mechanically stirred system (MSSX). The simultaneous extraction of zinc and cadmium from sulphate solutions was investigated by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an organic extractant which was diluted (20%) in kerosene at the organic: aqueous phase ratio of 1:1 and the temperature of 25°C. The influence of some critical parameters, including contact time, solution pH, ultrasonic power, and zinc/cadmium ratio were investigated on the extraction of the metals...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Shitao Xu, Yongqing Ma, Bingqian Geng, Xiao Sun, Min Wang
Approximately single-domain-sized 9-, 13-, and 16-nm CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are synthesized using the thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt. By means of dilution and reduction, the concentration, moment, and anisotropy of nanoparticles are changed and their influence on the magnetic properties is investigated. The relation of M r/M s ∝ 1/lgH dip is observed, where M r/M s is the remanence ratio and H dip is the maximum dipolar field. Especially, such relation is more accurate for the nanoparticle systems with higher concentration and higher moment, i...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Z J Liu, T Q Lan, H Li, X Gao, H Zhang
The effect of sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) on composition, structure, enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase adsorption profiles of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was investigated. SPORL gave a higher SCB hydrolysis yield (85.33%) compared to dilute acid pretreatment (DA) (64.39%). The SEM pictures showed that SPORL SCB structure became more disordered and looser, suggesting SPORL SCB was more accessible to cellulase. The zeta potential of SPORL SCB suspension (-21.89mV) was significantly different from that of DA SCB (-12...
October 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
M Puhka, M-E Nordberg, S Valkonen, A Rannikko, O Kallioniemi, P Siljander, T Af Hällström
Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a promising source of biomarkers, which can be obtained in a non-invasive manner. However, the yield of EVs from urine samples may be insufficient for various analyses due to the entrapment of EVs by the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) meshwork. Here, we developed a simple dilution protocol to increase the urinary EV yield by disrupting the interaction between THP filaments and EVs with the help of alkaline pH and lowered ionic concentration. The integrity of the EVs and THP was assessed by electron microscopy...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Curtis W Park, MaryAnne Drake
Unit operations in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) manufacture influence sensory properties, and consequently, its use and acceptance in ingredient applications. Condensed skim milk may be stored at refrigeration temperatures for extended periods before spray drying due to shipping or lack of drying capacity. Currently, NFDM processors have 2 options for milk concentration up to 30% solids: evaporation (E) or reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of condensed milk storage and milk concentration method (E vs...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yang Sheng, Lun-De Liao, Aishwarya Bandla, Yu-Hang Liu, Jun Yuan, Nitish Thakor, Mei Chee Tan
Near-infrared photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging diagnostic technology that utilizes the tissue transparent window to achieve improved contrast and spatial resolution for deep tissue imaging. In this study, we investigated the enhancement effect of the SiO2 shell on the PA property of our core/shell rare-earth nanoparticles (REs) consisting of an active rare-earth doped core of NaYF4:Yb,Er (REDNPs) and an undoped NaYF4 shell. We observed that the PA signal amplitude increased with SiO2 shell thickness...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Alex Virgilio, Daniela Schiavo, Letícia M Costa, Joaquim A Nóbrega, Bradley T Jones, George L Donati
This work describes a procedure using the recently proposed standard dilution analysis (SDA) calibration method for the determination of As, Cr and Ni in concentrated HNO3 and HCl by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). Because of the low contaminant levels, and consequently low limits of detection required for these reagents (commonly used in trace element analysis and the semiconductor industry), samples were minimally diluted. The analysis of concentrated acids can result in matrix/transport effects, which may compromise accuracy in ICP-MS determinations...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Anas Alshishani, Ahmad Makahleh, Hui Fang Yap, Elbaleeq Adam Gubartallah, Salizawati Muhamad Salhimi, Bahruddin Saad
A new sample preparation method, ion-pair vortex assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME-BE), for the determination of a highly polar anti-diabetic drug (metformin) in plasma sample was developed. The VALLME-BE was performed by diluting the plasma in borate buffer and extracted to 150µL 1-octanol containing 0.2M di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as intermediate phase. The drug was next back-extracted into 20µL of 0.075M HCl solution. The effects of pH, ion-pair concentration, type of organic solvent, volume of extraction phases, ionic strength, vortexing and centrifugation times on the extraction efficiency were investigated...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
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