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Dilution effect

Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Teresa Carbone, Michele Gilio, Maria Carmela Padula, Giuseppina Tramontano, Salvatore D'Angelo, Vito Pafundi
OBJECTIVES: Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is widely considered the Gold Standard for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. However, the high inter-reader variability remains the major disadvantage associated with ANA testing and the main reason for the increasing demand of the computer-aided immunofluorescence microscope. Previous studies proposed the quantification of the fluorescence intensity as an alternative for the classical end-point titer evaluation. However, the different distribution of bright/dark light linked to the nature of the self-antigen and its location in the cells result in different mean fluorescence intensities...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
F Kashanian, M M Masoudi, A Shamloo, M Habibi-Rezaei, A A Moosavi-Movahedi
Miniaturized systems based on the principles of microfluidics are widely used in various fields, such as biochemical and biomedical applications. Systematic design processes are demanded the proper use of these microfluidic devices based on mathematical simulations. Aggregated proteins (e.g., inclusion bodies) in solution with chaotropic agents (such as urea) at high concentration in combination with reducing agents are denatured. Refolding methods to achieve the native proteins from inclusion bodies of recombinant protein relying on denaturant dilution or dialysis approaches for suppressing protein aggregation is very important in the industrial field...
February 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
L A Thornton, R K Burchell, S E Burton, N Lopez-Villalobos, D Pereira, I MacEwan, C Fang, A C Hatmodjo, M A Nelson, A Grinberg, N Velathanthiri, A Gal
BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract infections are common in dogs, and Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial pathogen isolated. The literature has conflicting evidence regarding the inhibitory effects of urine concentration and pH on E. coli growth. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of different pH and urine concentrations on E. coli growth in vitro. ANIMALS: Voided urine samples from 10 apparently healthy spayed female dogs were used...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jeremy M Schieferstein, Ashtamurthy S Pawate, Michael J Varel, Sudipto Guha, Ieva Astrauskaite, Robert B Gennis, Paul J A Kenis
Crystallization of membrane proteins is a critical step for uncovering atomic resolution 3-D structures and elucidating structure-function relationships. Microseeding, the process of transferring sub-microscopic crystal nuclei from initial screens into new crystallization experiments, is an effective, yet underutilized approach to grow crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography. Here, we report simplified methods for crystallization of membrane proteins that utilize microseeding in X-ray transparent microfluidic chips...
February 22, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Venkatesh Uddameri, Sreeram Singaraju, E Annette Hernandez
Seasonal and cyclic trends in nutrient concentrations at four agricultural drainage ditches were assessed using a dataset generated from a multivariate, multiscale, multiyear water quality monitoring effort in the agriculturally dominant Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) River Watershed in South Texas. An innovative bootstrap sampling-based power analysis procedure was developed to evaluate the ability of Mann-Whitney and Noether tests to discern trends and to guide future monitoring efforts. The Mann-Whitney U test was able to detect significant changes between summer and winter nutrient concentrations at sites with lower depths and unimpeded flows...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chih-Yu Chen, Teh-Hua Tsai, Chih-Hao Chang, Chih-Fang Tseng, Shih-Yun Lin, Ying-Chien Chung
The effectiveness of an airlift reactor system in simultaneously removing hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and ammonia (NH3 ) from synthetic and actual waste gases was investigated. The effects of various parameters, including the ratio of inoculum dilution, the gas concentration, the gas retention time, catalyst addition, the bubble size, and light intensity, on H2 S and NH3 removal were investigated. The results revealed that optimal gas removal could be achieved by employing an activated inoculum, using a small bubble stone, applying reinforced fluorescent light, adding Fe2 O3 catalysts, and applying a gas retention time of 20 s...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Guoneng Cai, Zhengzhong Yu, Rongrong Ren, Dianping Tang
A competitive-displacement reaction strategy based on target-induced dissociation of gold nanoparticles-coated graphene nanosheet (AuNPs/GN) from CdS quantum dots-functionalized mesoporous titanium dioxide (CdS QDs/TiO2) was designed for the sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensing of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) through the exciton-plasmon interaction (EPI) between CdS QDs and AuNPs. To construct such an aptasensing system, capture DNA was initially conjugated covalently onto CdS QDs/TiO2-modified electrode, and then AuNPs/GN-labeled PSA aptamer was bound onto biofunctionalized CdS QDs/TiO2 via hybridization chain reaction of partial bases with capture DNA...
February 21, 2018: ACS Sensors
Laura Bretherton, Alicia Williams, Jennifer Genzer, Jessica Hillhouse, Manoj Kamalanathan, Zoe Finkel, Antonietta Quigg
Culture experiments were conducted on ten phytoplankton species to examine their biological and physiological responses during exposure to oil and a combination of oil and dispersant. The species tested included a range of taxa typically found in the Gulf of Mexico such as cyanobacteria, chlorophytes and diatoms. Cultures were exposed to Macondo surrogate oil using the water accommodated fraction (WAF), and dispersed oil using a chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) and diluted CEWAF (DCEWAF), to replicate conditions following the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Osman Serdar, Nuran Cikcikoglu Yildirim, Sule Tatar, Numan Yildirim, Aysenur Ogedey
The discharge of landfill leachate into the environment without effective treatment poses a serious threat for the aquatic ecosystems. This present study was undertaken to evaluate whether electrocoagulation process is efficient for treatment landfill leachate (LL) or not by using antioxidant biomarkers in Gammarus pulex. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in G. pulex exposed to untreated, treated, and diluted rates 1/10 and 1/20 in both LL during 24 and 96 h were tested...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hamed Haddadi, Hamed Naghsh-Nilchi, Dino Di Carlo
Label-free separation of viable cancer cells using vortical microfluidic flows has been introduced as a feasible cell collection method in oncological studies. Besides the clinical importance, the physics of particle interactions with the vortex that forms in a wall-confined geometry of a microchannel is a relatively new area of fluid dynamics. In our previous work [Haddadi and Di Carlo, J. Fluid. Mech. 811 , 436-467 (2017)], we have introduced distinct aspects of inertial flow of dilute suspensions over cavities in a microchannel such as breakdown of the separatrix and formation of stable limit cycle orbits for finite size polystyrene particles...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Ilka Engelmann, Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Mouna Lazrek, Judith Ogiez, Jean-Marie Pouillaude, Emmanuel Chazard, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober
Comparability between CMV assays could be facilitated by the first WHO International Standard for human CMV (standard). Standard dilutions were submitted to nucleic acid extraction with Versant kPCR Molecular systems SP or MagNA Pure LC System followed by the kPCR PLX™ CMV DNA (kPCR) or the CMV R-gene™ assay (R-gene), respectively; 139 clinical specimens were tested. Both assays correlated well with the standard (R2 > 0.96) and a matrix effect was observed. Quantitative results correlated reasonably between both assays for whole blood (R2 = 0...
January 7, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Haci Ahmet Deveci, Mahmut Karapehlivan
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on Paraoxonase (PON1) activity, and levels of lipid profile, total sialic acid (TSA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant capacity (TOC) in the plasma and brain tissue of mice with chlorpyrifos-ethyl (CPF)-induced Parkinson. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In the study, 35 male Swiss albino mice were divided into 5 groups including equal number of mice as follows; intraperitoneal injection of saline for mice in control (C) group, subcutaneous injection of 80mg/kg CPF for CPF group, intraperitoneal injection of 10μmol/kg CAPE for CAPE group, subcutaneous injection of 80mg/kg CPF and intraperitoneal injection of 10μmol/kg CAPE for CPF+CAPE group and intraperitoneal injection of 10% ethanol diluted in physiological saline solution for 21days for ethanol (E) group...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Wei-Nan Zeng, Jun-Li Liu, Fu-You Wang, Cheng Chen, Qiang Zhou, Liu Yang
BACKGROUND: The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Lucie Borovcová, Volodymyr Pauk, Karel Lemr
New psychoactive substances represent serious social and health problem as tens of new compounds are detected in Europe annually. They often show structural proximity or even isomerism which complicates their analysis. Two methods based on ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were validated and compared. A simple dilute-filter-and-shoot protocol utilizing propan-2-ol or methanol for supercritical fluid or liquid chromatography, respectively, was proposed to detect and quantify 15 cathinones and phenethylamines in human urine...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Toril Holien, Odrun Arna Gederaas, Sagar Ramesh Darvekar, Eidi Christensen, Qian Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), an established modality for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and graft-versus-host disease, involves ex vivo treatment of isolated leukocytes of a patient with the photosensitizing drug 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) exposure before reinfusion back to the patient. However, 8-MOP binds to both diseased and normal cells and thus kills both types of the cells after UV-A illumination with little selectivity...
February 20, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Toru Hyakutake, Kotaro Mori, Koichi Sato
Mammalian spermatozoa in organisms with internal fertilization are required to swim in the cervical and oviductal mucus, whose rheological properties differ substantially from those of water. Moreover, on the way to the oviduct, a change in sperm motility called hyperactivation may occur. In the present study, we focused on the motion characteristics of hyperactivated bovine sperm and investigated the effect of the surrounding fluid on motility. We prepared two kinds of polyacrylamide with high-viscosity non-Newtonian fluid properties, similar to the actual cervical and oviductal mucus...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jiajia Li, G Douglas Haffner, Gordon Paterson, David M Walters, Michael D Burtnyk, Ken G Drouillard
To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulation, a non-steady state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed versus predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from five different waterbodies across North America. The non-steady state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in three of five waterbodies: Apsey, Sharbot and Stonelick Lake...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Donna M Schora, Lance R Peterson, Elena A Usacheva
OBJECTIVE The impact of storage on stability and detection of Clostridium difficile toxins in feces is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunological stability of C. difficile toxins in clinical stool specimens under different storage conditions by evaluating this stability using toxin detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). METHODS Stool specimens positive for C. difficile infection (CDI) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used for EIA testing with the C...
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Amir Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mohsen Mirmohammadsadeghi, Mahnaz Kheiri
Background: Postoperative bleeding is a common problem in cardiac surgery. We tried to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA) on reducing postoperative bleeding of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six isolated primary CABG patients were included in this clinical trial. They were divided blindly into two groups; Group 1, patients receiving 1 g TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline poured into mediastinal cavity before closing the chest and Group 2, patients receiving 100 ml normal saline at the end of operation...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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