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Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Susanna Llido, David Guede, Francisco Martinez-Soriano, Jose R Caeiro, Esther Blanco-Perez
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: To date, no information about the cortical bone microstructural properties in atlas vertebrae with posterior arch defects has been reported. PURPOSE: To test if there is an increased cortical bone thickening in atlases with Type A posterior atlas arch defects in an experimental model. STUDY DESIGN: Micro-computed tomography study on cadaveric atlas vertebrae. METHODS: We analyzed the cortical bone thickness, the cortical volume, and the medullary volume (SkyScan 1172 Bruker micro-CT NV, Kontich, Belgium) in cadaveric dry vertebrae with a Type A atlas arch defect and normal control vertebrae...
October 18, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
S M Lee, J-E Cheon, Y H Choi, I-O Kim, W S Kim, H-H Cho, J Y Lee, K-C Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While limited dorsal myeloschisis is a distinctive form of spinal dysraphism, it may be confused with congenital dermal sinus. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and MR imaging findings of limited dorsal myeloschisis that can distinguish it from congenital dermal sinus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and MR imaging findings of 12 patients with limited dorsal myeloschisis and 10 patients with congenital dermal sinus...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Tina M Mitre, Anmar Khadra, Massimo Pietropaolo
The expression level of tissue-restricted autoantigens (TSA) in the thymus is crucial for the negative selection of autoreactive T cells during central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator factor (AIRE) plays an important role in the positive regulation of these TSA in medullary thymic epithelial cells and, consequently, in the negative selection of high-avidity autoreactive T cells. Recent studies, however, revealed that thymic islet cell autoantigen (ICA69) expression level in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, prone to developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), is reduced due to an increase in the binding affinity of AIRE to the Ica1-promoter region, which regulates ICA69 protein synthesis...
October 17, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Terry C Lairmore
BACKGROUND: The last 200 years have seen remarkable achievements in the art and clinical practice of surgery. These advances include the introduction of antisepsis, anesthesia, vascular anastomosis, antimicrobials, organ transplantation, and the widespread application of minimally invasive operative procedures. Very recently, a surgical procedure has been shown to cure diabetes, representing the most effective treatment of a metabolic disorder by surgeons. METHODS: The author reviewed the major surgical milestones in the modern surgical era and prepared this monograph for presentation as the Claude H...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
K Mugundhan, Rajesh Shankar Iyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Xianghua Wang, Seppo Huhtinen, Karen Hansen
Species limits in the small genus Geopyxis are debatable because of problems with interpreting the few phenotypic features and poor documentation of types. To clarify species boundaries and diversity, we studied the morphology of 74 specimens of Geopyxis from the Northern Hemisphere, including five types, and sequenced four loci for 57 representatives: the nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S), translation elongation factor (tef1), and (or) part of the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (rpb2) (5-7 region)...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Samuel A Neymotin, Benjamin A Suter, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Gordon M G Shepherd, Michele Migliore, William W Lytton
Corticospinal neurons (SPI), thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in motor cortex layer 5B that project caudally via the medullary pyramids, display distinct class-specific electrophysiological properties in vitro: strong sag with hyperpolarization, lack of adaptation, and a nearly linear frequency-current (FI) relationship. We used our electrophysiological data to produce a pair of large archives of SPI neuron computer models in two model classes: 1. Detailed models with full reconstruction; 2. Simplified models with 6 compartments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Monika Pietrowska, Hanna C Diehl, Grzegorz Mrukwa, Magdalena Kalinowska-Herok, Marta Gawin, Mykola Chekan, Julian Elm, Grzegorz Drazek, Anna Krawczyk, Dariusz Lange, Helmut E Meyer, Joanna Polanska, Corinna Henkel, Piotr Widlak
Determination of the specific type of thyroid cancer is crucial for the prognosis and selection of treatment of this malignancy. However, in some cases appropriate classification is not possible based on histopathological features only, and it might be supported by molecular biomarkers. Here we aimed to characterize molecular profiles of different thyroid malignancies using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) which enables the direct annotation of molecular features with morphological pictures of an analyzed tissue...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Masaya Okura, Souichi Yanamoto, Masahiro Umeda, Mitsunobu Otsuru, Yoshihide Ota, Hiroshi Kurita, Takahiro Kamata, Tadaaki Kirita, Nobuhiro Yamakawa, Tetsuro Yamashita, Michihiro Ueda, Takahide Komori, Takumi Hasegawa, Tomonao Aikawa
A multi-institutional study was undertaken to determine whether mandibular canal (MC) invasion and mandibular medullary bone invasion are independent factors in lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A total of 345 patients with lower gingival SCC were retrospectively reviewed. Mandibular bone invasion was categorized into three types; no bone invasion; invasion through cortical bone (medullary); and MC invasion. The overall survival rate and factors affecting local, regional, and distant failures were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier estimates...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Marina Parra-Robert, Aida Orois, Josep Maria Augé, Irene Halperin, Xavier Filella, Rafael Molina
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor caused by a malignant transformation in the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid, where calcitonin (CT) is released. Nowadays the main tumor markers (TM) used in the diagnosis and follow-up of MTC patients are CT and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Nonetheless, progastrin releasing peptide (proGRP) has been recently proposed as a TM useful in the MTC. Our aims were to investigate the release of proGRP in thyroid tumors, its role in the assessment of advanced MTC and its utility in the differential diagnosis between MTC and non-MTC thyroid tumors...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Francesca Bianchi, Michele Sommariva, Loris De Cecco, Tiziana Triulzi, Sandra Romero-Cordoba, Elda Tagliabue, Lucia Sfondrini, Andrea Balsari
The autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) plays a fundamental role in tolerance by promoting the expression of tissue-specific antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Recently, AIRE expression was detected also in human keratinocytes and in tumors originating in stratified epithelia. Here, we tested whether AIRE is expressed in cancer cells. We analyzed AIRE expression in cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq dataset and we found association with better outcome. AIRE protein expression was verified by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 39 human breast cancer specimens and its prognostic relevance was confirmed in microarray-based gene expression dataset NKI-295 and KM-Plotter...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Shih-Ping Cheng, Po-Sheng Yang, Ming-Nan Chien, Ming-Jen Chen, Jie-Jen Lee, Chien-Liang Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The induction of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen results from altered glycosylation in transformed cells. Globo H is a hexasaccharide glycosphingolipid overexpressed on malignancies of epithelial origin and has become an attractive vaccine target. We aimed to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic value of Globo H in thyroid neoplasms. METHODS: Globo H expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis using commercial and in-house tissue microarrays...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Vina Pulido, Shin Yin Lee, Naomi Yu Ko
In the era of precision medicine and targeted therapy, diagnostic inaccuracy can have tremendous ramifications. We present the case of a 61-year-old man initially diagnosed with small cell lung cancer by pathology. Prior to initiating chemotherapy, multidisciplinary discussions led to an amendment of the diagnosis to medullary thyroid cancer.
May 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
Diogo F Almeida, Rui B Ruben, João Folgado, Paulo R Fernandes, Emmanuel Audenaert, Benedict Verhegghe, Matthieu De Beule
Femur segmentation can be an important tool in orthopedic surgical planning. However, in order to overcome the need of an experienced user with extensive knowledge on the techniques, segmentation should be fully automatic. In this paper a new fully automatic femur segmentation method for CT images is presented. This method is also able to define automatically the medullary canal and performs well even in low resolution CT scans. Fully automatic femoral segmentation was performed adapting a template mesh of the femoral volume to medical images...
October 14, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Ke Jiang, Jianyong Lei, Wenjie Chen, Yanping Gong, Han Luo, Zhihui Li, Rixiang Gong, Jingqiang Zhu
The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are known to be prognostic factors in several cancers. However, no previous investigation has been performed to evaluate the significance of the NLR and PLR in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).The aim of this study was to identify the ability of the preoperative NLR or PLR to predict lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with MTC. Data from all patients with MTC who had undergone surgery at our institution from May 2009 to May 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Haiyan Luan, Peng Wu, Mingxiao Wang, Hongyu Sui, Lili Fan, Ruimin Gu
Adenosine is a molecule produced by several organs within the body, including the kidneys, where it acts as an autoregulatory factor. It mediates ion transport in several nephron segments, including the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL). Ion transport is dictated in part by anionic chloride channels, which regulate crucial kidney functions, including the reabsorption of Na+ and Cl‑, urine concentration, and establishing and maintaining the corticomedullary osmotic gradient. The present study investigated the effects of adenosine on the mRNA expression of chloride voltage‑gated channel Kb (CLCNKB), a candidate gene involved in hypertension, which encodes for the ClC‑Kb channel...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shinya Kawamoto, Ryo Koda, Atsunori Yoshino, Tetsuro Takeda, Yoshihiko Ueda
Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is a hereditary disease associated with bilateral medullary polycysts and interstitial fibrosis. MCKD is typically associated with slowly progressive renal dysfunction. We herein report two rare elderly cases with enlarged kidneys and rapidly progressive renal dysfunction without myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA), PR3-ANCA, or anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. Renal biopsies revealed extensive tubular dilatation and atrophy with interstitial fibrosis consistent with MCKD...
2016: Internal Medicine
Dao P Zhang, Hong T Zhang, Suo Yin, Fu L Yan
This series case report aimed to elucidate the underlying pathology and outcomes of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) using perfusion weighted imaging (PWI). Four patients were diagnosed with LMI based on high-field diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-DWI) and PWI. The national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores were recorded on days 1, 7, and 30, and the Barthel index was assessed on days 7 and 30. Three patients exhibited relative regional hypoperfusion of medullary lesion in the perfusion maps...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Friedhelm Raue, Karin Frank-Raue
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with the two subtypes, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), is the most frequent subtype of thyroid cancer; more rare subtypes are medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). The incidence of DTC has increased rapidly in recent years due to the more frequent use of imaging methods such as ultrasound of the neck and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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