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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098510/dt-mri-microstructural-cortical-lesion-damage-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-ms
#1
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Maria E Morelli, Massimiliano Copetti, Vittorio Martinelli, Fiammetta Pirro, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: We combined double inversion recovery (DIR) and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the severity of cortical lesion (CL) microstructural tissue abnormalities in a large cohort of relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its contribution to cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: DIR, DT, dual-echo, and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were acquired from 149 MS patients and 40 controls. Cognitively impaired (CI) patients had ⩾2 abnormal neuropsychological tests...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097524/pubovisceralis-muscle-fiber-architecture-determination-comparison-between-biomechanical-modeling-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#2
Sofia Brandão, Marco Parente, Elisabete Silva, Thuane Da Roza, Teresa Mascarenhas, João Leitão, João Cunha, Renato Natal Jorge, Rita Gouveia Nunes
Biomechanical analysis of pelvic floor dysfunction requires knowledge of certain biomechanical parameters, such as muscle fiber direction, in order to adequately model function. Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides an estimate of overall muscle fiber directionality based on the mathematical description of water diffusivity. This work aimed at evaluating the concurrence between pubovisceralis muscle fiber representations obtained from DTI, and the maximum principal stress lines obtained through the finite element method...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097480/average-flow-generation-by-a-pulsating-flow-near-a-curved-interface
#3
Lyudmila S Klimenko, Dmitry V Lyubimov
This paper is devoted to the study of curvature influence on the average flow generation near the fluid interface. The time averaging of a non-uniform pulsating flow often results in a nonzero average flow in the bulk. The well-known average flow occurs near a solid surface, the so-called Schlichting mechanism of the average flow generation. For flows with a free surface there is the other known mechanism of Longuet-Higgins, according to which the average flow is generated by surface waves traveling on a free surface...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096729/advanced-mri-for-pediatric-brain-tumors-with-emphasis-on-clinical-benefits
#4
REVIEW
Hyun Woo Goo, Young-Shin Ra
Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096674/alterations-of-white-matter-fractional-anisotropy-in-unmedicated-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Jiong Tao, Xianglan Wang, Zhiyong Zhong, Hongying Han, Sha Liu, Shenglin Wen, Nianhong Guan, Lingjiang Li
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in white matter (WM) have previously been reported in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there was some inconsistency in the results obtained for altered regions of WM. The aim of this study was to investigate fractional anisotropy (FA) in the WM of the whole brain in patients with OCD by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In total, 28 unmedicated patients with OCD and 28 healthy volunteers underwent DTI scan...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#7
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095378/advanced-neuroimaging-techniques-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#8
Smruti K Patel, Weihong Yuan, Francesco T Mangano
From the early days of pneumoencephalography and ventriculography to the emerging technology of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the present day, neuroimaging has always been a critical tool in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. There is accumulating evidence from both human and animal research suggesting that one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in these children is damage to vulnerable white matter (WM) structures in the brain as a result of ventricular enlargement and increased intracranial pressure...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095027/severe-and-extensive-traumatic-axonal-injury-following-minor-and-indirect-head-trauma
#9
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study reports on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed severe and extensive traumatic axonal injury (TAI) of various neural tracts following minor and indirect head trauma, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old female patient suffered from indirect head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury after being hit from behind by a slowly moving car. At the time of head trauma, she felt tingling sensation on her four extremities; however, she did not experience loss of consciousness...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094680/changes-in-the-corticospinal-tract-after-wearing-prosthesis-in-bilateral-transtibial-amputation
#10
Sang Yoon Lee, Si Hyun Kang, Don-Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Hee Joon Ro, Jae Kyun Kim
BACKGROUND: After amputation, the brain is known to be reorganized especially in the primary motor cortex. We report a case to show changes in the corticospinal tract in a patient with serial bilateral transtibial amputations using diffusion tensor imaging. Case Description and Methods: A 78-year-old man had a transtibial amputation on his left side in 2008 and he underwent a right transtibial amputation in 2011. An initial brain magnetic resonance imaging with a diffusion tensor imaging was performed before starting rehabilitation on his right transtibial prosthesis, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging was performed 2 years after this...
January 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092537/detail-enhanced-multi-scale-exposure-fusion
#11
Zhengguo Li, Zhe Wei, Changyun Wen, Jinghong Zheng
Multi-scale exposure fusion is an effective image enhancement technique for a high dynamic range (HDR) scene. In this paper, a new multi-scale exposure fusion algorithm is proposed to merge differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images by using the weighted guided image filter (WGIF) to smooth the Gaussian pyramids of weight maps for all the LDR images. Details in the brightest and darkest regions of the HDR scene are preserved better by the proposed algorithm without relative brightness change in the fused image...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092278/delayed-onset-central-pain-due-to-degeneration-of-ischemic-transcallosal-fibers-after-corpus-callosum-hemorrhage
#12
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, Han Do Lee
AIMS: A patient developed delayed-onset central pain due to degeneration of the spinothalamic tract resulting from degeneration of the ischemic transcallosal fibers, in the aftermath of a corpus callosum (CC) hemorrhage. The detection and diagnosis of these lesions using diffusion tensor tractography are described. METHODS: A 59-yr-old man underwent conservative management for hemorrhages in the CC and lateral ventricle that resulted from hitting his head against a wall while falling...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092023/white-matter-alterations-in-college-football-players-a-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#13
Michael Christian Mayinger, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jakob Hufschmidt, Marc Muehlmann, Isabelle Ruth Weir, Boris-Stephan Rauchmann, Martha Elizabeth Shenton, Inga Katharina Koerte, Jeffrey John Bazarian
The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in the diffusion characteristics of brain white matter (WM) in collegiate athletes at three time points: prior to the start of the football season (T1), after one season of football (T2), followed by six months of no-contact rest (T3). Fifteen male collegiate football players and 5 male non-athlete student controls underwent diffusion MR imaging and computerized cognitive testing at all three timepoints. Whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD), and trace between all timepoints...
January 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092022/relevance-of-neuroimaging-for-neurocognitive-and-behavioral-outcome-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Marsh Königs, Petra Jw Pouwels, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan
This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+), n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression)...
January 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091949/nonmechanical-infrared-beam-steering-using-blue-addressed-quantum-dot-doped-liquid-crystal-grating
#15
Xiangru Wang, Xiaoping Huang, Ziqiang Huang, Liang Wu, Jiyang Shang, Qi Qiu, Shuanghong Wu
We present a scheme of nonmechanical laser beam steering using ZnS/InP quantum dots doping nematic liquid crystal as the optical recording film. Because of its internal electric field generated by blue laser-induced charge carrier distribution, liquid crystal molecules are reoriented to form a phase grating which make the incident angle steer to the angle as we desire. Being a nonmechanical programmable laser beam steering, the anisotropy of the relative permittivity tensor and blue laser-induced electric carriers play a significant effect in determining the reorientable liquid crystal molecule and reconfigurable phase modulation of the gratings, that determines the steering angle and steering efficiency...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091280/rotation-elastogram-estimation-using-synthetic-transmit-aperture-technique
#16
Lokesh B, Bhaskara Rao Chintada, Arun Kumar Thittai
It is well-documented in literature that benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomas, are loosely bonded to their surrounding tissue and tend to slip under a small quasi-static compression, whereas malignant lesions being firmly bonded to their surrounding tissue do not slip. Recent developments in quasi-static ultrasound elastography have shown that an image of the axial-shear strain distribution can provide information about the bonding condition at the lesion-surrounding tissue boundary. Further studies analyzing the axial-shear strain elastograms revealed that nonzero axial-shear strain values appear inside the lesion, referred to as fill-in, only when a lesion is loosely bonded and asymmetrically oriented to the axis of compression...
January 1, 2017: Ultrasonic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090797/dimensions-of-attention-associated-with-the-microstructure-of-corona-radiata-white-matter
#17
Elise A Stave, Michael D De Bellis, Steven R Hooper, Donald P Woolley, Suk Ki Chang, Steven D Chen
Mirsky proposed a model of attention that included these dimensions: focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, encode, and shift. The neural correlates of these dimensions were investigated within corona radiata subregions in healthy youth. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted in 79 healthy, right-handed youth aged 4-17 years. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were analyzed using standardized parcellation methods. Partial Pearson correlations between neuropsychological standardized scores, representing these attention dimensions, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of corona radiata subregions were calculated after adjusting for gender and IQ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090658/analysis-of-the-effects-of-noise-dwi-sampling-and-value-of-assumed-parameters-in-diffusion-mri-models
#18
Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Alexandru V Avram, M Okan Irfanoglu, C Guan Koay, Alan S Barnett, Michal E Komlosh, Evren Özarslan, Susan C Schwerin, Sharon L Juliano, Carlo Pierpaoli
PURPOSE: This study was a systematic evaluation across different and prominent diffusion MRI models to better understand the ways in which scalar metrics are influenced by experimental factors, including experimental design (diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] sampling) and noise. METHODS: Four diffusion MRI models-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), mean apparent propagator MRI (MAP-MRI), and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI)-were evaluated by comparing maps and histogram values of the scalar metrics generated using DWI datasets obtained in fixed mouse brain with different noise levels and DWI sampling complexity...
January 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090448/quantitative-techniques-for-musculoskeletal-mri-at-7-tesla
#19
REVIEW
Neal K Bangerter, Meredith D Taylor, Grayson J Tarbox, Antony J Palmer, Daniel J Park
Whole-body 7 Tesla MRI scanners have been approved solely for research since they appeared on the market over 10 years ago, but may soon be approved for selected clinical neurological and musculoskeletal applications in both the EU and the United States. There has been considerable research work on musculoskeletal applications at 7 Tesla over the past decade, including techniques for ultra-high resolution morphological imaging, 3D T2 and T2* mapping, ultra-short TE applications, diffusion tensor imaging of cartilage, and several techniques for assessing proteoglycan content in cartilage...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089093/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-evacuating-the-intracerebral-hematoma-in-early-stages-decreased-secondary-damages-to-the-internal-capsule-in-dog-model-of-ich-observed-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#20
Guofeng Wu, Fan Wang, Likun Wang, Jing Shi, Hui Yu, Yingjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to observe the effects of performing early minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on internal capsule in dog model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Twenty-five male dogs were selected to prepare an ICH model, and then they were randomly distributed into a model control (MC) group (5 dogs) or an MIS group (20 dogs). In the MIS group, the intracerebral hematoma was evacuated by stereotactic minimally invasive procedures over 6 hours (5 dogs), 12 hours (5 dogs), 18 hours (5 dogs), or 24 hours (5 dogs) after successful induction of ICH...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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