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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932572/a-mechanism-for-acetylcholine-receptor-gating-based-on-structure-coupling-phi-and-flip
#1
Shaweta Gupta, Srirupa Chakraborty, Ridhima Vij, Anthony Auerbach
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are allosteric proteins that generate membrane currents by isomerizing ("gating") between resting and active conformations under the influence of neurotransmitters. Here, to explore the mechanisms that link the transmitter-binding sites (TBSs) with the distant gate, we use mutant cycle analyses to measure coupling between residue pairs, phi value analyses to sequence domain rearrangements, and current simulations to reproduce a microsecond shut component ("flip") apparent in single-channel recordings...
December 8, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923670/early-and-progressive-microstructural-brain-changes-in-mice-overexpressing-human-%C3%AE-synuclein-detected-by-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#2
Amit Khairnar, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Nikoletta Szabó, Eva Drazanova, Anas Arab, Birgit Hutter-Paier, Joerg Neddens, Peter Latta, Zenon Starcuk, Irena Rektorova
Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is sensitive in detecting α-Synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation-associated microstructural changes at late stages of the pathology in α-Syn overexpressing TNWT-61 mice. The aim of this study was to perform DKI in young TNWT-61 mice when α-Syn starts to accumulate and to compare the imaging results with an analysis of motor and memory impairment and α-Syn levels. Three-month-old (3mo) and six-month-old (6mo) mice underwent DKI scanning using the Bruker Avance 9.4 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...
December 3, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#3
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883250/3d-tract-specific-local-and-global-analysis-of-white-matter-integrity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Yan Jin, Chao Huang, Madelaine Daianu, Liang Zhan, Emily L Dennis, Robert I Reid, Clifford R Jack, Hongtu Zhu, Paul M Thompson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline in memory and other aspects of cognitive function. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) offers a non-invasive approach to delineate the effects of AD on white matter (WM) integrity. Previous studies calculated either some summary statistics over regions of interest (ROI analysis) or some statistics along mean skeleton lines (Tract Based Spatial Statistic [TBSS]), so they cannot quantify subtle local WM alterations along major tracts...
November 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798752/structural-brain-alterations-of-down-s-syndrome-in-early-childhood-evaluation-by-dti-and-volumetric-analyses
#6
Hediye Pınar Gunbey, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Kerim Aslan, Arzu Ceylan Has, Methiye Gonul Ogur, Aslıhan Alhan, Lutfi Incesu
OBJECTIVES: To provide an initial assessment of white matter (WM) integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the accompanying volumetric changes in WM and grey matter (GM) through volumetric analyses of young children with Down's syndrome (DS). METHODS: Ten children with DS and eight healthy control subjects were included in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used in the DTI study for whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of WM...
October 31, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793590/individual-differences-in-children-s-global-motion-sensitivity-correlate-with-tbss-based-measures-of-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus
#7
Oliver Braddick, Janette Atkinson, Natacha Akshoomoff, Erik Newman, Lauren B Curley, Marybel Robledo Gonzalez, Timothy Brown, Anders Dale, Terry Jernigan
Reduced global motion sensitivity, relative to global static form sensitivity, has been found in children with many neurodevelopmental disorders, leading to the "dorsal stream vulnerability" hypothesis (Braddick et al., 2003). Individual differences in typically developing children's global motion thresholds have been shown to be associated with variations in specific parietal cortical areas (Braddick et al., 2016). Here, in 125 children aged 5-12years, we relate individual differences in global motion and form coherence thresholds to fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a major fibre tract communicating between parietal lobe and anterior cortical areas...
October 26, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783100/micro-structural-white-matter-abnormalities-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-dti-study-using-tbss-analysis
#8
Xin Tan, Peng Fang, Jie An, Huan Lin, Yi Liang, Wen Shen, Xi Leng, Chi Zhang, Yanting Zheng, Shijun Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have usually been found cognitive impairment associated with brain white matter (WM) abnormalities. However, findings have varied across studies, and any potential relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the whole-brain WM integrity of T2DM patients and to compare our findings with those of published AD cases. METHODS: In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-brain WM abnormalities in 48 T2DM patients and 48 healthy controls...
October 25, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762307/white-matter-microstructural-characteristics-in-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease-an-unbiased-whole-brain-study
#9
Ming-Ching Wen, Hannah S E Heng, Samuel Y E Ng, Louis C S Tan, Ling Ling Chan, Eng King Tan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder. Findings on specific white matter (WM) alterations in PD have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that WM changes occur in early PD patients and unbiased whole-brain analysis may provide additional evidence of pathological WM changes in PD. In this study, we examined various indexes of WM microstructure in newly diagnosed PD patients at the whole-brain level. 64 PDs with Hoehn &Yahr stage 1 (HY1PDs), 87 PDs with Hoehn &Yahr stage 2 (HYPD2s), and 60 controls (HCs) were recruited...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744190/the-structural-connectivity-pathology-of-first-episode-schizophrenia-based-on-the-cardinal-symptom-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#10
Yi-Bin Xi, Fan Guo, Hua Li, Xiao Chang, Jin-Bo Sun, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Wen-Ming Liu, Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong Yin
Heterogeneous findings across studies of structural abnormality in schizophrenia (SZ) have impeded the development a unified theory of white matter pathology. As a cardinal symptom of SZ, auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been suspected to be associated with improper communication among several brain regions, which might indicated white matter pathology. Participants comprised 25 first-episode (FE) patients with AVH, 25 patients without AVH and 25 healthy subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures were calculated using the TBSS of FSL...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730479/abnormalities-in-brain-white-matter-in-adolescents-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-psychotic-symptoms
#11
Zora Kikinis, Kang Ik K Cho, Ioana L Coman, Petya D Radoeva, Sylvain Bouix, Yingying Tang, Ryan Eckbo, Nikos Makris, Jun Soo Kwon, Marek Kubicki, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Martha E Shenton, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is considered to be a promising cohort to explore biomarkers of schizophrenia risk based on a 30 % probability of developing schizophrenia in adulthood. In this study, we investigated abnormalities in the microstructure of white matter in adolescents with 22q11DS and their specificity to prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia. METHODS: Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 50 subjects with 22q11DS (9 with and 41 without prodromal psychotic symptoms), and 47 matched healthy controls (mean age 18 +/-2 years)...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651539/greater-response-variability-in-adolescents-is-associated-with-increased-white-matter-development
#12
Diane Goldenberg, Eva H Telzer, Matthew D Lieberman, Andrew J Fuligni, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is a period of learning, exploration, and continuous adaptation to fluctuating environments. Response variability during adolescence is an important, understudied, and developmentally-appropriate behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between performance on a dynamic risky decision making task and white matter microstructure in a sample of 48 adolescents (14-16 yrs). Individuals with the greatest response variability on the task obtained the widest range of experience with potential outcomes to risky choice...
September 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639358/diffusion-kurtosis-metrics-as-biomarkers-of-microstructural-development-a-comparative-study-of-a-group-of-children-and-a-group-of-adults
#13
Farida Grinberg, Ivan I Maximov, Ezequiel Farrher, Irene Neuner, Laura Amort, Heike Thönneßen, Eileen Oberwelland, Kerstin Konrad, N Jon Shah
The most common modality of diffusion MRI used in the ageing and development studies is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) providing two key measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Here, we investigated diffusional changes occurring between childhood (average age 10.3 years) and mitddle adult age (average age 54.3 years) with the help of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), a recent novel extension of DTI that provides additional metrics quantifying non-Gaussianity of water diffusion in brain tissue...
September 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627891/altered-white-matter-microstructure-identified-with-tract-based-spatial-statistics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#14
Jin Fang, Shumei Li, Meng Li, Queenie Chan, Xiaofen Ma, Huanhuan Su, Tianyue Wang, Wenfeng Zhan, Jianhao Yan, Ming Xu, Yaxi Zhang, Luxian Zeng, Junzhang Tian, Guihua Jiang
The neural mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) are far from being completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential white matter (WM) microstructural changes and underlying causes for WM impairment in IBS using diffusion tensor imaging. The present prospective study involved 19 patients with IBS and 20 healthy controls. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal WM regions between the 2 groups...
September 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625326/brain-white-matter-changes-in-cpap-treated-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-with-residual-sleepiness
#15
Ying Xiong, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Robyn A Nisi, Kelly R Martin, M Muge Karaman, Kejia Cai, Terri E Weaver
PURPOSE: To investigate white matter (WM) structural alterations using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, with or without residual sleepiness, following adherent continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Possible quantitative relationships were explored between the DTI metrics and two clinical assessments of somnolence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine male patients (30-55 years old) with a confirmed diagnosis of OSA were recruited...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618693/schizophrenia-patients-demonstrate-both-inter-voxel-level-and-intra-voxel-level-white-matter-alterations
#16
Chuanjun Zhuo, Xiaolei Ma, Hongru Qu, Lina Wang, Feng Jia, Chunli Wang
Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) are the most frequently used metrics to investigate white matter impairments in mental disorders. However, these two metrics are derived from intra-voxel analyses and only reflect the diffusion properties solely within the voxel unit. Local diffusion homogeneity (LDH) is a newly developed inter-voxel metric which quantifies the local coherence of water molecule diffusion in a model-free manner. In this study, 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examinations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612078/correlating-early-motor-skills-to-white-matter-abnormalities-in-preterm-infants-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#17
Patty Coker-Bolt, Andrew Barbour, Hunter Moss, Jordan Tillman, Emma Humphries, Emily Ward, Truman Brown, Dorothea Jenkins
PURPOSE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect injury to specific white matter (WM) tracts involved with sensorimotor processing and may provide sensitive measures for latent or nascent motor skills. We hypothesized that DTI measures of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) could predict early motor scores on a standardized assessment in a cohort of preterm infants at risk for WM injury. METHODS: In this prospective study, preterm infants (n= 26, 11 female, 15 male, mean gestational age 29...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611589/abnormal-white-matter-structural-connectivity-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-young-adults-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#18
J Gan, J Yi, M Zhong, X Cao, X Jin, W Liu, X Zhu
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is not well understood. We examined the microstructure of white matter in patients with BPD. METHOD: Treatment-naïve young adult with BPD (N = 30) and young-adult healthy controls (HCs; N = 31) were subjected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Microstructural parameters were analyzed via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and post hoc tractography. RESULTS: TBSS analysis revealed that, relative to the HC group, the BPD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu and body of the corpus callosum (CC), right superior corona radiate, right anterior corona radiate, as well as higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the left anterior thalamic radiation...
December 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585189/measuring-connectivity-in-the-primary-visual-pathway-in-human-albinism-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-tractography
#19
Anahit Grigorian, Larissa McKetton, Keith A Schneider
In albinism, the number of ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is significantly reduced. The retina and optic chiasm have been proposed as candidate sites for misrouting. Since a correlation between the number of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) relay neurons and LGN size has been shown, and based on previously reported reductions in LGN volumes in human albinism, we suggest that fiber projections from LGN to the primary visual cortex (V1) are also reduced. Studying structural differences in the visual system of albinism can improve the understanding of the mechanism of misrouting and subsequent clinical applications...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540273/a-framework-for-incorporating-dti-atlas-builder-registration-into-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-a-simulated-comparison-to-standard-tbss
#20
Matthew Leming, Rachel Steiner, Martin Styner
Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)(6) is a software pipeline widely employed in comparative analysis of the white matter integrity from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets. In this study, we seek to evaluate the relationship between different methods of atlas registration for use with TBSS and different measurements of DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA, axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and medial diffusivity, MD). To do so, we have developed a novel tool that builds on existing diffusion atlas building software, integrating it into an adapted version of TBSS called DAB-TBSS (DTI Atlas Builder-Tract-Based Spatial Statistics) by using the advanced registration offered in DTI Atlas Builder(7)...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
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