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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211494/hepatocyte-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-modify-blood-metabolome-and-endothelial-function-by-an-arginase-dependent-mechanism
#1
Felix Royo, Laura Moreno, Justyna Mleczko, Laura Palomo, Esperanza Gonzalez, Diana Cabrera, Angel Cogolludo, Francisco Perez Vizcaino, Sebastiaan van-Liempd, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with signaling molecules and enzymes into the bloodstream. Although the importance of EVs in the intercellular communication is already recognized, the metabolic impact of the enzymes carried by these vesicles is still unclear. We evaluated the global effect of the enzymatic activities of EVs by performing untargeted metabolomic profiling of serum samples after their exposure to EVs. This approach revealed a significant change in the abundance of 94 serum metabolic signals...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167415/a-visible-and-colorimetric-aptasensor-based-on-dna-capped-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-detection-of-exosomes
#2
Yaokun Xia, Mengmeng Liu, Liangliang Wang, An Yan, Wenhui He, Mei Chen, Jianming Lan, Jiaoxing Xu, Lunhui Guan, Jinghua Chen
Recently, many studies have shown the potential use of circulating exosomes as novel biomarkers for monitoring and predicting a number of complex diseases, including cancer. However, reliable and cost-effective detection of exosomes in routine clinical settings, still remain a difficult task, mainly due to the lack of adequately easy and fast assay platforms. Therefore, we demonstrate here the development of a visible and simple method for the detection of exosomes by integrating single-walled carbon nanotubes that being excellent water solubility (s-SWCNTs) and aptamer...
January 28, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161063/influence-of-maternal-bmi-on-the-exosomal-profile-during-gestation-and-their-role-on-maternal-systemic-inflammation
#3
Omar Elfeky, Sherri Longo, Andrew Lai, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Recent studies report that 35% of women are either overweight or obese at reproductive age. The placenta continuously releases exosomes across gestation and their concentration is higher in pregnancy complications. While there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of exosomes during gestation, important questions remain to be answered: i) Does maternal BMI affect the exosomal profile across gestation? and ii) What is the contribution of placenta-derived exosomes to the total number of exosomes present in maternal plasma across gestation? Plasma samples were classified according to the maternal BMI into three groups (n = 15 per group): Lean, overweight, and obese...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129550/atp-binding-cassette-a1-abca1-mediates-microparticle-formation-during-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-biogenesis
#4
Anouar Hafiane, Jacques Genest
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Micro-particles (MP) are secreted by various cells. Their biological roles in health and in disease remain unknown. Here we describe formation of MP in the process of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in different cell types. METHODS: The ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is the rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We have found that ABCA1 and apoA-I contribute to the formation of MP...
January 17, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116765/urinary-exosomes-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-evaluation-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-s-protective-effect-in-early-diabetic-nephropathy
#5
Hanxiao Sun, Weifeng Yao, Yubin Tang, Wenfang Zhuang, Dan Wu, Shan Huang, Huiming Sheng
BACKGROUND: Long-term administration of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) is proved to ameliorate renal impairment. Herein we assessed serum, urinary biomarkers and vascular endothelium function to evaluate its short-period therapeutic effect and identify novel biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: Sixty-two microalbuminuria-stage DN patients were randomly divided into two groups and received the following treatment for 8 weeks: (1) routine treatment(DM group); (2) routine treatment with 600 mg/d α-lipoic acid intravenously (α-LA group)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114422/a-comparative-study-of-serum-exosome-isolation-using-differential-ultracentrifugation-and-three-commercial-reagents
#6
Inas Helwa, Jingwen Cai, Michelle D Drewry, Arthur Zimmerman, Michael B Dinkins, Mariam Lotfy Khaled, Mutsa Seremwe, W Michael Dismuke, Erhard Bieberich, W Daniel Stamer, Mark W Hamrick, Yutao Liu
Exosomes play a role in cell-to-cell signaling and serve as possible biomarkers. Isolating exosomes with reliable quality and substantial concentration is a major challenge. Our purpose is to compare the exosomes extracted by three different exosome isolation kits (miRCURY, ExoQuick, and Invitrogen Total Exosome Isolation Reagent) and differential ultracentrifugation (UC) using six different volumes of a non-cancerous human serum (5 ml, 1 ml, 500 μl, 250 μl, 100 μl, and 50 μl) and three different volumes (1 ml, 500 μl and 100 μl) of six individual commercial serum samples collected from human donors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102751/extracellular-vesicles-from-activated-platelets-a-semiquantitative-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-immuno-gold-labeling-study
#7
Alain R Brisson, Sisareuth Tan, Romain Linares, Céline Gounou, Nicolas Arraud
Cells release membrane vesicles in their surrounding medium either constitutively or in response to activating signals. Two main types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly distinguished based on their mechanism of formation, membrane composition and size. According to the current model, EVs shed from the plasma membrane, often called microvesicles, expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and range in size from 100 nm to 1 µm, while EVs originating from endosomal multi-vesicular bodies, called exosomes, contain tetraspanin proteins, including CD63, and range in size from 50 to 100 nm...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088841/intracellular-fate-of-ureaplasma-parvum-entrapped-by-host-cellular-autophagy
#8
Fumiko Nishiumi, Michinaga Ogawa, Yukiko Nakura, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Nakayama, Jiro Mitobe, Atsushi Hiraide, Norio Sakai, Makoto Takeuchi, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Itaru Yanagihara
Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr...
January 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079186/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-intercellular-communication-at-the-porcine-maternal-fetal-interface-a-new-paradigm-for-conceptus-endometrial-cross-talk
#9
Mallikarjun Bidarimath, Kasra Khalaj, Rami T Kridli, Frederick W K Kan, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Exosomes and microvesicles are extracellular vesicles released from cells and can contain lipids, miRNAs and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. Recently, microvesicles containing miRNA have been implicated in uterine microenvironment of pigs, a species with unique epitheliochorial (non-invasive) placentation. Here we report a novel role of conceptus-derived exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles; EVs) in embryo-endometrial cross-talk. We also demonstrate the stimulatory effects of EVs (PTr2-Exo) derived from porcine trophectoderm-cells on various biological processes including the proliferation of maternal endothelial cells (PAOEC), potentially promoting angiogenesis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076321/secretion-modification-region-derived-peptide-blocks-exosome-release-and-mediates-cell-cycle-arrest-in-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Ming-Bo Huang, Ruben R Gonzalez, James Lillard, Vincent C Bond
PURPOSE: Discovery and development of a novel anticancer PEG-SMR-Clu peptide to prevent breast cancer metastasis. How breast cancer cells and primary mammary epithelial cells interact and communicate with each other to promote tumorigenesis and how to prevent tumor metastasis has long been a concern of researchers. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing proteins and RNA. These factors can influence tumor development by directly targeting cancer cells and tumor stroma. In this study, we determined the effects of a peptide as an inhibitor of exosome secretion on breast tumors...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025988/charge-based-precipitation-of-extracellular-vesicles
#11
Maria Chiara Deregibus, Federico Figliolini, Sergio D'Antico, Paola Maria Manzini, Chiara Pasquino, Michela De Lena, Ciro Tetta, Maria Felice Brizzi, Giovanni Camussi
Vesicular-mediated communication between cells appears critical in many biological processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from healthy and diseased cells are involved in a network of exchange of biologically active molecules. Since EVs present in biological fluids carry the signature of the cell of origin, they are potential biomarkers for ongoing physiological or pathological processes. Despite the knowledge on EV biology accrued in recent years, techniques of EV purification remain a challenge and all the described methods have some advantages and disadvantages...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000095/exosomes-from-ipscs-delivering-sirna-attenuate-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-expression-and-neutrophils-adhesion-in-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#12
Zhihai Ju, Jinhui Ma, Chen Wang, Jie Yu, Yeru Qiao, Feilong Hei
The pro-inflammatory activation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells resulting in continuous expression of cellular adhesion molecules, and subsequently recruiting primed neutrophils to form a firm neutrophils-endothelium (PMN-EC) adhesion, has been examined and found to play a vital role in acute lung injury (ALI). RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular process through harnessing a natural pathway silencing target gene based on recognition and subsequent degradation of specific mRNA sequences. It opens a promising approach for precision medicine...
December 21, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974566/cd63-regulates-epstein-barr-virus-lmp1-exosomal-packaging-enhancement-of-vesicle-production-and-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#13
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Dingani Nkosi, Meghan M Conlon, Sara B York, Xia Liu, Deanna C Tremblay, David G Meckes
: Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded oncoprotein that is packaged into small extracellular vesicles (EVs) called exosomes. Trafficking of LMP1 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) alters the content and function of exosomes. LMP1-modified exosomes enhance the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant cells, demonstrating the capacity to manipulate the tumor microenvironment and enhance the progression of EBV-associated cancers. Despite the growing evidence surrounding the significance of LMP1-modified exosomes in cancer, very little is understood about the mechanisms that orchestrate LMP1 incorporation into these vesicles...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882487/delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-to-inhibit-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-zebrafish-using-natural-brain-endothelia-cell-secreted-exosome-nanovesicles-for-the-treatment-of-brain-cancer
#14
Tianzhi Yang, Brittany Fogarty, Bret LaForge, Salma Aziz, Thuy Pham, Leanne Lai, Shuhua Bai
Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p < 0...
November 23, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881345/-extraction-and-identification-of-semen-derived-exosomes-using-peg6000
#15
Cheng Yang, Wen-Bin Guo, Wan-Song Zhang, Jun Bian, Jian-Kun Yang, Tao Qi, Chun-Yan Wang, Cun-Dong Liu
OBJECTIVE: To extract and identify semen-derived exosome using PEG6000. METHODS: Exosomes were extracted from semen specimens from 6 healthy volunteers with step-by-step centrifugations and ultracentrifugation prior to 8% PEG6000 enrichment. The extracted exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and Western blotting. RESULTS: The pellets obtained were round or elliptic membrane vesicles 30 to 150 nm in diameter with intact double membranes and contained low electron density material...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872619/ebola-vp40-in-exosomes-can-cause-immune-cell-dysfunction
#16
Michelle L Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao A Akpamagbo, Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Sergey Iordanskiy, Gavin C Sampey, Benjamin Lepene, Sergei Nekhai, M J Aman, Fatah Kashanchi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80-90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856179/exosomal-proteins-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
B Sandfeld-Paulsen, N Aggerholm-Pedersen, R Bæk, K R Jakobsen, P Meldgaard, B H Folkersen, T R Rasmussen, K Varming, M M Jørgensen, B S Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Use of exosomes as biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an intriguing approach in the liquid-biopsy era. Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles with membrane-bound proteins that reflect their originating cell. Prognostic biomarkers are needed to improve patient selection for optimal treatment. We here evaluate exosomes by protein phenotyping as a prognostic biomarker in NSCLC. METHODS: Exosomes from plasma of 276 NSCLC patients were phenotyped using the Extracellular Vesicle Array; 49 antibodies captured the proteins on the exosomes, and a cocktail of biotin-conjugated antibodies binding the general exosome markers CD9, CD81 and CD63 was used to visualise the captured exosomes...
December 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802194/screening-of-exosomal-micrornas-from-colorectal-cancer-cells
#18
Cillian Clancy, Sonja Khan, Claire L Glynn, Emma Holian, Peter Dockery, Pierce Lalor, James A L Brown, Myles R Joyce, Michael J Kerin, Roisin M Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Cells release extracellular membrane vesicles including microvesicles known as exosomes. Exosomes contain microRNAs (miRNAs) however the full range within colorectal cancer cell secreted exosomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the full range of exosome encapsulated miRNAs secreted from 2 colorectal cancer cell lines and to investigate engineering of exosomes over-expressing miRNAs. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795705/cd63-and-glut-1-overexpression-could-predict-a-poor-clinical-outcome-in-gist-a-study-of-54-cases-with-follow-up
#19
Piotr Lewitowicz, Jarosław Matykiewicz, Dorota Koziel, Magdalena Chrapek, Agata Horecka-Lewitowicz, Stanislaw Gluszek
Background and Goals. In light of current knowledge, it seems that alternations underlying GISTs are well explained, although all that is enhanced by various aspects on a daily basis. More recently, attention has been pointed towards exosomes as important particles able to modify healthy and also diseased tissues including cancer. The goal of the present study was an analysis of CD9, CD63, and GLUT-1 as a marker of hypoxia status within 54 cases of GIST and evaluation of their predictive value. Methods. 54 cases of patients suffering from GIST were enrolled into the study, predominantly in the gastric location...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779585/exosomes-not-protein-or-lipids-in-mesenteric-lymph-activate-inflammation-unlocking-the-mystery-of-post-shock-multiple-organ-failure
#20
Mitsuaki Kojima, Joao Antonio Gimenes-Junior, Simone Langness, Koji Morishita, Ophelie Lavoie-Gagne, Brian Eliceiri, Todd W Costantini, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that mesenteric lymph (ML) has a crucial role in driving the systemic inflammatory response after trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). The specific mediators in the ML that contribute to its biological activity remain unclear despite decades of study. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are shed into body fluids such as serum and urine that can mediate intercellular communication. We hypothesized that exosomes are present in the ML after trauma/shock and are responsible for the biological activity of ML...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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