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follicle atresia

Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selection, maturation, and ultimately, ovulation or atresia...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Jing Cao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Li-Lin Huang, Li Wang, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Li-Jun Huo
In the mammalian ovary, >99% follicles fail to ovulate due to apoptosis in granulosa cells. Aurora B, a core subunit enzyme of the chromosomal passenger complex, exerts a crucial role in microtubule‑kinetochore attachment, and has been reported to be modified by small ubiquitin‑related modifier (SUMO) proteins. However, the details of how Aurora B and its SUMOylation impact on follicular development have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the roles, and possible molecular mechanism, of Aurora B and its SUMOylation in the granulosa cells of the mouse follicle...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yu-Lan Chu, Ya-Ru Xu, Wan-Xi Yang, Yi Sun
Most of the mammalian follicles undergo a degenerative process called "follicle atresia". Apoptosis of granulosa cells is the main characteristic of follicle atresia. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily have important regulatory functions in this process. FSH activates protein kinase A and cooperating with insulin receptor substrates, it promotes the PI3K/Akt pathway which weakens apoptosis. Both Smad or non-Smad signaling of the transforming growth factor β superfamily seem to be related to follicle atresia, and the effect of several important family members on follicle atresia is concluded in this article...
March 2, 2018: Aging
Pengfei Li, Jinzhu Meng, Jiongjie Jing, Qingling Hao, Zhiwei Zhu, Jianbo Yao, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an endogenous neuropeptide, which is widespread in animals, plays a key role in regulation of follicular atresia in cattle and sheep. Among animal ovaries, CART mRNA was firstly found in the cattle ovaries. CART was localized in the antral follicles oocytes, granulosa and cumulus cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Further research found that secretion of E2 was inhibited in granulosa cells with a certain dose of CART, the effect depends on the stage of cell differentiation, suggesting that CART could play a crucial role in regulating follicle atresia...
February 26, 2018: Biological Research
Junqing An, Tianlong Liu, Ruiping She, Qiaoxing Wu, Jijing Tian, Ruihan Shi, Wenzhuo Hao, Xinxin Ren, Yue Yang, Yiyao Lu, Yifei Yang, Yuanheng Wu
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can induce infertility and miscarriage in pregnant women and infect neonates through vertical transmission. However, the mechanism of infertility and vertical transmission remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the replication of HEV in the ovary and structural and molecular changes induced by HEV after intraperitoneal injection of HEV in rabbits. Positive- and negative-strand HEV RNA was detected in the ovaries at 28 and 49 days post-infection. Positive HEV open reading frames 2 and 3 signals were observed in the ovaries by immunohistochemistry staining...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
F Gaytan, C Morales, J Roa, M Tena-Sempere
STUDY QUESTION: Is keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) expression linked to cell death/survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage? SUMMARY ANSWER: A close association exists between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival events along the human granulosa cell lineage lifespan. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In addition to their structural and mechanical functions, K8/K18 play essential roles regulating cell death, survival and differentiation in several non-gonadal epithelial tissues...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Hongqin Zhang, Qianqian Luo, Xueyan Lu, Na Yin, Dongli Zhou, Lianshuang Zhang, Wei Zhao, Dong Wang, Pengchao Du, Yun Hou, Yan Zhang, Wendan Yuan
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the effects of human placenta mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) transplantation on granulosa cell apoptosis and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in autoimmune drug-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) mice. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanisms of hPMSCs on ovarian reserve capacity. METHODS: The POF mice model was established by injection of zona pellucida 3 peptide (pZP3)...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiaoqin Zhu, Geng G Tian, Baoli Yu, Yanzhou Yang, Ji Wu
Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most frequently detected emerging pollutants in the environment, has been implicated in adverse effects in male and female reproduction at extremely low concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanism of BPA on mouse ovarian follicular development and female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Female CD-1 adult mice were administered gradient concentrations of BPA (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal injection. We found that the number of atretic ovarian follicles was significantly increased at high BPA concentrations...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Yan Ma, Mingkun Zhu, Liping Miao, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xinyang Dong, Xiaoting Zou
The present study evaluated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on follicular atresia rate, sex hormone secretion, and ovarian oxidative stress in laying hens. Antioxidant enzyme genes and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) signal pathway were further studied to uncover the molecular mechanism. A total of 768 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated to four treatments with eight pens per treatment and 24 hens of each pen...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Dina Zohrabi, Kazem Parivar, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Nasim Hayati Roodbari
Background: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been traditionally used as a spice for coloring and flavoring in some countries cuisine. One of the main components of saffron is Crocin. Recent research have shown that crocin has various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of crocin on the Pituitary-Gonadal axis and Kiss-1 gene expression in hypothalamus and ovarian tissue organization in female Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 18 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Yilmaz Guzel, Gamze Bildik, Ozgur Oktem
OBJECTIVE(S): We aimed to analyze if anti-apoptotic agent sphingosine-1-phosphate offers protection against in vitro follicle atresia during culture of human ovarian cortical samples. STUDY DESIGN: A translational research study of ex-vivo and in-vitro models of human ovarian tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ovarian cortical tissue fragments (1 × 0.5 cm) were obtained from young patients (n = 15 mean age ± SD: 29.4 ± 2.5) undergoing laparoscopic excision of benign ovarian cysts...
January 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Yu Tanaka, Akira Kuwahara, Kenjiro Ushigoe, Yuya Yano, Yuka Taniguchi, Yuri Yamamoto, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki Yasui, Minoru Irahara
Aim: Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/gro) is a CXC family chemokine, similar to interleukin-8 in rats, and is one of the factors that regulates ovulation. However, the mechanism that regulates atresia of the ovaries postovulation is not clearly defined. Methods: Whether antibody-blocking of CINC/gro can alter the number of ovulated oocytes and modulate neutrophil infiltration was investigated. The effect of the antibody on the level of inflammatory cytokine production and follicular atresia was examined...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Ana M Molina, Nieves Abril, Noelia Morales-Prieto, José G Monterde, Antonio J Lora, Nahúm Ayala, Rosario Moyano
Given the importance of bisphenol A (BPA) as a xenoestrogen and its potential effects on human and animal health, we evaluated BPA exposure's short-term effects on follicular development, yolk protein vitellogenin (VTG) production and aromatase expression in female zebrafish. Histological modifications were observed along with increased presence of atretic follicles. Whole-body VTG concentration increased with the dose of BPA exposure. In contrast, expression of Cyp19a mRNA in the ovaries of BPA-exposed fish exhibited an apparent non-monotonic response curve, marked by downregulation at 1 μg/L BPA, upregulation at 10 μg/L BPA, and a return to downregulation at 100 μg/L BPA and higher doses...
December 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zonghao Tang, Zhenghong Zhang, Yedong Tang, Lingbin Qi, Fafu Yang, Zhengchao Wang
Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is a widely used industrial chemical, which may be increasingly used in the future. However, its toxicity profile remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of DMC exposure on the ovaries and the effect of autophagy activation on follicular development. Rats were randomly divided into a control group and low, medium and high dose DMC groups (all n=10). Histological analyses identified no marked differences in the rate of apoptosis between the control and low dose groups; however, marked apoptosis occurred in the medium and high dose groups...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
O Y Tkachenko, J U Scheerer-Bernhard, S Delimitreva, E Wedi, R R Valle, M Heistermann, P L Nayudu
Here we report a retrospective analysis of negative effects of routine enrofloxacin treatment of recurrent diarrhea on the ovary and the developing oocytes of the common marmoset, a small New World primate. The most deleterious effect on oocytes was observed about two months post treatment suggesting that the enrofloxacin effect is on early growing follicles. Manifestations of toxicity included decreased numbers of growing follicles and recovered culturable oocytes, as well as signs of early atresia of granulosa cells...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
K Denise Apperson, Karyn E Bird, Gita Cherian, Christiane V Löhr
The laying hen (Gallus domesticus) is a robust animal model for epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of animal models is critical in identifying early disease markers and developing and testing chemotherapies. We describe the microscopic characteristics of the normally functioning laying hen ovary and proximal oviduct to establish baselines from which lesions associated with ovarian cancer can be more readily identified. Ovaries and oviducts were collected from 18-month-old laying hens (n = 18) and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin...
December 11, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
Pancharatna A Katti, Sheetal S Narvekar, Basavaraj B Goundadkar, Prasad A Deshpande
The present study is an attempt to elucidate the involvement of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) in the differentiation and growth of primary follicles in ovarian explant cultures of zebrafish. Ovaries from adult females were cultured in triplicate sets/treatment group for 15 days at 22° in the laboratory. Culture medium was supplemented with either insulin (1 ng/mL) or IGF1 (1 ng/mL) or insulin + IGF1 (Experiment 1) or 0.1 or 1.0 or 10 ng/mL of IGF1 (Experiment 2). Ovaries cultured in medium alone served as controls and those fixed at the beginning of the culture as initial controls...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
Reza Talebi, Ahmad Ahmadi, Fazlollah Afraz, Julien Sarry, Florence Plisson-Petit, Carine Genêt, Stéphane Fabre
Ovarian follicular growth occurs in both the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle but in very different endocrine contexts. In both phases, many small antral follicles with similar morphologic and histologic characteristics are present within the ovaries as a reserve for the terminal folliculogenesis. However, there are several gaps in our molecular knowledge of the gene expression profiles of small antral follicles in the follicular and luteal phases. The aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing to compare and analyze the global transcriptional profile of ovine granulosa cells collected from small antral follicles (1-3 mm) either during the follicular or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, with the hypothesis that they should be differential...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Manman Shen, Hongyan Sun, Liang Qu, Meng Ma, Taocun Dou, Jian Lu, Jun Guo, Yuping Hu, Xingguo Wang, Yongfeng Li, Kehua Wang, Ning Yang
Follicular development has a major impact on reproductive performance. Most previous researchers focused on molecular mechanisms of follicular development. The genetic architecture underlying the number of follicle, however, has yet not to be thoroughly defined in chicken. Here we report a genome-wide association study for the genetic architecture determining the numbers of follicles in a large F2 resource population. The results showed heritability were low to moderate (0.05-0.28) for number of pre-ovulatory follicles (POF), small yellow follicles (SYF) and atresia follicles (AF)...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jianhui Liu, Man Yang, Li Jing, Lihua Ren, Jialiu Wei, Jin Zhang, Feng Zhang, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Zhiwei Sun
Given that the effects of ultrafine fractions (< 0.1 μm) on reproductive diseases are gaining attention, this study aimed to explore the influence of silica nanoparticle (SiNP)-induced female reproductive dysfunction. In this study, 80 female mice were randomly divided into four groups including a control group and three concentrations of SiNP groups (7, 21, 35 mg/kg). Mice were exposed to the vehicle control and silica nanoparticles by tracheal perfusion every 3 days a total of five times in 15 days...
November 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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