keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

focus x

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053406/super-resolution-nanoscopy-imaging-applied-to-dna-double-strand-breaks
#1
Sofia D'Abrantes, Sarah Gratton, Pamela Reynolds, Verena Kriechbaumer, Joseph McKenna, Stephen Barnard, Dave Clarke, Stanley W Botchway
Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is continuously being damaged by endogenous processes such as metabolism or by exogenous events such as radiation. The specific phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139, described as γ-H2AX, is an excellent indicator or marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The yield of γ-H2AX (foci) is shown to have some correlation with the dose of radiation or other DSB-causing agents. However, there is some discrepancy in the DNA DSB foci yield among imaging and other methods such as gel electrophoresis...
October 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053280/structural-and-biochemical-investigation-of-pglf-from-campylobacter-jejuni-reveals-a-new-mechanism-for-a-member-of-the-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-superfamily
#2
Alexander S Riegert, James B Thoden, Ian C Schoenhofen, David C Watson, N Martin Young, Peter A Tipton, Hazel M Holden
Within recent years it has become apparent that protein glycosylation is not limited to eukaryotes. Indeed, in Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram negative bacterium, more than 60 of its proteins are known to be glycosylated. One of the sugars found in such glycosylated proteins is 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy--d-glucopyranose, hereafter referred to as QuiNAc4NAc. The pathway for its biosynthesis, initiating with UDP-GlcNAc, requires three enzymes referred to as PglF, PglE, and PlgD. The focus of this investigation is on PglF, an NAD+-dependent sugar 4,6-dehydratase known to belong to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily...
October 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052468/evaluation-of-the-content-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-the-coatings-of-chewing-gums
#3
William Dudefoi, Hélène Terrisse, Aurelian Florin Popa, Eric Gautron, Bernard Humbert, Marie-Hélène Ropers
Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO2, the estimated intakes of TiO2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO2. The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051194/haploid-selection-favours-suppressed-recombination-between-sex-chromosomes-despite-causing-biased-sex-ratios
#4
Michael F Scott, Sarah P Otto
To date, research on the evolution of sex chromosomes has focused on sexually antagonistic selection among diploids, which has been shown to be a potent driver of the strata and reduced recombination that characterize many sex chromosomes. However, significant selection can also occur on haploid genotypes during less conspicuous life cycle stages, e.g., competition among sperm/pollen or meiotic drive during gamete/spore production. These haploid selective processes are typically sex-specific, e.g., gametic/gametophytic competition typically occurs among sperm/pollen and meiotic drive typically occurs during either spermatogenesis or oogenesis...
October 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051070/sex-dependent-impact-of-scp-2-scp-x-gene-ablation-on-hepatic-phytol-metabolism
#5
Avery L McIntosh, Stephen M Storey, Huan Huang, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
While prior studies focusing on male mice suggest a role for sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x; DKO) on hepatic phytol metabolism, its role in females is unresolved. This issue was addressed using female and male wild-type (WT) and DKO mice fed a phytoestrogen-free diet without or with 0.5% phytol. GC/MS showed that hepatic: i) phytol was absent and its branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) metabolites were barely detectable in WT control-fed mice; ii) accumulation of phytol as well as its peroxisomal metabolite BCFAs (phytanic acid » pristanic and 2,3-pristenic acids) was increased by dietary phytol in WT females, but only slightly in WT males; iii) accumulation of phytol and BCFA was further increased by DKO in phytol-fed females, but much more markedly in males...
October 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050431/a-study-on-the-sternum-growth-and-mineralization-kinetic-of-meat-duck-from-35-to-63-days-of-age
#6
H Y Zhang, H Liao, Q F Zeng, J P Wang, X M Ding, S P Bai, K Y Zhang
The sternum as an important part of the skeleton and not only provides a crucial attachment site for the pectoral muscles and protects internal organs such as the heart and lungs for meat duck, but may also be considered as the primary ventilator in the avian respiratory system. Therefore, this study focuses on the sternum growth and mineralization kinetics of ducks from 35 d to 63 d of age. A total of 72 one-d-old males and 72 females were chosen and fed with the same diet until the age of 9 weeks. The sternum and serum were harvested at 35 d, 42 d, 49 d, 56d, and 63 d of feeding...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049675/combined-perventricular-septal-defect-closure-and-patent-ductus-arteriosus-ligation-via-the-lower-ministernotomy-approach
#7
Alexey Voitov, Alexander Omelchenko, Yuriy Gorbatykh, Alexander Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexander Karaskov
Over the past decade, minimally invasive approaches have been advocated for surgical correction of congenital defects to reduce costs related to hospitalization and for improved cosmesis. Minimal skin incisions and partial sternotomy reduce surgical trauma, however these techniques might not be successful in treating a number of congenital pathological conditions, particularly for combined congenital defects. We focused on cases with a combined presentation of ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus...
September 25, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048724/longitudinal-perspectives-on-the-psychosis-spectrum-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Sunny X Tang, Raquel E Gur
The prevalence of psychotic disorders in individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) reaches 25-35% in young adulthood and may provide a neurogenetic model for clinical risk of psychotic disorders in the general population. This review focuses on prospective longitudinal studies in 22q11DS, which capture fluctuations in psychosis symptoms over time and may provide insights into potential demographic, clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging predictors of psychosis-spectrum outcomes in the general population...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048273/chiari-1000-registry-project-assessment-of-surgical-outcome-on-self-focused-attention-pain-and-delayed-recall
#9
P A Allen, D Delahanty, K P Kaut, X Li, M Garcia, J R Houston, D M Tokar, F Loth, J Maleki, S Vorster, M G Luciano
BACKGROUND: Prior research has typically found a negative relationship between chronic pain and memory, and we examined whether cognitive control processes (e.g. reflection and rumination) moderated this relationship in individuals with Chiari malformation Type I (CM). CM is a neurological condition in which the cerebellar tonsils descend into the medullary and upper cervical spine regions potentially resulting in severe headaches and neck pain. METHODS: CM patients who had (n = 341) and had not (n = 297) undergone decompression surgery completed the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form-Revised (SF-MPQ-2), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ)...
October 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047859/movement-flatness-error-measurement-based-on-an-astigmatic-method
#10
Xin Liang, Zhen Bai, Jingsong Wei
The movement flatness error is one of the critical parameters of motorized stage performance. In this work, the measurement of the movement flatness error based on an astigmatic method is proposed, in which the focus error signal is detected and used to analyze the movement flatness error. The theoretical derivation and analysis are presented, and the experimental system is established accordingly. The experimental results indicate that our measurement method and established system exhibit an accuracy of less than ±100  nm...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047828/three-dimensional-surface-microtopography-recovery-from-a-multifocus-image-sequence-using-an-omnidirectional-modified-laplacian-operator-with-adaptive-window-size
#11
Yingzhong Tian, Huijuan Hu, Haoyang Cui, Shouchen Yang, Ji Qi, Zhiming Xu, Long Li
Optical microscopy enables the observation of highly magnified objects and material structures on microsurfaces, but it can only acquire 2D images. In order to observe areal features more accurately and intuitively, 3D surface microtopography recovery has been applied to form a 3D surface model of an object from its 2D image sequence. In the 3D reconstruction of the focus evaluation operator, we have the gray variance operator, the gray-scale difference absolute sum operator, the Roberts gradient operator, the Tenengrad gradient operator, the improved Laplace operator, etc...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047823/modeling-the-focusing-efficiency-of-lobster-eye-optics-for-image-shifting-depending-on-the-soft-x-ray-wavelength
#12
Luning Su, Wei Li, Mingxuan Wu, Yun Su, Chongling Guo, Ningjuan Ruan, Bingxin Yang, Feng Yan
Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047011/comparing-pharmacophore-models-derived-from-crystallography-and-nmr-ensembles
#13
Phani Ghanakota, Heather A Carlson
NMR and X-ray crystallography are the two most widely used methods for determining protein structures. Our previous study examining NMR versus X-Ray sources of protein conformations showed improved performance with NMR structures when used in our Multiple Protein Structures (MPS) method for receptor-based pharmacophores (Damm, Carlson, J Am Chem Soc 129:8225-8235, 2007). However, that work was based on a single test case, HIV-1 protease, because of the rich data available for that system. New data for more systems are available now, which calls for further examination of the effect of different sources of protein conformations...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046845/identifying-the-nature-of-surface-chemical-modification-for-directed-self-assembly-of-block-copolymers
#14
Laura Evangelio, Federico Gramazio, Matteo Lorenzoni, Michaela Gorgoi, Francisco Miguel Espinosa, Ricardo García, Francesc Pérez-Murano, Jordi Fraxedas
In recent years, block copolymer lithography has emerged as a viable alternative technology for advanced lithography. In chemical-epitaxy-directed self-assembly, the interfacial energy between the substrate and each block copolymer domain plays a key role on the final ordering. Here, we focus on the experimental characterization of the chemical interactions that occur at the interface built between different chemical guiding patterns and the domains of the block copolymers. We have chosen hard X-ray high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy as an exploration technique because it provides information on the electronic structure of buried interfaces...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046823/functionalization-of-ti-40nb-implant-material-with-strontium-by-reactive-sputtering
#15
Markus Göttlicher, Marcus Rohnke, Yannik Moryson, Jürgen Thomas, Joachim Sann, Anja Lode, Matthias Schumacher, Romy Schmidt, Stefan Pilz, Annett Gebert, Thomas Gemming, Jürgen Janek
BACKGROUND: Surface functionalization of orthopedic implants with pharmaceutically active agents is a modern approach to enhance osseointegration in systemically altered bone. A local release of strontium, a verified bone building therapeutic agent, at the fracture site would diminish side effects, which could occur otherwise by oral administration. Strontium surface functionalization of specially designed titanium-niobium (Ti-40Nb) implant alloy would provide an advanced implant system that is mechanically adapted to altered bone with the ability to stimulate bone formation...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046627/mecp2-deficiency-in-neuroglia-new-progress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Xu-Rui Jin, Xing-Shu Chen, Lan Xiao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disease predominantly caused by mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Generally, RTT has been attributed to neuron-centric dysfunction. However, increasing evidence has shown that glial abnormalities are also involved in the pathogenesis of RTT. Mice that are MeCP2-null specifically in glial cells showed similar behavioral and/or neuronal abnormalities as those found in MeCP2-null mice, a mouse model of RTT. MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes impacts the expression of glial intermediate filament proteins such as fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 and induces neuron toxicity by disturbing glutamate metabolism or enhancing microtubule instability...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046242/preoperative-corrections-are-required-for-planning-of-patient-specific-instrumentation-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Yohei Okada, Atsushi Teramoto, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Yuichiro Kii, Kota Watanabe, Toshihiko Yamashita
BACKGROUND: Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) is attracting attention as a mechanical method of ensuring the accuracy of osteotomy during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Few studies have focused on preoperative plans; thus, it is unclear how often initial plans have to be corrected preoperatively and intraoperatively. We investigated the frequency of corrections, the accuracy of intraoperative osteotomy, and postoperative alignment. METHODS: We analyzed 45 knees of 40 patients who underwent TKA using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based PSI...
October 15, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046010/-differential-diagnosis-of-mediastinal-and-hilar-lymphadenopathy-with-focus-on-occupational-diseases
#18
H Lux, L Barreira Cavalcante, X Baur
Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy may represent a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. This article is intended to facilitate differential diagnosis by a systematic description of relevant pathologies, notably with occupational etiology. Clinical findings of relevant diseases, i. e. of tuberculosis, chronic beryllium disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and histoplasmosis are compared.Case history, imaging and laboratory tests have important diagnostic impact...
October 18, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045867/enzyme-triggered-dissociation-of-a-fret-based-protein-biosensor-monitored-by-synchrotron-saxs
#19
Greta Faccio, Stefan Salentinig
Protein biosensors are widely used for the monitoring of metabolite concentration and enzymatic activities inside living cells and in in vitro applications. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a serine protease of relevance in inflammatory diseases whose activity can lead to pathological conditions if unregulated. This study focuses on the structural characterization of a biosensor for NE activity based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The cleavage by NE results in dissociation of the FRET fluorescent protein pair and alteration of the fluorescent emission spectrum...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045633/ventricular-arrhythmia-and-sudden-cardiac-death-in-fabry-disease-a-systematic-review-of-risk-factors-in-clinical-practice
#20
Shanat Baig, Nicky C Edward, Dipak Kotecha, Boyang Liu, Sabrina Nordin, Rebecca Kozor, James C Moon, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Richard P Steeds
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A enzyme. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a common cause of mortality in FD, in particular as a result of heart failure and arrhythmia, with a significant proportion of events categorized as sudden. There are no clear models for risk prediction in FD. This systematic review aims to identify the risk factors for ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) in FD. A systematic search was performed following PRISMA guidelines of EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane from inception to August 2016, focusing on identification of risk factors for the development of VA or SCD...
October 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
keyword
keyword
87960
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"