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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906391/large-area-growth-of-vertically-aligned-luminescent-mos2-nanosheets
#1
G Deokar, N S Rajput, P Vancsó, F Ravaux, M Jouiad, D Vignaud, F Cecchet, J-F Colomer
Vertically aligned MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) with exposed edges were successfully synthesized over a large area (∼2 cm(2)). The NSs were grown using an ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition technique via rapid sulfurization of sputter deposited thick molybdenum films. Extensive characterization of the grown MoS2 NSs has been carried out using high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM & TEM). A special care was given to the TEM lamella preparation process by means of a focused ion beam to preserve the NS growth direction...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906241/spatiotemporal-optical-dark-x-solitary-waves
#2
Fabio Baronio, Shihua Chen, Miguel Onorato, Stefano Trillo, Stefan Wabnitz, Yuji Kodama
We introduce spatiotemporal optical dark X solitary waves of the (2+1)D hyperbolic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE), which rules wave propagation in a self-focusing and normally dispersive medium. These analytical solutions are derived by exploiting the connection between the NLSE and a well-known equation of hydrodynamics, namely the type II Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP-II) equation. As a result, families of shallow water X soliton solutions of the KP-II equation are mapped into optical dark X solitary wave solutions of the NLSE...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904078/effect-of-nerolidol-and-or-levulinic-acid-on-the-thermotropic-behavior-of-lipid-lamellar-structures-in-the-stratum-corneum
#3
Shunichi Utsumi, Tomohiro Nakamura, Yasuko Obata, Noboru Ohta, Kozo Takayama
Permeation enhancers are required to deliver drugs through the skin efficiently and maintain effective blood concentrations. Studies of the barrier function of the stratum corneum using l-menthol, a monocyclic monoterpene widely used in medicines and foods, have revealed an interaction between characteristic intercellular lipid structures in the stratum corneum and permeation enhancers. The variety of permeation enhancers that can be used to contribute to transdermal delivery systems beyond l-menthol is increasing...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901043/confirmation-of-the-topology-of-the-wendelstein-7-x-magnetic-field-to-better-than-1-100-000
#4
T Sunn Pedersen, M Otte, S Lazerson, P Helander, S Bozhenkov, C Biedermann, T Klinger, R C Wolf, H-S Bosch
Fusion energy research has in the past 40 years focused primarily on the tokamak concept, but recent advances in plasma theory and computational power have led to renewed interest in stellarators. The largest and most sophisticated stellarator in the world, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), has just started operation, with the aim to show that the earlier weaknesses of this concept have been addressed successfully, and that the intrinsic advantages of the concept persist, also at plasma parameters approaching those of a future fusion power plant...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898297/a-novel-pfib-sample-preparation-protocol-for-correlative-3d-x-ray-cnt-and-fib-tof-sims-tomography
#5
Agnieszka Priebe, Guillaume Audoit, Jean-Paul Barnes
We present a novel sample preparation method that allows correlative 3D X-ray Computed Nano-Tomography (CNT) and Focused Ion Beam Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (FIB-TOF-SIMS) tomography to be performed on the same sample. In addition, our invention ensures that samples stay unmodified structurally and chemically between the subsequent experiments. The main principle is based on modifying the topography of the X-ray CNT experimental setup before FIB-TOF-SIMS measurements by incorporating a square washer around the sample...
November 19, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896717/a-practical-approach-to-protein-crystallography
#6
Andrea Ilari, Carmelinda Savino
Macromolecular crystallography is a powerful tool for structural biology. The resolution of a protein crystal structure is becoming much easier than in the past, thanks to developments in computing, automation of crystallization techniques and high-flux synchrotron sources to collect diffraction datasets. The aim of this chapter is to provide practical procedures to determine a protein crystal structure, illustrating the new techniques, experimental methods, and software that have made protein crystallography a tool accessible to a larger scientific community...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894779/chrysin-cocrystals-characterization-and-evaluation
#7
Renu Chadha, Yashika Bhalla, Avdesh Nandan, Kunal Chadha, Maninder Karan
Solvent free mechanochemical approach is utilized to synthesise new cocrystals of chrysin using supramolecular chemistry based upon reliable synthons. Chrysin, a flavone nutraceutical with wide range of beneficial effects has critically low bioavailability on account of its poor aqueous solubility and consequently poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The present study focuses on this critical aspect and has exploited non covalent interactions to prepare its cocrystals with cytosine and thiamine hydrochloride...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893455/patient-radiation-doses-in-paediatric-interventional-cardiology-procedures-a-review
#8
R W Harbron, S Dreuil, M-O Bernier, M S Pearce, I Thierry-Chef, C-L Chapple, H Baysson
A large number of investigations into the radiation doses from x-ray guided interventional cardiology procedures in children have been carried out in recent years. A review was conducted of these studies, gathering data on kerma area product (P KA), fluoroscopic screening time (FT), air kerma, and estimates of effective dose and organ doses. The majority of studies focus on P KA and FT with no estimation of dose to the patient. A greater than ten-fold variation in average P KA was found between different studies, even where data were stratified by patient age or weight...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892575/heat-treated-carbon-supported-iron-ii-phthalocyanine-oxygen-reduction-catalysts-elucidation-of-the-structure-activity-relationship-using-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#9
Hamish A Miller, Marco Bellini, Werner Oberhauser, Xin Deng, Hengquan Chen, Qinggang He, Maurizio Passaponti, Massimo Innocenti, Ruoou Yang, Fanfei Sun, Zheng Jiang, Francesco Vizza
This paper focuses on studying the influence of the heat treatment on the structure and activity of carbon supported Fe(ii)phthalocyanine (FePc/C) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts under alkaline conditions. The FePc macrocycle was deposited onto ketjen black carbon and heated treated for 2 hours under inert atmosphere (Ar) at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C). The atomic structure of Fe in each sample has been determined by XAS and correlated to the activity and ORR mechanisms determined in electrochemical half cells and in a complete H2/O2 anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEM-FC)...
November 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891613/a-review-of-spectroscopic-and-biophysical-chemical-studies-of-the-complex-of-cpd-photolyase-and-cryptochrome-dash-with-substrate-dna
#10
Johannes P M Schelvis, Yvonne M Gindt
CPD photolyase (PL) is a structure-specific DNA repair enzyme that uses blue light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) on DNA. Cryptochrome (CRY) DASH enzymes use blue light for the repair of CPD lesions on single-stranded (ss) DNA, though some may also repair these lesions on double-stranded (ds) DNA. In addition, CRY DASH may be involved in blue-light signaling, similar to cryptochromes. The focus of this review is on spectroscopic and biophysical chemical experiments of the enzyme-substrate complex that have contributed to a more detailed understanding of all the aspects of the CPD repair mechanism of CPD photolyase and CRY DASH...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890643/coordination-of-dna-single-strand-break-repair
#11
Rachel Abbotts, David M Wilson
The genetic material of all organisms is susceptible to modification. In some instances, these changes are programmed, such as the formation of DNA double strand breaks during meiotic recombination to generate gamete variety or class switch recombination to create antibody diversity. However, in most cases, genomic damage is potentially harmful to the health of the organism, contributing to disease and aging by promoting deleterious cellular outcomes. A proportion of DNA modifications are caused by exogenous agents, both physical (namely ultraviolet sunlight and ionizing radiation) and chemical (such as benzopyrene, alkylating agents, platinum compounds and psoralens), which can produce numerous forms of DNA damage, including a range of "simple" and helix-distorting base lesions, abasic sites, crosslinks and various types of phosphodiester strand breaks...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889578/molecular-neurobiology-of-mtor
#12
REVIEW
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that controls several important aspects of mammalian cell function. mTOR activity is modulated by various intra- and extracellular factors; in turn, mTOR changes rates of translation, transcription, protein degradation, cell signaling, metabolism, and cytoskeleton dynamics. mTOR has been repeatedly shown to participate in neuronal development and the proper functioning of mature neurons. Changes in mTOR activity are often observed in nervous system diseases, including genetic diseases (e...
November 23, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889549/assessing-arsenic-and-selenium-in-a-single-nail-clipping-using-portable-x-ray-fluorescence
#13
David E B Fleming, Michel N Nader, Kelly A Foran, Craig Groskopf, Michael C Reno, Chris S Ware, Mina Tehrani, Diana Guimarães, Patrick J Parsons
The feasibility of measuring arsenic and selenium contents in a single nail clipping was investigated using a small-focus portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument with monochromatic excitation beams. Nail clipping phantoms supplemented with arsenic and selenium to produce materials with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20µg/g were used for calibration purposes. In total, 10 different clippings were analyzed at two different measurement positions. Energy spectra were fit with detection peaks for arsenic Kα, selenium Kα, arsenic Kβ, selenium Kβ, and bromine Kα characteristic X-rays...
November 19, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889071/using-x-ray-crystallography-to-simplify-and-accelerate-biologics-drug-development
#14
REVIEW
Mark L Brader, Edward N Baker, Michael F Dunn, Thomas M Laue, John F Carpenter
Every major biopharmaceutical company incorporates a protein crystallography unit that is central to its structure-based drug discovery efforts. Yet these capabilities are rarely leveraged toward the formal higher order structural characterization that is so challenging but integral to large-scale biologics manufacturing. Although the biotech industry laments the shortcomings of its favored biophysical techniques, x-ray crystallography is not even considered for drug development. Why not? We suggest that this is due, at least in part, to outdated thinking (for a recent industry-wide survey, see Gabrielson JP, Weiss IV WF...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888057/association-of-rs2294020-in-the-x-linked-ccdc22-with-susceptibility-to-autoimmune-diseases-with-focus-on-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Fabio D'Amico, Evangelia Skarmoutsou, Lauren J Lo, Mariagrazia Granata, Chiara Trovato, Giulio A Rossi, Chiara Bellocchio, Maurizio Marchini, Raffaella Scorza, Maria Clorinda Mazzarino, Alon Keinan
Autoimmune diseases often share common susceptibility genes. Most genetic variants associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus are also associated with other autoimmune diseases. The X-linked variant rs2294020 is positioned in exon 7 of the CCDC22 gene. The encoded protein functions in the regulation of NF-kB, a master regulator in immune response. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the rs2294020 polymorphism may be a general susceptibility factor for autoimmunity. We evaluated case-control association between the occurrence of rs2294020 and different autoimmune diseases, including new data for systemic lupus erythematosus and previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (though most did not analyse the X chromosome) of psoriasis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, vitiligo, type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis...
November 22, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886021/revision-of-orthovoltage-chest-wall-treatment-by-monte-carlo-simulations
#16
R Faghihi, B Zeinali-Rafsanjani, M A Mosleh-Shirazi, A Mosalaei, K Hadad
PURPOSE: Given the high local control rates observed in breast cancer patients undergoing chest wall irradiation by kilovoltage x-rays, we aimed to revisit this treatment modality by accurate calculation of dose distributions using Monte Carlo simulation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The machine components were simulated using the MCNPX code. This model was used to assess the dose distribution of chest wall kilovoltage treatment in different chest wall thicknesses and larger contour or fat patients in standard and mid sternum treatment plans...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885178/-changes-in-cytosolic-ca-2-dynamics-associated-with-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Jun Tanihata, Shin'ichi Takeda
Duchenne muscular dystrophy(DMD)is X-linked genetic disorder caused by a lack of the membrane-associated protein dystrophin. DMD is characterized by progressive muscle wasting secondary to repeated muscle damage and inadequate repair. The mechanisms underlying the functional impairments in dystrophic muscle have not yet been fully determined. However, several recent studies indicate that elevated intracellular Ca(2+)homeostasis is a cause or facilitator of the development of muscle weakness in muscular dystrophy...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883014/first-in-flight-synchrotron-x-ray-absorption-and-photoemission-study-of-carbon-soot-nanoparticles
#18
F-X Ouf, P Parent, C Laffon, I Marhaba, D Ferry, B Marcillaud, E Antonsson, S Benkoula, X-J Liu, C Nicolas, E Robert, M Patanen, F-A Barreda, O Sublemontier, A Coppalle, J Yon, F Miserque, T Mostefaoui, T Z Regier, J-B A Mitchell, C Miron
Many studies have been conducted on the environmental impacts of combustion generated aerosols. Due to their complex composition and morphology, their chemical reactivity is not well understood and new developments of analysis methods are needed. We report the first demonstration of in-flight X-ray based characterizations of freshly emitted soot particles, which is of paramount importance for understanding the role of one of the main anthropogenic particulate contributors to global climate change. Soot particles, produced by a burner for several air-to-fuel ratios, were injected through an aerodynamic lens, focusing them to a region where they interacted with synchrotron radiation...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882408/-evidence-based-recommendations-on-diagnostics-and-therapy-of-axial-spondyloarthritis-s3-guidelines-of-the-german-society-of-rheumatology-dgrh-in-cooperation-with-the-association-of-the-scientific-medical-societies-in-germany-awmf
#19
REVIEW
U Kiltz, M Rudwaleit, J Sieper, J Braun
The clinical course of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is variable and characterized by chronic back pain and extraspinal manifestations, such as asymmetrical arthritis, dactylitis and enthesitis. Extra-articular manifestations in the eyes (anterior uveitis), skin (psoriasis) and intestines (chronic inflammatory bowel disease) are also frequent manifestations in patients with SpA. Due to the heterogeneity of disease manifestations and the partial concentration on structural alterations in the sacroiliac joints visible in X‑ray images, the diagnosis is often delayed for many years...
November 23, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882239/desmoplastic-fibroma-of-the-distal-tibia-a-case-report-of-a-minimally-invasive-histological-diagnosis
#20
Gabriele Levrini, Pierpaolo Pattacini
Desmoplastic fibroma (DF) is a benign, rare fibroblastic intraosseous neoplasm histologically resembling a desmoid soft tissue tumor. Although classified as benign, DF frequently exhibits an aggressive behavior, has a moderate-to-high recurrence rate, and often causes pathological fractures and extensive bone destruction. This case report presents an incidentally detected DF of the tibia, which was diagnosed using a minimally invasive approach. A 36-year-old African female patient was referred to the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova-IRCCS (Reggio Emilia, Italy), to be examined by a computed tomography scan on an outpatient basis, after an x-ray examination of the tibia, which was performed after an injury to exclude the presence of a fracture, revealed a hyperlucency of unknown origin...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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