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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471001/activated-cxcl5-cxcr2-axis-promotes-the-migration-invasion-and-emt-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-cells-via-modulation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#1
Dong Cui, Yongfu Zhao, Jingchao Xu
Initiation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is common in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and may contribute to its metastasis. Aims of the present study are to investigate whether and how the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-5/C-X-C motif receptor 2 (CXCR2) axis affects PTC metastasis, with a focus on the EMT process. Herein, two PTC cell lines, KTC-1 and B-CPAP cells, identified as CXCR2-positive cells were used as the cell model. We found that a 24-h stimulation of 1 or 10 nM recombinant human CXCL5 (rhCXCL5) enhanced the migration and invasion of both KTC-1 and B-CPAP cells without affecting their proliferation...
February 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469865/cost-effective-plane-grating-monochromator-design-for-extreme-ultraviolet-application
#2
Luca Poletto, Fabio Frassetto
The optical design of a plane-grating monochromator mainly intended for high resolution in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray is presented. The configuration has three optical elements. It uses a uniform line-spaced plane grating illuminated in the converging light coming from a focusing concave mirror and an additional plane mirror that is needed to change the grating subtended angle to keep the system in focus on a fixed slit. The parameters of the focusing mirror are determined to introduce a coma that compensates for the coma given by the grating...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468184/translational-potential-of-human-brain-organoids
#3
Alfred X Sun, Huck-Hui Ng, Eng-King Tan
The recent technology of 3D cultures of cellular aggregates derived from human stem cells have led to the emergence of tissue-like structures of various organs including the brain. Brain organoids bear molecular and structural resemblance with developing human brains, and have been demonstrated to recapitulate several physiological and pathological functions of the brain. Here we provide an overview of the development of brain organoids for the clinical community, focusing on the current status of the field with an critical evaluation of its translational value...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467610/open-science-meets-stem-cells-a-new-drug-discovery-approach-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Chanshuai Han, Mathilde Chaineau, Carol X-Q Chen, Lenore K Beitel, Thomas M Durcan
Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop "first-of-their-kind" disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466008/raman-microscopy-insights-on-the-out-of-plane-electrical-transport-of-carbon-nanotube-doped-pedot-pss-electrodes-for-solar-cell-applications
#5
Dominique Mombrú, Mariano Romero, Ricardo Faccio, Alvaro W Mombrú
In the present report, we focused on the study of the out-of-plane electrical transport of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) composites (PEDOT:PSS-MWCNTs) as electrodes for solar cell applications. The out-of-plane direct current and alternating current electrical transport, rarely studied but not less relevant, was additionally supported with in-plane and out-of-plane confocal Raman microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering characterizations...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465126/effects-of-a-galacto-oligosaccharide-rich-diet-on-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolite-profiles-in-mice
#6
W Cheng, J Lu, W Lin, X Wei, H Li, X Zhao, A Jiang, J Yuan
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotics that positively affect the host's gut microbiota, which is important for the health of the host. Most previous studies focused on specific flora components (e.g. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus); very few have investigated the relationship between flora and metabolites. Here, we used 16S rRNA analysis and metabolomics to analyze the effect of GOS on microbiota and metabolites. Results show that the abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Oscillibacter decreased significantly in GOS-fed mice...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464087/3d-printed-masks-as-a-new-approach-for-immobilization-in-radiotherapy-a-study-of-positioning-accuracy
#7
Matthias Felix Haefner, Frederik Lars Giesel, Matthias Mattke, Daniel Rath, Moritz Wade, Jacob Kuypers, Alan Preuss, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Jens-Peter Schenk, Juergen Debus, Florian Sterzing, Roland Unterhinninghofen
We developed a new approach to produce individual immobilization devices for the head based on MRI data and 3D printing technologies. The purpose of this study was to determine positioning accuracy with healthy volunteers. 3D MRI data of the head were acquired for 8 volunteers. In-house developed software processed the image data to generate a surface mesh model of the immobilization mask. After adding an interface for the couch, the fixation setup was materialized using a 3D printer with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463315/x-chromosome-dosage-and-presence-of-sry-shape-sex-specific-differences-in-dna-methylation-at-an-autosomal-region-in-human-cells
#8
Bianca Ho, Keelin Greenlaw, Abeer Al Tuwaijri, Sanny Moussette, Francisco Martínez, Elisa Giorgio, Alfredo Brusco, Giovanni Battista Ferrero, Natália D Linhares, Eugênia R Valadares, Marta Svartman, Vera M Kalscheuer, Germán Rodríguez Criado, Catherine Laprise, Celia M T Greenwood, Anna K Naumova
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism in DNA methylation levels is a recurrent epigenetic feature in different human cell types and has been implicated in predisposition to disease, such as psychiatric and autoimmune disorders. To elucidate the genetic origins of sex-specific DNA methylation, we examined DNA methylation levels in fibroblast cell lines and blood cells from individuals with different combinations of sex chromosome complements and sex phenotypes focusing on a single autosomal region--the differentially methylated region (DMR) in the promoter of the zona pellucida binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) as a reporter...
February 20, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462691/factor-x-activating-atractaspis-snake-venoms-and-the-relative-coagulotoxicity-neutralising-efficacy-of-african-antivenoms
#9
Brice Oulion, James S Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Kevin Arbuckle, Callum Lister, Francisco C P Coimbra, Bianca Op den Brouw, Jordan Debono, Aymeric Rogalski, Aude Violette, Rudy Fourmy, Nathaniel Frank, Bryan G Fry
Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Bite reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. However, coagulation disturbances suggestive of procoagulant functions have been reported in some clinical cases, yet this aspect has been uninvestigated...
February 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458173/deregulation-of-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway-causes-susceptibility-of-dystrophin-deficient-myotubes-to-menadione-induced-oxidative-stress
#10
Su Jin Choi, Hye Sun Kim
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X chromosome-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Many previous studies reported that the skeletal muscles of DMD patients were more susceptible to oxidative stress than those of healthy people. However, not much has been known about the responsible mechanism of the differential susceptibility. In this study, we established dystrophin knock-down (DysKD) cell lines by transfection of dystrophin shRNA lentiviral particles into C2 cells and found that DysKD myotubes are more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress than control myotubes...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457172/inorganic-mixed-phase-templated-by-a-fatty-acid-monolayer-at-the-air-water-interface-the-mn-and-mg-case
#11
Alae El Haitami, Michel Goldmann, Philippe Fontaine, Marie-Claude Fauré, Sophie Cantin
We studied by means of Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXD) coupled with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy the structure of a behenic acid monolayer spread at the surface of Mg2+ /Mn2+ mixed aqueous solutions. For the pure Mg2+ and Mn2+ aqueous solutions, the cations induce at the surface different 2D lattice superstructures of the organic monolayer. These superstructures correspond to an inorganic organized monolayer anchored to the hydrophilic group of the ordered behenic acid monolayer. Among the various diffraction peaks, we focused on those characteristics of the behenic acid oblique cell...
February 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457145/fourier-domain-analysis-of-the-iterative-landweber-algorithm
#12
Gengsheng L Zeng, Ya Li
This paper proposes a novel method of using the frequency-domain transfer function to investigate the property of an iterative algorithm for minimizing a quadratic objective function. This paper focuses on a two-dimensional (2D) tomography problem, which can be X-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two questions regarding to the linear iterative Landweber algorithm are considered. The first question is whether stopping early is equivalent to getting a minimum-norm solution...
November 2017: IEEE Transactions on Radiation and Plasma Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456791/nonacidic-chemotype-possessing-n-acylated-piperidine-moiety-as-potent-farnesoid-x-receptor-fxr-antagonists
#13
Naoki Teno, Yukiko Yamashita, Yusuke Iguchi, Ko Fujimori, Mizuho Une, Tomoko Nishimaki-Mogami, Takie Hiramoto, Keigo Gohda
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. Antagonizing transcriptional activity of FXR is an effective means to treat the relevant metabolic syndrome. Some of antagonists so far have the charged functions; however, they may negatively affect the pharmacokinetics. We describe herein a structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration of nonacidic FXR antagonist 6 focusing on two regions in the structure and biological evaluation of nonacidic 10 with the characteristic N -acylated piperidine group obtained from SAR studies...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455056/bringing-diffuse-x-ray-scattering-into-focus
#14
REVIEW
Michael E Wall, Alexander M Wolff, James S Fraser
X-ray crystallography is experiencing a renaissance as a method for probing the protein conformational ensemble. The inherent limitations of Bragg analysis, however, which only reveals the mean structure, have given way to a surge in interest in diffuse scattering, which is caused by structure variations. Diffuse scattering is present in all macromolecular crystallography experiments. Recent studies are shedding light on the origins of diffuse scattering in protein crystallography, and provide clues for leveraging diffuse scattering to model protein motions with atomic detail...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454930/expanding-horizons-of-cryo-tomography-to-larger-volumes
#15
REVIEW
Michael Elbaum
The three dimensional ultrastructure of cells and tissues comes to light with tomography. There is an inherent tension between representing molecular detail at the highest possible resolution, on one hand, and visualizing spatial relations between large organelles or even neighboring cells in large volumes, on the other. Together with its advantages for pristine sample preservation, cryo-tomography brings particular constraints. A major challenge has been the restriction to specimens thinner than the typical cell...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454281/probing-the-%C3%AE-pocket-of-the-active-site-of-human-liver-glycogen-phosphorylase-with-3-c-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranosyl-5-4-substituted-phenyl-1-2-4-triazole-inhibitors
#16
Efthimios Kyriakis, Theodora G A Solovou, Sándor Kun, Katalin Czifrák, Béla Szőcs, László Juhász, Éva Bokor, George A Stravodimos, Anastassia L Kantsadi, Demetra S M Chatzileontiadou, Vassiliki T Skamnaki, László Somsák, Demetres D Leonidas
Human liver glycogen phosphorylase (hlGP), a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism, is a valid pharmaceutical target for the development of new anti-hyperglycaemic agents for type 2 diabetes. Inhibitor discovery studies have focused on the active site and in particular on glucopyranose based compounds with a β-1 substituent long enough to exploit interactions with a cavity adjacent to the active site, termed the β-pocket. Recently, C-β-d-glucopyranosyl imidazoles and 1, 2, 4-triazoles proved to be the best known glucose derived inhibitors of hlGP...
February 12, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453961/repeat-associated-non-aug-ran-translation-and-other-molecular-mechanisms-in-fragile-x-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#17
M Rebecca Glineburg, Peter K Todd, Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand, Chantal Sellier
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive intention tremor, gait ataxia and dementia associated with mild brain atrophy. The cause of FXTAS is a premutation expansion, of 55 to 200 CGG repeats localized within the 5'UTR of FMR1. These repeats are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions into mutants RNAs, which have increased expression in FXTAS. Furthermore, CGG sense and CCG antisense expanded repeats are translated into novel proteins despite their localization in putatively non-coding regions of the transcript...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453592/patient-specific-registration-of-3d-ct-angiography-cta-with-x-ray-fluoroscopy-for-image-fusion-during-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-tavi-increases-performance-of-the-procedure
#18
I Vernikouskaya, W Rottbauer, J Seeger, B Gonska, V Rasche, Jochen Wöhrle
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to adapt patient-specifically a co-registration procedure for image fusion (IF) of a pre-interventional CT dataset with real-time X-ray (XR) fluoroscopy during transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), enabling improved performance of the procedure. BACKGROUND: The ability to use 3D models of the respective anatomies to complement the anatomic information obtained by XR fluoroscopy and provide a greater degree of real-time anatomical guidance holds great potential for complex cardiac interventions, especially for TAVI procedures with cerebral protection...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453080/improvement-of-the-radiographic-method-for-measurement-of-effective-energy-of-pulsed-x-ray-emission-from-a-pf-device-for-different-anode-s-insert-materials
#19
Seyed Milad Miremad, Babak Shirani
In this paper, effective energy of pulsed X-Ray emitted from a Mather-type plasma focus device in stored energy of 2.5 kJ with six different anode's insert materials was measured using radiographic method with attenuation filters. Since intensity and energy of X-ray beam were considerably changed with changing the insert material, the method was improved by using different filters simultaneously in all the experiments and selection of the best filter in each experiment according to the appropriate criteria...
February 9, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451936/subtle-lisfranc-injuries-a-topical-review-and-modification-of-the-classification-system
#20
Brahman S Sivakumar, Vincent V G An, Colby Oitment, Mark Myerson
Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon. No specific incidence of subtle injuries has been reported; however, almost one-third are missed on initial review. These missed injuries are a common cause of litigation. Although seen in high-energy injuries with direct application of forces, they are also associated with lower-energy indirect mechanisms, often on the athletic field. This article provides a topical review of subtle Lisfranc disruptions, focusing on contemporary perspectives, and describes a modification to the most prevalent classification system...
February 16, 2018: Orthopedics
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