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Endosomal trafficking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922401/rab11-family-expression-in-the-human-placenta-localization-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#1
Elizabeth S Taglauer, Patrycja A Artemiuk, Sara R Hanscom, Andrew J Lindsay, Danielle Wuebbolt, Fionnuala M Breathnach, Elizabeth C Tully, Amir R Khan, Mary W McCaffrey
Rab proteins are a family of small GTPases involved in a variety of cellular processes. The Rab11 subfamily in particular directs key steps of intracellular functions involving vesicle trafficking of the endosomal recycling pathway. This Rab subfamily works through a series of effector proteins including the Rab11-FIPs (Rab11 Family-Interacting Proteins). While the Rab11 subfamily has been well characterized at the cellular level, its function within human organ systems is still being explored. In an effort to further study these proteins, we conducted a preliminary investigation of a subgroup of endosomal Rab proteins in a range of human cell lines by Western blotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#2
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899395/role-of-rab5-in-the-formation-of-macrophage-derived-foam-cell
#3
Lokwern Chan, Jin Hong, Junjie Pan, Jian Li, Zhichao Wen, Haiming Shi, Jianping Ding, Xinping Luo
BACKGROUND: Foam cells play a key role in the occurrence and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Its formation starts with the ingestion of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The process is associated with Ras related protein in brain 5 (Rab5) which plays a critical role in regulating endocytosis and early endosomal trafficking. Base on this, we presumed that Rab5 might participate in the maturation of foam cell. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Rab5 on macrophage cholesterol during the evolvement of macrophage when induced by oxLDL to the formation of foam cell...
September 12, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892043/loss-of-prp4k-drives-anoikis-resistance-in-part-by-dysregulation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-endosomal-trafficking
#4
D P Corkery, L E Clarke, S Gebremeskel, J Salsman, J Pinder, C Le Page, L Meunier, Z Xu, A-M Mes-Masson, J N Berman, B Johnston, G Dellaire
Anoikis acts as a critical barrier to metastasis by inducing cell death upon cancer cell detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby preventing tumor cell dissemination to secondary sites. The induction of anoikis requires the lysosomal-mediated downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) leading to termination of pro-survival signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that depletion of pre-mRNA splicing factor 4 kinase (PRP4K; also known as PRPF4B) causes dysregulation of EGFR trafficking and anoikis resistance...
September 11, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883040/genome-wide-sirna-screen-identifies-unc50-as-a-regulator-of-shiga-toxin-2-trafficking
#5
Andrey S Selyunin, Lakesla R Iles, Geoffrey Bartholomeusz, Somshuvra Mukhopadhyay
Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (STx1 and STx2) undergo retrograde trafficking to reach the cytosol. Early endosome-to-Golgi transport allows the toxins to evade degradation in lysosomes. Targeting this trafficking step has therapeutic promise, but the mechanism of trafficking for the more potent toxin STx2 is unclear. To identify host factors required for early endosome-to-Golgi trafficking of STx2, we performed a viability-based genome-wide siRNA screen in HeLa cells. 564, 535, and 196 genes were found to be required for toxicity induced by STx1 only, STx2 only, and both toxins, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875935/golgi-independent-secretory-trafficking-through-recycling-endosomes-in-neuronal-dendrites-and-spines
#6
Aaron B Bowen, Ashley M Bourke, Brian G Hiester, Cyril Hanus, Matthew J Kennedy
Neurons face the challenge of regulating the abundance, distribution and repertoire of integral membrane proteins within their immense, architecturally complex dendritic arbors. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) supports dendritic translation, most dendrites lack the Golgi apparatus (GA), an essential organelle for conventional secretory trafficking. Thus, whether secretory cargo is locally trafficked in dendrites through a non-canonical pathway remains a fundamental question. Here we define the dendritic trafficking itinerary for key synaptic molecules in rat cortical neurons...
August 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874679/the-endosomal-neuronal-proteins-nsg1-neep21-and-nsg2-p19-are-itinerant-not-resident-proteins-of-dendritic-endosomes
#7
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd McMahon, Bettina Winckler
Membrane traffic critically regulates most aspects of neuronal function. Neurons express many neuronal-specific proteins that regulate membrane traffic, including the poorly understood small transmembrane proteins neural-specific gene 1 and 2 (Nsg1/NEEP21 and Nsg2/P19). Nsg1 has been implicated in regulating endosomal recycling and sorting of several important neuronal receptors. Nsg2 is largely unstudied. At steady-state, Nsg1 and Nsg2 only partially co-localize with known endosomal compartments, and it was suggested that they mark a neuronal-specific endosome...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874464/mas1-receptor-trafficking-involves-erk1-2-activation-through-a-%C3%AE-arrestin2-dependent-pathway
#8
Flavia M Cerniello, Oscar A Carretero, Nadia A Longo Carbajosa, Bruno D Cerrato, Robson A Santos, Hernán E Grecco, Mariela M Gironacci
The MAS1 receptor (R) exerts protective effects in the brain, heart, vessels, and kidney. R trafficking plays a critical function in signal termination and propagation and in R resensitization. We examined MAS1R internalization and trafficking on agonist stimulation and the role of β-arrestin2 in the activation of ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt after MAS1R stimulation. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with the coding sequence for MAS1R-YFP (MAS1R fused to yellow fluorescent protein)...
September 5, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867611/erbb3-interacts-with-hrs-and-is-sorted-to-lysosomes-for-degradation
#9
Anne Marthe Fosdahl, Markus Dietrich, Kay O Schink, Muhammad Salman Malik, Marianne Skeie, Vibeke Bertelsen, Espen Stang
The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases mediates activation of a wide network of signaling pathways. ErbB3 has weak kinase activity, but its six docking sites for the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase make it an important contributor to proliferative signaling. ErbB3 has a relatively short half life but the exact mechanisms controlling its turnover are unclear as contradictory reports exist. ErbB-mediated signaling is, however, negatively regulated by endocytosis of the receptors, followed by either recycling or degradation...
August 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867190/modulation-of-rab5a-early-endosome-trafficking-in-response-to-kras-mediated-macropinocytic-fluxes-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#10
Christian Teske, Christine Schweitzer, Andrea Palamidessi, Daniela E Aust, Giorgio Scita, Jürgen Weitz, Thilo Welsch
KRAS is the key mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Emerging evidence indicates that KRas modulates endocytic uptake. The present study aimed to explore the fate of early endosomal trafficking under the control of KRas expression in PDAC. Surprisingly, PANC-1 cells lacking KRas exhibited significantly enlarged early and late endosomes containing internalized dextran and epidermal growth factor. Endosome enlargement was accompanied by reduced endosomal degradation. Both KRas silencing and lysosomal blockade caused an upregulation of the master regulator of early endosome biogenesis, RAB5A, which is likely responsible for the expansion of the early endosomal compartment, because simultaneous KRAS/RAB5A knockdown abolished endosome enlargement...
August 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865974/vacuolar-trafficking-and-biogenesis-a-maturation-in-the-field
#11
REVIEW
Carla Brillada, Marcela Rojas-Pierce
The vacuole is a prominent organelle that is essential for plant viability. The vacuole size, and its role in ion homeostasis, protein degradation and storage, place significant demands for trafficking of vacuolar cargo along the endomembrane system. Recent studies indicate that sorting of vacuolar cargo initiates at the ER and Golgi, but not the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, as previously thought. Furthermore, maturation of the trans-Golgi network into pre-vacuolar compartments seems to contribute to a major route for plant vacuolar traffic that works by bulk flow and ends with membrane fusion between the pre-vacuolar compartment and the tonoplast...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864821/timely-regulated-sorting-from-early-to-late-endosomes-is-required-to-maintain-cerebellar-long-term-depression
#12
Taegon Kim, Yukio Yamamoto, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto
An important feature of long-term synaptic plasticity is the prolonged maintenance of plastic changes in synaptic transmission. The trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) is involved in the expression of many forms of synaptic plasticity, yet the subsequent events accomplishing the maintenance of plastic changes in synaptic AMPAR numbers are not fully understood. Here, we find that maintenance of cerebellar long-term depression results from a reduction in the number of AMPARs residing within endocytic recycling pathways...
September 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861822/transient-expression-of-chimeric-fluorescent-reporter-proteins-in-pollen-tubes-to-study-protein-polar-secretion-and-dynamics
#13
Guitao Zhong, Ronghe Liu, Menglong Zhuang, Hao Wang
Transient expression of chimeric fluorescent reporter proteins by biolistic bombardment is a quick and useful procedure for studying subcellular protein localization and dynamics in plants. It is especially beneficial in specific plant cells which are not suitable for protoplast-based and Agrobacterium-mediated protein transient expression. Polar protein secretion and vesicular trafficking play essential functions for cell polarization and tip growth. The growing pollen tube is regarded as an ideal model plant cell system to study the machinery and regulation of polar protein trafficking and targeting...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860274/wdr91-is-a-rab7-effector-required-for-neuronal-development
#14
Kai Liu, Ruxiao Xing, Youli Jian, Zhiyang Gao, Xinli Ma, Xiaojuan Sun, Yang Li, Meng Xu, Xin Wang, Yudong Jing, Weixiang Guo, Chonglin Yang
Early-to-late endosome conversion, which is essential for delivery of endosomal cargoes to lysosomes, requires switching of early endosome-specific Rab5 and PtdIns3P to late endosome-specific Rab7 and PtdIns(3,5)P2 In this study, we identify the WD40-repeat protein WDR91 as a Rab7 effector that couples Rab switching with PtdIns3P down-regulation on endosomes. Loss of WDR91 greatly increases endosomal PtdIns3P levels, arresting endosomes at an intermediate stage and blocking endosomal-lysosomal trafficking. WDR91 is recruited to endosomes by interacting with active guanosine triphosophate-Rab7 and inhibits Rab7-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860124/quantitative-analysis-of-the-proteome-response-to-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-hdaci-vorinostat-in-niemann-pick-type-c1-disease
#15
Kanagaraj Subramanian, Navin Rauniyar, Mathieu Lavalleé-Adam, John R Yates, William E Balch
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder principally caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. NPC disease is characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (LE) (LE/Ly). Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), restores cholesterol homeostasis in fibroblasts derived from NPC patients; however, the exact mechanism by which Vorinostat restores cholesterol level is not known yet. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic profiling of the response of NPC1I1061T fibroblasts to Vorinostat...
August 31, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855648/the-two-pore-channel-tpc1-is-required-for-efficient-protein-processing-through-early-and-recycling-endosomes
#16
Jan Castonguay, Joachim H C Orth, Thomas Müller, Faten Sleman, Christian Grimm, Christian Wahl-Schott, Martin Biel, Robert Theodor Mallmann, Wolfgang Bildl, Uwe Schulte, Norbert Klugbauer
Two-pore channels (TPCs) are localized in endo-lysosomal compartments and assumed to play an important role for vesicular fusion and endosomal trafficking. Recently, it has been shown that both TPC1 and 2 were required for host cell entry and pathogenicity of Ebola viruses. Here, we investigate the cellular function of TPC1 using protein toxins as model substrates for distinct endosomal processing routes. Toxin uptake and activation through early endosomes but not processing through other compartments were reduced in TPC1 knockout cells...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852060/fmnl2-and-3-regulate-golgi-architecture-and-anterograde-transport-downstream-of-cdc42
#17
Frieda Kage, Anika Steffen, Adolf Ellinger, Carmen Ranftler, Christian Gehre, Cord Brakebusch, Margit Pavelka, Theresia Stradal, Klemens Rottner
The Rho-family small GTPase Cdc42 localizes at plasma membrane and Golgi complex and aside from protrusion and migration operates in vesicle trafficking, endo- and exocytosis as well as establishment and/or maintenance of cell polarity. The formin family members FMNL2 and -3 are actin assembly factors established to regulate cell edge protrusion during migration and invasion. Here we report these formins to additionally accumulate and function at the Golgi apparatus. As opposed to lamellipodia, Golgi targeting of these proteins required both their N-terminal myristoylation and the interaction with Cdc42...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852008/retrograde-trafficking-of-%C3%AE-dystroglycan-from-the-plasma-membrane-to-the-nucleus
#18
Viridiana Gracida-Jiménez, Ricardo Mondragón-González, Griselda Vélez-Aguilera, Alejandra Vásquez-Limeta, Marco S Laredo-Cisneros, Juan de Dios Gómez-López, Luis Vaca, Sarah C Gourlay, Laura A Jacobs, Steve J Winder, Bulmaro Cisneros
β-Dystroglycan (β-DG) is a transmembrane protein with critical roles in cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling and nuclear architecture. This functional diversity is attributed to the ability of β-DG to target to, and conform specific protein assemblies at the plasma membrane (PM) and nuclear envelope (NE). Although a classical NLS and importin α/β mediated nuclear import pathway has already been described for β-DG, the intracellular trafficking route by which β-DG reaches the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that β-DG undergoes retrograde intracellular trafficking from the PM to the nucleus via the endosome-ER network...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841567/breaking-in-and-busting-out-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-the-endosomal-escape-problem
#19
REVIEW
Julia C LeCher, Scott J Nowak, Jonathan L McMurry
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have long held great promise for the manipulation of living cells for therapeutic and research purposes. They allow a wide array of biomolecules from large, oligomeric proteins to nucleic acids and small molecules to rapidly and efficiently traverse cytoplasmic membranes. With few exceptions, if a molecule can be associated with a CPP, it can be delivered into a cell. However, a growing realization in the field is that CPP-cargo fusions largely remain trapped in endosomes and are eventually targeted for degradation or recycling rather than released into the cytoplasm or trafficked to a desired subcellular destination...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827576/arp2-3-complex-controls-t-cell-homeostasis-by-maintaining-surface-tcr-levels-via-regulating-tcr-endosome-trafficking
#20
Ye Zhang, Hao Shen, Haifeng Liu, Haiyun Feng, Yan Liu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Xiaolong Liu
T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is important for T cell homeostasis and function. However, how surface TCR levels are regulated and its biological significance on T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the T cell-specific deletion of Arpc2, a component of Arp2/3 complex, results in compromised peripheral T cell homeostasis. Arp2/3 complex-nucleated actin filaments are essential for maintaining surface TCR levels by regulating TCR(+) endosome trafficking in resting state and controlling polarization of TCR(+) endosomes during immune synapse formation in T cells...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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