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Immune cell function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352746/the-common-bean-cok-4-and-the-arabidopsis-fer-kinase-domain-share-similar-function-in-plant-growth-and-defense
#1
Rafhael Felipin Azevedo, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc, Maeli Melotto
Receptor-like kinases are membrane proteins that can be shared by diverse signaling pathways. Among them, the Arabidopsis thaliana FERONIA (FER) plays a role in the balance between distinct signals to control growth and defense. We have found that COK-4, a putative kinase encoded in the common bean anthracnose resistance locus Co-4 that is transcriptionally regulated during immune response, is highly similar to the kinase domain of FER. To assess whether COK-4 is a functional ortholog of FER, we expressed COK-4 in the wild type Col-0 and the fer-5 mutant of Arabidopsis and evaluated FER-associated traits...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352742/cambogin-suppresses-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-by-enhancing-treg-cell-stability-and-function
#2
Yue Lu, Na-Mi Kim, Yi-Wen Jiang, Hong Zhang, Dan Zheng, Fu-Xiang Zhu, Rui Liang, Bin Li, Hong-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract, and the dysfunction of immune regulation plays a critical role in IBD. Reflecting the limited use of current drugs and therapies for IBD treatment, it is necessary to explore novel drugs or therapies for this disease. We investigated the effect of cambogin in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and whether cambogin attenuates inflammation via Treg-cell-mediated immune modulation...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352298/hexokinase-ii-may-be-dispensable-for-cd4-t-cell-responses-against-a-virus-infection
#3
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Nissim Hay, Barry T Rouse
Activation of CD4 T cells leads to their metabolic reprogramming which includes enhanced glycolysis, catalyzed through hexokinase enzymes. Studies in some systems indicate that the HK2 isoform is the most up regulated isoform in activated T cells and in this report the relevance of this finding is evaluated in an infectious disease model. Genetic ablation of HK2 was achieved in only T cells and the outcome was evaluated by measures of T cell function. Our results show that CD4 T cells from both HK2 depleted and WT animals displayed similar responses to in vitro stimulation and yielded similar levels of Th1, Treg or Th17 subsets when differentiated in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352292/rna-seq-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-reveals-alterations-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
For Yue Tso, Andrew V Kossenkov, Salum J Lidenge, Owen Ngalamika, John R Ngowi, Julius Mwaiselage, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Eun Hee Kwon, John T West, Paul M Lieberman, Charles Wood
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352287/ifn%C3%AE-inhibits-g-csf-induced-neutrophil-expansion-and-invasion-of-the-cns-to-prevent-viral-encephalitis
#5
Chandran Ramakrishna, Edouard M Cantin
Emergency hematopoiesis facilitates the rapid expansion of inflammatory immune cells in response to infections by pathogens, a process that must be carefully regulated to prevent potentially life threatening inflammatory responses. Here, we describe a novel regulatory role for the cytokine IFNγ that is critical for preventing fatal encephalitis after viral infection. HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) is triggered by the invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In mice lacking IFNγ (GKO), we observed unrestrained increases in G-CSF levels but not in GM-CSF or IL-17...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352271/sex-disparity-in-cancer-roles-of-micrornas-and-related-functional-players
#6
REVIEW
Alessandra Carè, Maria Bellenghi, Paola Matarrese, Lucia Gabriele, Stefano Salvioli, Walter Malorni
A sexual dimorphism at the cellular level has been suggested to play a role in cancer onset and progression. In particular, very recent studies have unraveled striking differences between cells carrying XX or XY chromosomes in terms of response to stressful stimuli, indicating the presence of genetic and epigenetic differences determining sex-specific metabolic or phenotypic traits. Although this field of investigation is still in its infancy, available data suggest a key role of sexual chromosomes in determining cell life or death...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352264/cell-autonomous-role-of-iaspp-deficiency-in-causing-cardiocutaneous-disorders
#7
Zinaida Dedeić, Gopinath Sutendra, Ying Hu, Kathryn Chung, Elizabeth A Slee, Michael J White, Felix Y Zhou, Robert D Goldin, David J P Ferguson, Debra McAndrew, Jurgen E Schneider, Xin Lu
Desmosome components are frequently mutated in cardiac and cutaneous disorders in animals and humans and enhanced inflammation is a common feature of these diseases. Previous studies showed that inhibitor of Apoptosis Stimulating p53 Protein (iASPP) regulates desmosome integrity at cell-cell junctions and transcription in the nucleus, and its deficiency causes cardiocutaneous disorder in mice, cattle, and humans. As iASPP is a ubiquitously expressed shuttling protein with multiple functions, a key question is whether the observed cardiocutaneous phenotypes are caused by loss of a cell autonomous role of iASPP in cardiomyocytes and keratinocytes specifically or by a loss of iASPP in other cell types such as immune cells...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352114/binding-of-nufip2-to-roquin-promotes-recognition-and-regulation-of-icos-mrna
#8
Nina Rehage, Elena Davydova, Christine Conrad, Gesine Behrens, Andreas Maiser, Jenny E Stehklein, Sven Brenner, Juliane Klein, Aicha Jeridi, Anne Hoffmann, Eunhae Lee, Umberto Dianzani, Rob Willemsen, Regina Feederle, Kristin Reiche, Jörg Hackermüller, Heinrich Leonhardt, Sonia Sharma, Dierk Niessing, Vigo Heissmeyer
The ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding proteins Roquin-1 and Roquin-2 are essential for appropriate immune cell function and postnatal survival of mice. Roquin proteins repress target mRNAs by recognizing secondary structures in their 3'-UTRs and by inducing mRNA decay. However, it is unknown if other cellular proteins contribute to target control. To identify cofactors of Roquin, we used RNA interference to screen ~1500 genes involved in RNA-binding or mRNA degradation, and identified NUFIP2 as a cofactor of Roquin-induced mRNA decay...
January 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352091/precursors-of-human-cd4-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-identified-by-single-cell-transcriptome-analysis
#9
Veena S Patil, Ariel Madrigal, Benjamin J Schmiedel, James Clarke, Patrick O'Rourke, Aruna D de Silva, Eva Harris, Bjoern Peters, Gregory Seumois, Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Pandurangan Vijayanand
CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4-CTLs) have been reported to play a protective role in several viral infections. However, little is known in humans about the biology of CD4-CTL generation, their functional properties, and heterogeneity, especially in relation to other well-described CD4+ memory T cell subsets. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in more than 9000 cells to unravel CD4-CTL heterogeneity, transcriptional profile, and clonality in humans. Single-cell differential gene expression analysis revealed a spectrum of known transcripts, including several linked to cytotoxic and costimulatory function that are expressed at higher levels in the TEMRA (effector memory T cells expressing CD45RA) subset, which is highly enriched for CD4-CTLs, compared with CD4+ T cells in the central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) subsets...
January 19, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352002/intestinal-epithelial-cell-derived-lkb1-suppresses-colitogenic-microbiota
#10
Xia'nan Liu, Jinfeng Lu, Zhenshan Liu, Junjie Zhao, Hongxiang Sun, Ningbo Wu, Hongzhi Liu, Weiwei Liu, Zhuqin Hu, Guangxun Meng, Lei Shen, Aaron W Miller, Bing Su, Xiaoxia Li, Zizhen Kang
Dysregulation of the immune barrier function of the intestinal epithelium can often result in dysbiosis. In this study we report a novel role of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) -derived liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in suppressing colitogenic microbiota. IEC-specific deletion of LKB1 (LKB1ΔIEC) resulted in an increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and a definitive shift in the composition of the microbial population in the mouse intestine. Importantly, transfer of the microbiota from LKB1ΔIEC mice was sufficient to confer increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in wild-type recipient mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351999/mll1-promotes-il-7-responsiveness-and-survival-during-b-cell-differentiation
#11
Tao Gan, Bin E Li, Bibhu P Mishra, Kenneth L Jones, Patricia Ernst
B lymphocyte differentiation is an exquisitely regulated homeostatic process resulting in continuous production of appropriately selected B cells. Relatively small changes in gene expression can result in deregulation of this process, leading to acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), immune deficiency, or autoimmunity. Translocation of MLL1 (KMT2A) often results in a pro-B cell ALL, but little is known about its role in normal B cell differentiation. Using a Rag1-cre mouse knock-in to selectively delete Mll1 in developing lymphocytes, we show that B cell, but not T cell, homeostasis depends on MLL1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351928/mapping-and-quantification-of-over-2-000-o-linked-glycopeptides-in-activated-human-t-cells-with-isotope-targeted-glycoproteomics-isotag
#12
Christina M Woo, Peder J Lund, Andrew C Huang, Mark M Davis, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Sharon Pitteri
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins often function to regulate signaling cascades, with the activation of T cells during an adaptive immune response being a classic example.  Mounting evidence indicates that the modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), the only mammalian glycan found on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, helps regulate T cell activation.  Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how O-GlcNAc functions in T cell activation remains elusive, partly because of the difficulties in mapping and quantifying O-GlcNAc sites...
January 19, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351723/mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-subtle-regulators-of-cellular-redox-signaling
#13
Petr Jezek, Blanka Holendová, Keith D Garlid, Martin Jaburek
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria are the energetic, metabolic, redox and information signaling centers of the cell. Substrate pressure, mitochondrial network dynamics and cristae morphology state are integrated by the protonmotive force Δp or its potential component, ΔΨ, which are attenuated by proton backflux into the matrix, termed uncoupling. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) play an eminent role in the regulation of each of the above aspects, being involved in numerous physiological events including redox signaling...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#14
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351464/vitamin-d-and-regulation-of-vascular-cell-function
#15
Nasim Jamali, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
Vitamin D deficiency is linked to pathogenesis of many diseases including cardiovascular, cancer, and various eye diseases. In recent years, important roles for vitamin D in regulation of immune function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and aging have been demonstrated. Thus, vitamin D and its analogs have been evaluated for treatment of various types of cancer and chronic diseases. We previously showed that the active form of vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. This activity is consistent with the important role proposed for vitamin D and its analogs in the mitigation of tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351444/activated-human-t-lymphocytes-inhibit-tgf%C3%AE-induced-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation-via-prostaglandins-d2-and-e2
#16
Shannon H Lacy, Amali P Epa, Stephen J Pollock, Collynn F Woeller, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
In pulmonary fibrosis (PF), fibroblasts and myofibroblasts proliferate and deposit excessive extracellular matrix in the interstitium, impairing normal lung function. As most forms of PF have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options, PF represents an urgent unmet need for novel, effective therapeutics. While the role of immune cells in lung fibrosis is unclear, recent studies suggest that T lymphocyte (T cell) activation may be impaired in PF patients. Further, we have previously shown that activated T cells can produce prostaglandins with anti-scarring potential...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350881/interferon-induced-protein-35-ifi35-inhibits-endothelial-cell-proliferation-migration-and-re-endothelialization-of-injured-arteries-by-inhibiting-the-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-kb-pathway
#17
Dongdong Jian, Weina Wang, Xinmiao Zhou, Zhen Jia, Jing Wang, Mei Yang, Wenting Zhao, Zhen Jiang, Xiaotong Hu, Jianhua Zhu
AIM: Endothelial recovery, or re-endothelialization, plays an important role in intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis after endothelial injury. Studying the mechanisms of re-endothelialization and strategies to promote efficient endothelial recovery are still needed. Interferon-induced protein 35 (IFI35) is an IFN-γ-induced protein that plays important roles in the anti-virus-related immune-inflammatory response. In this study, we tested whether overexpression IFI35 affects the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) and re-endothelialization...
January 19, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350876/mechanism-of-mer-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-of-glomerular-endothelial-cell-inflammation
#18
Yuxuan Zhen, Fred D Finkelman, Wen-Hai Shao
Endotoxin induces a variety of proinflammatory mediators and plays a crucial role in kidney inflammation. The receptor tyrosine kinase, Mer, diminishes renal inflammation by attenuating inflammatory responses. We previously reported that Mer is predominantly expressed on glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) and that Mer deficiency is associated with increased renal inflammation when mice are challenged with nephrotoxic serum. We consequently hypothesized that Mer signaling down-regulates LPS-driven inflammatory responses in GECs...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350825/ang-ii-facilitated-cd11-ly6chi-cells-reprogramming-into-m1-like-macrophage-through-erk1-2-or-p38-stat3-pathway-and-involved-in-eam
#19
Hongxiang Lu, Yan Wu, Xiaoyi Shao, Shanshan Zhou, Yuanyuan Jiang, Rong Chen, Gangjun Zong, Huaxi Xu, Zhaoliang Su
Macrophage, a highly plastic population, is widely distributed. Macrophage functions are settled and acquired polarization programs in response to microenvironmental signals and involved in many inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Phenotypic and functional changes in macrophage are considered as an important determinant of disease progression and/or regression. Angiotensin II (ANG II), as a powerful proinflammatory factor, plays critical roles in inflammatory diseases and macrophage recruitment...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350748/protective-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression-and-irradiation-injury-in-mice
#20
Xingchen Zhai, Xin Yang, Pan Zou, Yong Shao, Shoujun Yuan, A M Abd El-Aty, Jing Wang
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS-stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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