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S Thillainathan, M Z Mariyaselvam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Andrea Guerrini, Vania Vigolo, Giulia Romano, Federico Testa
The backwardness of the water utilities sector necessitates urgent investment in infrastructure to improve water quality and efficiency in water supply networks. A policy of tariff growth represents the main source to sustain such investments. Therefore, customer engagement in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) is highly desirable by water utilities to obtain social legitimization and support. This study examines the determinants of consumers' WTP for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: quality of water sources, renewal of water mains, and building of new wastewater treatment plants...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Francesco Saverio Mennini, Gianluca Fabiano, Andrea Marcellusi, Paolo Sciattella, Mario Saia, Silvia Cocchio, Vincenzo Baldo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: HPV (human papillomavirus) is the virus most often responsible for sexually transmitted infections. The burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources represents a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of HPV-related diseases (anal cancer, genital cancer, genital warts, oropharyngeal cancer) on hospital resources in two Italian regions. METHODS: A retrospective, non-randomized, observational study was developed in the Marche and Veneto Regions, based on patients receiving hospitalization between 2008 and 2011...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
Karina Jahnz-Różyk, Pawel Kawalec, Krzysztof Malinowski, Katarzyna Czok
We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e...
September 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
Matthew Franklin, Katherine Payne, Rachel A Elliott
BACKGROUND: Intuitively, health and capability are distinct but linked concepts. This study aimed to quantify the link between a measure of health status (EQ-5D-3L) and capability (ICECAP-O) using regression-based methods. METHODS: EQ-5D-3L and ICECAP-O data were collected from a sample of older people ( n = 584), aged over 65 years, requiring a hospital visit and/or care home resident, and recruited to one of 3 studies forming the Medical Crisis in Older People (MCOP) program in England...
October 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Jack Cunliffe, James Martin, David Décary-Hétu, Judith Aldridge
BACKGROUND: Australia has a reputation as an anomaly with regard to cryptomarket drug trading, with seemingly disproportionately high levels of activity given its relatively small size, high prices and anecdotal accounts of it being a destination where many foreign-based vendors will not sell. This paper aims to investigate these claims from a risk and prices perspective. METHODS: By analysing data for over 60,000 drug products available for purchase from eight cryptomarkets in January 2016 this work builds a descriptive picture of the Australian online market in comparison to the rest of the world, before moving onto analyse the prices of drugs available to Australian consumers, both online and though conventional drug supply routes...
October 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Esra Aleisa, Waleed Al-Zubari
Reuse of treated wastewater is not only environmentally and financially sound, it is becoming indispensable for meeting the staggering water demand in certain regions, especially under conditions of alarming water scarcity. Reusing treated wastewater will help in reducing the pressure on expensive desalinated water production and depleting groundwater withdrawal, thereby reducing associated harmful environmental impacts. Reuse of wastewater in general and in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in particular has been a priority research area and has been in the media spotlight for some time, especially the use of tertiary quality water resources for agricultural purposes...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Luz Cánovas, Antonio-José Carrascosa, Modesto García, Mariano Fernández, Almudena Calvo, Vicente Monsalve, José-Francisco Soriano
Objective: To assess the impact of the empathy of physicians, perceived by patients with chronic pain, regarding pain relief and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). Methods: A prospective noninterventional study was conducted in 2,898 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain who were referred to pain clinics. The same physician visited each patient at baseline and after one and three months. Study questionnaires included the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perceptions of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Pain Coping Questionnaire (CAD-R), the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF), and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D)...
July 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Simon Claridge, Frederic A Sebag, Steven Fearn, Jonathan M Behar, Bradley Porter, Tom Jackson, Benjamin Sieniewicz, Justin Gould, Jessica Webb, Zhong Chen, Mark O'Neill, Jaswinder Gill, Christophe Leclercq, Christopher A Rinaldi
OBJECTIVE: Responders to cardiac resynchronisation therapy whose device has a defibrillator component and who do not receive a therapy in the lifetime of the first generator have a very low incidence of appropriate therapy after box change. We investigated the cost implications of using a risk stratification tool at the time of generator change resulting in these patients being reimplanted with a resynchronisation pacemaker. METHODS: A decision tree was created using previously published data which had demonstrated an annualised appropriate defibrillator therapy risk of 2...
September 29, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
F Silva Pinto, R Cunha Marques
Water utilities face different challenges that may force them to seek prioritized objectives. When doing so, particular projects may have to be developed, being important to understand their impact on water tariffs, and thus, on customers. Such consequences may bear an increased relevance in cases stressed with, e.g., resource scarcity, poverty, and the need for infrastructure investments. The resulting cost and revenue variability demand a comprehensive study. If the first may require a stochastic modeling (in major cost components) in order to consider its inherent uncertainty, the second needs to be modeled following context-specific objectives set by the relevant stakeholders...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Paweł Kawalec, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Wojciech Trąbka
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the involvement of advisory bodies in the reimbursement decision-making process in Poland, and to evaluate variables that influenced health technology assessment (HTA) recommendations in the years 2013-2015. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Two independent contributors reviewed the statements of the Transparency Council (TC), recommendations issued by the president of the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji [AOTMiT]), and reimbursement decisions of the Ministry of Health (MoH) for the years 2013-2015 and publicly available online...
September 27, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Marina Di Giacomo, Massimiliano Piacenza, Luigi Siciliani, Gilberto Turati
We study how changes in Diagnosis-Related Group price regulation affect hospital behaviour in quasi-markets with exclusive provision by public hospitals. Exploiting a quasi-natural experiment, we use a difference-in-differences approach to test whether public hospitals respond to an exogenous change in Diagnosis-Related Group tariffs by increasing C-section rates and/or by upcoding. Controlling for a detailed set of mother characteristics, we find that price changes did not affect the probability of a C-section...
September 2017: Health Economics
Marissa Blieden, Shravanthi R Gandra, Lung-I Cheng, Anna Szatkowski, Peter P Toth
AIMS: Utility values inform estimates of the cost-effectiveness of treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but values can vary depending on the method used. The aim of this systematic literature review (SLR) was to explore how methods of elicitation impact utility values for CVD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified English-language articles in Embase, MEDLINE, and the grey literature published between September 1992 and August 2015 using keywords for 'utilities' and 'stroke,' 'heart failure,' 'myocardial infarction,' or 'angina...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Evelina Bertranou, Carolyn Bodnar, Viktor Dansk, Alastair Greystoke, Samuel Large, Matthew Dyer
AIM: This study presents the cost-utility analysis that was developed to inform the NICE health technology assessment of osimertinib vs platinum-based doublet chemotherapy (PDC) in patients with EGFR-T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progressed on epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A partitioned survival model with three health states (progression-free, progressed disease, and death) from a UK payer perspective and over lifetime (15 years) was developed...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Kaisa Taipale, Katherine B Winfree, Mark Boye, Mickael Basson, Ghassan Sleilaty, James Eaton, Rachel Evans, Christos Chouaid
BACKGROUND: Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness data for induction-maintenance (I-M) sequences for the treatment of patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (nsqNSCLC) are limited because of a lack of direct evidence. This analysis aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of I-M pemetrexed with those of other I-M regimens used for the treatment of patients with advanced nsqNSCLC in the French health-care setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previously developed global partitioned survival model was adapted to the France-only setting by restricting treatment sequences to include 12 I-M regimens most relevant to France, and incorporating French costs and resource-use data...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Ben Kumwenda, Jennifer A Cleland, Kim Walker, Amanda J Lee, Rachel Greatrix
OBJECTIVES: Differential attainment in school examinations is one of the barriers to increasing student diversity in medicine. However, studies on the predictive validity of prior academic achievement and educational performance at medical school are contradictory, possibly due to single-site studies or studies which focus only on early years' performance. To address these gaps, we examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, including school type and average educational performance throughout medical school across a large number of diverse medical programmes...
August 31, 2017: BMJ Open
T E F Abbott, A J Fowler, T D Dobbs, E M Harrison, M A Gillies, R M Pearse
Background: Despite evidence of high activity, the number of surgical procedures performed in UK hospitals, their cost and subsequent mortality remain unclear. Methods: Time-trend ecological study using hospital episode data from England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The primary outcome was the number of in-hospital procedures, grouped using three increasingly specific categories of surgery. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, length of hospital stay and healthcare costs according to standard National Health Service tariffs...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Johannes Neimann, Julia Knabl, Julian Puppe, Christian Michael Bayer, Paul Gass, Lena Gabriel, Birgit Seelbach-Goebel, Johannes Lermann, Sarah Schott
BACKGROUND: Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. METHOD: This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care...
August 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Yue Zhao, Shun-Ping Li, Liu Liu, Jiang-Lin Zhang, Gang Chen
There is an increasing trend globally to develop country-specific tariffs that can theoretically better reflect population's preferences on health states for preference-based health-related quality-of-life instruments, also known as multiattribute utility instruments. This study focused on the most recently developed 5-level version of EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire, 1 of the world's most well-known multiattribute utility instruments, and aimed to empirically explore the agreements and known-group validities of applying the country-specific tariff versus tariffs developed from other countries using a sample of psoriasis vulgaris patients in Mainland China...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Julio López-Bastida, Luz María Peña-Longobardo, Isaac Aranda-Reneo, Eduardo Tizzano, Mark Sefton, Juan Oliva-Moreno
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and their caregivers in Spain. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients diagnosed with SMA in Spain. We adopted a bottom up, prevalence approach design to study patients with SMA. The patient's caregivers completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, use of healthcare services and non-healthcare services...
August 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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