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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080997/tackling-emerging-fungal-threats-to-animal-health-food-security-and-ecosystem-resilience
#1
Matthew C Fisher, Neil A R Gow, Sarah J Gurr
Emerging infections caused by fungi have become a widely recognized global phenomenon. Their notoriety stems from their causing plagues and famines, driving species extinctions, and the difficulty in treating human mycoses alongside the increase of their resistance to antifungal drugs. This special issue comprises a collection of articles resulting from a Royal Society discussion meeting examining why pathogenic fungi are causing more disease now than they did in the past, and how we can tackle this rapidly emerging threat to the health of plants and animals worldwide...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080991/minimizing-fungal-disease-deaths-will-allow-the-unaids-target-of-reducing-annual-aids-deaths-below-500-000-by-2020-to-be-realized
#2
REVIEW
David W Denning
Deaths from AIDS (1 500 000 in 2013) have been falling more slowly than anticipated with improved access to antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections account for most AIDS-related mortality, with a median age of death in the mid-30s. About 360 000 (24%) of AIDS deaths are attributed to tuberculosis. Fungal infections deaths in AIDS were estimated at more than 700 000 deaths (47%) annually. Rapid diagnostic tools and antifungal agents are available for these diseases and would likely have a major impact in reducing deaths...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080987/ploidy-dynamics-and-evolvability-in-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Noa Blutraich Wertheimer, Neil Stone, Judith Berman
Rapid responses to acute stresses are essential for stress survival and are critical to the ability of fungal pathogens to adapt to new environments or hosts. The rapid emergence of drug resistance is used as a model for how fungi adapt and survive stress conditions that inhibit the growth of progenitor cells. Aneuploidy and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which are large-scale genome shifts involving whole chromosomes or chromosome arms, occur at higher frequency than point mutations and have the potential to mediate stress survival...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#4
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080217/synergistic-effects-of-tetrandrine-with-posaconazole-against-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Ling Jiang, Ya-Jing Zhao, Hui Guo, Dong-Mei Li, Kun-Ju Zhu, Hong Zhang
In our earlier in vitro and in vivo studies, synergistic effects were observed when itraconazole or voriconazole were combined with tetrandrine (TET) against Aspergillus fumigatus, and the synergistic mechanism was related to inhibition of the drug efflux pump. Posaconazole (PCZ) is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of diverse fungal infections, including aspergillosis and candidiasis. Herein, the antifungal effects of TET are further investigated in vitro and in vivo alone or combined with PCZ against 20 clinical isolates of A...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079179/transcriptome-and-network-analyses-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-reveal-that-amphotericin-b-and-lactoferrin-synergy-disrupt-metal-homeostasis-and-stress-response
#6
Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Yu-Wen Lai, Leona T Campbell, Sharon C-A Chen, Dee A Carter, Marc R Wilkins
Invasive fungal infections are difficult to treat. The few available antifungal drugs have problems with toxicity or efficacy, and resistance is increasing. To overcome these challenges, existing therapies may be enhanced by synergistic combination with another agent. Previously, we found amphotericin B (AMB) and the iron chelator, lactoferrin (LF), were synergistic against a range of different fungal pathogens. This study investigates the mechanism of AMB-LF synergy, using RNA-seq and network analyses. AMB treatment resulted in increased expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and ATP synthesis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077256/montivipera-bornmuelleri-venom-selectively-exhibits-high-cytotoxic-effects-on-keratinocytes-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Saly Sawan, Tania Yaacoub, Souad Hraoui-Bloquet, Riyad Sadek, Walid Hleihel, Ziad Fajloun, Marc Karam
CONTEXT: The Viperidae family venom is a rich source of bioactive compounds such as many proteases, which cause tissue necrosis and affect mostly the vascular system. However, the venom exhibits therapeutic potentials and has contributed to the development of some medical drugs. Specifically, the Montivipera bornmuelleri venom has shown to exhibit antibacterial, pro-inflammatory and antifungal activities. OBJECTIVE: This work evaluates the cytotoxic effect of the M...
January 8, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074055/effects-of-two-6-quinolinyl-chalcones-on-the-integrity-of-plasma-membrane-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#8
Nívea P de Sá, Patrícia S Cisalpino, Luciana C Tavares, Leandro Espíndola, Beatriz M Borelli, Paulo Js Barbeira, Gabriele de Matos Cardoso Perdigão, Elaine M Souza-Fagundes, Carlos A Rosa, Moacir G Pizzolatti, Susana Johann
Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, yet few therapeutic options exist. Our aim was to search for new compounds with high efficacy, low toxicity, shorter treatment time and affordable cost. We studied two synthetic 6-quinolinyl chalcones, 3b and 3e, to determine their effects on VERO cells, antifungal activity, survival curve, interaction with other drugs and phenotypic effects against several isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. In this study, we verified that the compounds were not toxic, exhibited superior in vitro activity compared with that shown by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and after 5 days of treatment, decreased the fungal cell viability by approximately 70%...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074052/kribellosides-novel-rna-5-triphosphatase-inhibitors-from-the-rare-actinomycete-kribbella-sp-mi481-42f6
#9
Masayuki Igarashi, Ryuichi Sawa, Manabu Yamasaki, Chigusa Hayashi, Maya Umekita, Masaki Hatano, Toshinobu Fujiwara, Kiyohisa Mizumoto, Akio Nomoto
Yeast capping enzymes differ greatly from those of mammalian, both structurally and mechanistically. Yeast-type capping enzyme repressors are therefore candidate antifungal drugs. The 5'-guanine-N7 cap structure of mRNAs are an essential feature of all eukaryotic organisms examined to date and is the first co-transcriptional modification of cellular pre-messenger RNA. Inhibitors of the RNA 5'-triphosphatase in yeast are likely to show fungicidal effects against pathogenic yeast such as Candida. We discovered a new RNA 5'-triphosphatase inhibitor, designated as the kribellosides, by screening metabolites from actinomycetes...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072824/d19s-mutation-of-the-cationic-cysteine-rich-protein-paf-novel-insights-into-its-structural-dynamics-thermal-unfolding-and-antifungal-function
#10
Christoph Sonderegger, Ádám Fizil, Laura Burtscher, Dorottya Hajdu, Alberto Muñoz, Zoltán Gáspári, Nick D Read, Gyula Batta, Florentine Marx
The cysteine-rich, cationic, antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the culture supernatant of the filamentous Ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum. The five β-strands of PAF form a compact β-barrel that is stabilized by three disulphide bonds. The folding of PAF allows the formation of four surface-exposed loops and distinct charged motifs on the protein surface that might regulate the interaction of PAF with the sensitive target fungus. The growth inhibitory activity of this highly stable protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens provides great potential in antifungal drug research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066940/comparison-of-two-long-term-gestagen-regimens-in-the-management-of-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-a-pilot-study
#11
Jiří Špaček, Jan Kestřánek, Petr Jílek, Daniel Leško, Silvie Plucnarová, Vladimír Buchta
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a hormonal-dependent infection but in contrast to sporadic VVC, therapy of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is still unsolved. Long-term administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate was evaluated for the management of RVVC. Overall, 20 patients were treated with Depo-Provera; 14 patients were treated with Provera. Gestagen therapy was evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS), the frequency of attacks, the side effects of gestagens and the consumption of antifungals...
January 9, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066103/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-topical-sertaconazole-versus-topical-terbinafine-in-localized-dermatophytosis-a-randomized-observer-blind-parallel-group-study
#12
Dattatreyo Chatterjee, Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Sukanta Sen, Saswati Sarkar, Avijit Hazra, Radharaman De
OBJECTIVE: Epidermal dermatophyte infections most commonly manifest as tinea corporis or tinea cruris. Topical azole antifungals are commonly used in their treatment but literature suggests that most require twice-daily application and provide lower cure rates than the allylamine antifungal terbinafine. We conducted a head-to-head comparison of the effectiveness of the once-daily topical azole, sertaconazole, with terbinafine in these infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized, observer-blind, parallel group study (Clinical Trial Registry India [CTRI]/2014/09/005029) with adult patients of either sex presenting with localized lesions...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065932/analytical-studies-on-ascosin-candicidin-and-levorin-multicomponent-antifungal-antibiotic-complexes-the-stereostructure-of-ascosin-a2
#13
Paweł Szczeblewski, Tomasz Laskowski, Bartosz Kubacki, Marta Dziergowska, Magda Liczmańska, Jakub Grynda, Paweł Kubica, Agata Kot-Wasik, Edward Borowski
In the class of polyene macrolides, there is a subgroup of aromatic heptaenes, which exhibit the highest antifungal activity within this type of antibiotics. Yet, due to their complex nature, aromatic heptaenes were not extensively studied and their potential as drugs is currently underexploited. Moreover, there are many inconsistencies in the literature regarding the composition and the structures of the individual components of the aromatic heptaene complexes. Inspired by one of such cases, herein we conducted the analytical studies on ascosin, candicidin and levorin using HPLC-DAD-(ESI)Q-TOF techniques...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063967/an-innovative-polysaccharide-nanobased-nail-formulation-for-improvement-of-onychomycosis-treatment
#14
Fernanda C Flores, Roberta S Rosso, Letícia Cruz, Ruy C R Beck, Cristiane B Silva
Tioconazole-loaded nanocapsule suspensions and its coating with a cationic polymer were developed for nail drug delivery. The colloidal systems presented a nanometric size around 155nm for uncoated nanoparticles and 162nm for those with the cationic coating, with negative and positive zeta potential values, respectively. Both nanosuspensions showed drug content close to theoretical values (1mgmL(-1)), association efficiency close to 100% (HPLC) and were able to control tioconazol release. The developed formulations showed in vitro antifungal activity (agar diffusion method) against C...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061322/long-pulsed-1064-nm-nd-yag-laser-for-the-treatment-of-onychomycosis
#15
Domenico Piccolo, Dimitra Kostaki, Ester Del Duca, Giovanni Cannarozzo, Mario Sannino, Steven Nisticò
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser in penetrating tissue and targeting the fungal overgrowth in the nail plate. BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is the most frequent nail disorder. Current treatments include oral and topical antifungal agents, photodynamic therapy, and surgical approaches such as mechanical, chemical, or surgical nail avulsion. Moreover, the use of lasers to treat nail diseases has been approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
December 30, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061020/a-p4-atpase-subunit-of-the-cdc50-family-plays-a-role-in-iron-acquisition-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#16
Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Erik Bakkeren, Matthias Kretschmer, Gaurav Bairwa, Ethan Reiner, James Kronstad
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans delivers virulence factors such as capsule polysaccharide to the cell surface to cause disease in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we screened for mutants sensitive to the secretion inhibitor brefeldin A to identify secretory pathway components that contribute to virulence. We identified an ortholog of the Cdc50 family of the non-catalytic subunit of type IV P-type ATPases (flippases) that establish phospholipid asymmetry in membranes and function in vesicle-mediated trafficking...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058254/special-issue-novel-antifungal-drug-discovery
#17
Maurizio Del Poeta
This Special Issue is designed to highlight the latest research and development on new antifungal compounds with mechanisms of action different from the ones of polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. The papers presented here highlight new pathways and targets that could be exploited for the future development of new antifungal agents to be used alone or in combination with existing antifungals. A computational model for better predicting antifungal drug resistance is also presented.
December 2016: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058135/should-we-administer-antifungal-drugs-before-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infection-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients
#18
Andrea Cortegiani, Vincenzo Russotto, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Cesare Gregoretti, Antonino Giarratano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057425/oral-phaeohyphomycosis-in-a-patient-with-squamocellular-carcinoma-of-the-lip-second-case-report
#19
Suanni Lemos de Andrade, André Ferraz Goiana Leal, Armando Marsden Lacerda Filho, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira Macêdo, Maria do Carmo Carvalho de Abreu E Lima, Rejane Pereira Neves
This communication reports the second known case of oral phaeohyphomycosis in a patient with squamocellular carcinoma of the lip. The patient, an 82-year-old black woman, a former smoker (for more than 30 years), suffering from an ulcerous vegetative lesion in the middle third of the lower lip for approximately 12 months. The result of the histopathological analysis indicated carcinoma, with well-differentiated keratinized squamous cells and the presence of septate mycelial filaments. In the direct mycological examination, thick and dematiaceous septate mycelial filaments were observed...
December 22, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057172/substrate-specificity-of-human-cytochrome-p450-cyp-2c-subfamily-and-effect-of-azole-antifungal-agents-on-cyp2c8
#20
Toshiro Niwa, Yurie Imagawa
PURPOSE: The metabolic activities of aminopyrine N-demethylation and tolbutamide methylhydroxylation by the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C subfamily were compared and the effects of azole antifungal agent on the drug-metabolizing activity of CYP2C8 were investigated. METHODS: Aminopyrine N-demethylation and tolbutamide methylhydroxylation by CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 were determined by the previous reported methods. The effects of five azole antifungal agents, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and voriconazole, on the aminopyrine N-demethylation activity by CYP2C8 were investigated...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
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