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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679465/generating-anchors-only-to-lose-them-the-unusual-story-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor-biosynthesis-and-remodeling-in-yeast-and-fungi
#1
REVIEW
Sneha Sudha Komath, Sneh Lata Singh, Vavilala A Pratyusha, Sudisht Kumar Sah
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are present ubiquitously at the cell surface in all eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in the interaction of the cell with its external environment, allowing the cell to receive signals, respond to challenges, and mediate adhesion. In yeast and fungi, they also participate in the structural integrity of the cell wall and are often essential for survival. Roughly four decades after the discovery of the first GPI-APs, this review provides an overview of the insights gained from studies of the GPI biosynthetic pathway and the future challenges in the field...
May 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677130/lipid-biosynthesis-as-an-antifungal-target
#2
REVIEW
Jiao Pan, Cuiting Hu, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Lipids, commonly including phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols, and triacylglycerols (TAGs), are important biomolecules for the viability of all cells. Phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols are important constituents of biological membranes. Many lipids play important roles in the regulation of cell metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Neutral lipids, including TAGs and sterol esters (STEs), are important storage lipids in cells. In view of the importance of lipid molecules, this review briefly summarizes the metabolic pathways for sterols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, fatty acids, and neutral lipids in fungi and illustrates the differences between fungal and human (or other mammalian) cells, especially in relation to lipid biosynthetic pathways...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677084/voriconazole-treatment-for-an-infant-with-intractable-candida-glabrata-meningitis
#3
Sophia Tsakiri, Chiamaka Aneji, Christine Domonoske, Lynnette Mazur, Daniel K Benjamin, Susan H Wootton
We report voriconazole levels in an infant with disseminated Candida glabrata infection who received combination antifungal therapy and rescue voriconazole treatment. Serum and CSF voriconazole levels were higher than anticipated and above target. Dose reduction did not lead to a reduction in the blood or CSF levels. The patient did not exhibit identifiable drug toxicity.
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676953/overinduction-of-the-cyp51a-gene-after-exposure-to-azole-antifungals-provides-a-first-clue-to-the-resistance-mechanism-in-the-fusarium-solani-species-complex
#4
Maurine D'Agostino, Thomas Lemmet, Claire Dufay, Amandine Luc, Jean Pol Frippiat, Marie Machouart, Anne Debourgogne
The genus Fusarium is largely represented in fungal infections, not only mostly in plants but also in humans. Fungi belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are those that are most frequently isolated in invasive fusariosis and present elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations for the main antifungal drugs used in medicine. This study is the first to investigate the resistance mechanism in FSSC by monitoring CYP51A expression in the presence of azole antifungals. After exposure to voriconazole, an overinduction of CYP51A was observed irrespective of the concentration of antifungal used and the generation studied...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675561/de-escalation-of-antifungal-treatment-in-critically-ill-patients-with-suspected-invasive-candida-infection-incidence-associated-factors-and-safety
#5
Karim Jaffal, Julien Poissy, Anahita Rouze, Sébastien Preau, Boualem Sendid, Marjorie Cornu, Saad Nseir
BACKGROUND: Antifungal treatment is common in critically ill patients, but only a small proportion of patients receiving antifungals have a proven fungal infection. However, antifungal treatment has side effects such as toxicity, emergence of resistance, and high cost. Moreover, empirical antifungal treatment is still a matter for debate in these patients. Our study aimed to determine the incidence, associated factors, and safety of de-escalation of antifungals in critically ill patients...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673771/posaconazole-vs-voriconazole-in-the-prevention-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-a-retrospective-study
#6
L Tang, X-F Yang, M Qiao, L Zhang, X-W Tang, H-Y Qiu, D-P Wu, A-N Sun
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole is superior to fluconazole or itraconazole in preventing invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in patients with haematological malignancies; however, there have been reports of the comparing posaconazole and voriconazole. METHODS: This single-centre, retrospective study in China enrolled AML, ALL and MDS patients, among others. Prophylaxis with posaconazole or voriconazole was administered for patients recovering from neutropenia or who had achieved complete remission...
April 16, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673562/candida-tropicalis-burn-wound-sepsis-a-series-of-histopathology-confirmed-cases
#7
Chunjie Fan, Qingfen Tian, Guobao Huang, Lei Zhang, Qiuhe Wu, Keyan Zhang
Fungal infection in severely burned patients is a serious problem due to various factors, such as the extensive application of antibiotics. In this study, we report on the course of severely burned patients with Candida tropicalis burn wound sepsis. Five such cases were reviewed. The patients were treated with itraconazole intravenously and simultaneous antibiotics to prevent bacterial infections. In addition, dermabrasion was used to excise the eschar and the wound surface was covered immediately with dermatoplasty...
April 16, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671455/an-improved-synthesis-of-pyrido-2-3-d-pyrimidin-4-1h-ones-and-their-antimicrobial-activity
#8
Mohamed Fares, Soha R Abd El Hadi, Radwa A Eladwy, Aly A Shoun, Marwa M Abdel-Aziz, Wagdy M Eldehna, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz, Paul A Keller
The screening of a small library of diverse chemical structures resulted in the identification of 2-thioxodihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine 10a as having broad spectrum antibacterial activity (MIC 0.49-3.9 μg mL-1), and reasonable antifungal activity (MIC 31.25 μg mL-1). An expeditious synthesis of 10a was optimized by varying solvents, catalysts and the use of microwave irradiation with the best conditions using DMF as a solvent, I2 (10 mol%) and a 30 minutes reaction time compared to 15 h for classic conventional heating...
April 19, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671087/severe-adverse-reactions-following-ketoconazole-fluconazole-and-environmental-exposures-a-case-report
#9
Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
In this case report, we describe a 66-year-old man who developed multiple adverse reactions beginning at age 56 after exposure to several azole antifungal drugs including ketoconazole and fluconazole. He also had a history of more than 40 years exposure to chemicals including pesticides, wood preservatives, fertilizers, and welding chemicals. His reactions involved dehydration (requiring several liters of intravenous fluids in less than an hour to alleviate this condition), angioedema, nausea, tinnitus, hypotension, and difficulty breathing...
April 18, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670217/bacterial-derived-exopolysaccharides-enhance-antifungal-drug-tolerance-in-a-cross-kingdom-oral-biofilm
#10
Dongyeop Kim, Yuan Liu, Raphael I Benhamou, Hiram Sanchez, Áurea Simón-Soro, Yong Li, Geelsu Hwang, Micha Fridman, David R Andes, Hyun Koo
Fungal-bacterial interactions generate unique biofilms that cause many infections in humans. Candida albicans interact with Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms associated with severe childhood tooth-decay, a prevalent pediatric oral disease. Current modalities are ineffective and primarily based on antimicrobial monotherapies despite the polymicrobial nature of the infection. Here, we show that the combination of clinically used topical antifungal fluconazole with povidone iodine (PI) can completely suppress C...
April 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669855/squalene-epoxidase-drives-nafld-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-is-a-pharmaceutical-target
#11
Dabin Liu, Chi Chun Wong, Li Fu, Huarong Chen, Liuyang Zhao, Chuangen Li, Yunfei Zhou, Yanquan Zhang, Weiqi Xu, Yidong Yang, Bin Wu, Gong Cheng, Paul Bo-San Lai, Nathalie Wong, Joseph J Y Sung, Jun Yu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an emerging malignancy in the developed world; however, mechanisms that contribute to its formation are largely unknown, and targeted therapy is currently not available. Our RNA sequencing analysis of NAFLD-HCC samples revealed squalene epoxidase ( SQLE ) as the top outlier metabolic gene overexpressed in NAFLD-HCC patients. Hepatocyte-specific Sqle transgenic expression in mice accelerated the development of high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced HCC...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669521/evaluation-of-candida-bloodstream-infection-and-antifungal-utilization-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#12
Tatiana Aporta Marins, Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Marines Dalla Valle Martino, Paula Kiyomi Onaga Yokota, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra, Marcelino Souza Durão Junior
BACKGROUND: Candida bloodstream infections carry a significant mortality risk, justifying the importance of adequate antifungal therapy. This study describes trends in antifungal consumption using the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) and Days of Therapy (DOT) metrics, identifies the microbiological profile, the time to initiation of empirical therapy, the adjustment after positive blood culture results for Candida, and the impact on in-hospital mortality rate in patients with candidemia. METHODS: An analysis of antifungal consumption from 2008 to 2016, and of candidemia cases from 2012 to 2016 was carried out in a private tertiary hospital...
April 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665644/biodistribution-of-free-and-encapsulated-99m-tc-fluconazole-in-an-infection-model-induced-by-candida-albicans
#13
Danielle Nogueira de Assis, Raquel Silva Araújo, Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Candida spp is an etiologic agent of fungal infections in hospitals and resistance to treatment with antifungals has been extensively reported. Thus, it is very important to develop formulations that increase effectiveness with low toxicity. In this sense, nanocarriers have been investigated, once they modify drug biodistribution profile. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution of free and encapsulated 99m Tc-fluconazole into nanocapsules (NCs) in an experimental immunosuppressed murine model of Candida albicans infection...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663936/animal-models-of-aspergillosis
#14
Guillaume Desoubeaux, Carolyn Cray
Aspergillosis is an airborne fungal disease caused by Aspergillus spp., a group of ubiquitous molds. This disease causes high morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals. The growing importance of this infection over recent decades has created a need for practical and reproducible models of aspergillosis. The use of laboratory animals provides a platform to understand fungal virulence and pathophysiology, assess diagnostic tools, and evaluate new antifungal drugs. In this review, we describe the fungus, various Aspergillus-related diseases in humans and animals and various experimental animal models...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662118/polyketides-from-two-chaetomium-species-and-their-biological-functions
#15
He Li, Zhong-Bin Liao, Dan Tang, Wen-Bo Han, Qiang Zhang, Jin-Ming Gao
Four new secondary metabolites, chaetosemins G-J (1-4), along with 11 known ones (5-15) were isolated from the culture of C. seminudum C208 and Chaetomium sp. C521. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antifungal, antioxidant, toxicity, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Chaetosemin J (4) and monaschromone (5) significantly inhibited the growth of four plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Magnaporthe oryzae, and Gibberella saubinettii with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 6...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661910/myeloid-cell-deficiency-of-p38%C3%AE-p38%C3%AE-protects-against-candidiasis-and-regulates-antifungal-immunity
#16
Dayanira Alsina-Beauchamp, Alejandra Escós, Pilar Fajardo, Diego González-Romero, Ester Díaz-Mora, Ana Risco, Miguel A Martín-Serrano, Carlos Del Fresno, Jorge Dominguez-Andrés, Noelia Aparicio, Rafal Zur, Natalia Shpiro, Gordon D Brown, Carlos Ardavín, Mihai G Netea, Susana Alemany, Juan J Sanz-Ezquerro, Ana Cuenda
Candida albicans is a frequent aetiologic agent of sepsis associated with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Developing new antifungal therapies is a medical need due to the low efficiency and resistance to current antifungal drugs. Here, we show that p38γ and p38δ regulate the innate immune response to C. albicans We describe a new TAK1-TPL2-MKK1-ERK1/2 pathway in macrophages, which is activated by Dectin-1 engagement and positively regulated by p38γ/p38δ. In mice, p38γ/p38δ deficiency protects against C...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660456/chitosan-based-hydrogels-preparation-properties-and-applications
#17
Zahra Shariatinia, Azin Mazloom Jalali
Chitosan (CS), the second most plentiful natural polysaccharide next to cellulose, has valuable characteristics including biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability. CS is broken down in the human body to innocuous products (amino sugars). Hydrogels are polymeric materials with three dimensional networks retaining a huge quantity of water within their structures which are of great interest in biomedical/environmental applications. Usually, injectable hydrogels have functional groups which are sensitive to pH, temperature or irradiation stimuli...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658789/effect-of-2-phenylethanol-as-antifungal-agent-and-common-antifungals-amphotericin-b-fluconazole-and-itraconazole-on-candida-species-isolated-from-chronic-and-recurrent-cases-of-candidal-vulvovaginitis
#18
Niloufar Majdabadi, Mehraban Falahati, Fariba Heidarie-Kohan, Shirin Farahyar, Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam, Mahtab Ashrafi-Khozani, Tandis Razavi, Sina Mohammadnejad
The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard experimental therapy; therefore, the study presented in this article investigated the effect of common antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], fluconazole [FLU], and itraconazole [ITC]), in combination with 2-phenylethanol, on the Candida species isolated from cases of chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, thereby allowing the recommendation of a more appropriate treatment option...
April 2018: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658325/fabrication-of-a-drug-delivery-system-that-enhances-antifungal-drug-corneal-penetration
#19
Jingguo Li, Zhanrong Li, Zhen Liang, Lei Han, Huayang Feng, Siyu He, Junjie Zhang
Fungal keratitis (FK) remains a severe eye disease, and effective therapies are limited by drug shortages and critical ocular barriers. Despite the high antifungal potency and broad spectrum of econazole, its strong irritant and insolubility in water hinder its ocular application. We designed and fabricated a new drug delivery system based on a polymeric vector for the ocular antifungal application of econazole. This novel system integrates the advantages of its constituent units and exhibits superior comprehensive performance...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657938/formulation-of-herbal-gel-of-antirrhinum-majus-extract-and-evaluation-of-its-anti-propionibacterium-acne-effects
#20
Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi, Gholam Reza Asghari, Farideh Rahmani, Fatemeh Shafiee, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi
Background: Antirrhinum majus contains aurone with excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities. In addition, visible light activates the endogenous porphyrins of Propionibacterium acne , which results in bacterial death. Therefore, considering the above-mentioned facts, the aim of the present study was to prepare a topical herbal gel of A. majus hydroalcoholic extract and to evaluate its antiacne effects with or without blue light combination as an activator of the porphyrins. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of the shoot or petal extracts was evaluated by disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
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