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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036605/survey-of-laboratory-practices-for-diagnosis-of-fungal-infection-in-seven-asian-countries-an-asia-fungal-working-group-afwg-initiative
#1
Ariya Chindamporn, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Ruoyu Li, Pei-Lun Sun, Ban-Hock Tan, Mitzi Chua, Retno Wahyuningsih, Atul Patel, Zhengyin Liu, Yee-Chun Chen, Methee Chayakulkeeree
An online survey of mycology laboratories in seven Asian countries was conducted to assess the status, competence, and services available. Country representatives from the Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) contacted as many laboratories performing mycology diagnosis as possible in their respective countries, requesting that the laboratory heads complete the online survey. In total, 241 laboratories responded, including 71 in China, 104 in India, 11 in Indonesia, 26 in the Philippines, four in Singapore, 18 in Taiwan, and seven in Thailand...
September 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029700/lipid-components-of-bile-increase-the-protective-effect-of-conjugated-bile-salts-against-antifungal-drugs
#2
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Matthias Brock
Fungi and bacteria can persist in the human gall bladder. Previous studies have shown that bile protects Candida albicans in this cryptic host niche from antifungals, providing a reservoir for intestinal re-colonization after discontinuation of antifungal therapy. Bile and conjugated bile salts trap antifungals in micelles, thereby reducing their bioavailability and possibly promoting the development of drug resistance. Here we show that the protective effect of bile and conjugated bile salts is not limited to C...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026627/marked-peripheral-eosinophilia-due-to-prolonged-administration-of-posaconazole
#3
Maher Alharbi, Rae-Kiran Jhinger, Terence Wuerz, Andrew Walkty
Introduction. Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal that is used in the treatment of a variety of fungal infections, as well as in the management of mucormycosis (on an off-label basis). Eosinophilia associated with exposure to azole antifungals has been described rarely in the literature. Case presentation. A 31-year-old male on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for end-stage renal disease, secondary to diabetic nephropathy, presented to hospital with abdominal pain after a trip to St Lucia. He was taken to the operating room, where the PD catheter was removed and an abdominal-wall abscess was debrided...
June 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026306/enhanced-antifungal-activity-of-voriconazole-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-against-candida-albicans-with-a-dimorphic-switching-model
#4
Baocheng Tian, Qi Yan, Juan Wang, Chen Ding, Sixiang Sai
Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices and forms biofilms. Due to the minimal activity of current antifungals against biofilms, new drugs or drug-delivery systems to treat these persistent infections are urgently needed. In the present investigation, voriconazole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Vrc-NLCs) were formulated for enhanced drug-delivery efficiency to C. albicans to increase the antifungal activity of Vrc and to improve the treatment of infectious Candida diseases. Vrc-NLCs were prepared by a hot-melt, high-pressure homogenization method, and size distribution, ζ-potential, morphology, drug-encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and physical stability were characterized...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024919/graphene-oxide-gold-nanorods-for-chemo-photothermal-treatment-and-controlled-release-of-doxorubicin-in-mice-tumor
#5
M Shahnawaz Khan, Sunil Pandey, Mukesh L Bhaisare, Gangaraju Gedda, Abou Talib, Hui-Fen Wu
Graphene oxide (GO) is a close derivative of graphene has unlocked many pivotal steps in drug delivery due to their inherent biocompatibility, excellent drug loading capacity, and shows antibacterial, antifungal properties etc. We used a novel plant material called Gum arabic (GA) to increase the solubility of GO as well as to chemically reduce it in the solution. GA functionalized GO (fGO) exhibited increased absorption in near infra-red region (NIR) which was exploited in photothermal therapy for cancer. In order to understand the shape and size effect of GO which may affect their rheological properties, we have conjugated them with gold nanorods (GNRs) using in situ synthesis of GO@GNRs via seed mediated method...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022838/pharmacogenomics-of-triazole-antifungal-agents-implications-for-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy
#6
Jarrett R Amsden, Paul O Gubbins
Introduction Triazole antifungal agents are prescribed to treat invasive fungal infections in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. These antifungal agents are substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP). Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 can lead to large population-specific variations in drug efficacy and safety, optimal dosing, or contribute to drug interactions associated with this class. Areas covered This manuscript reviews the pharmacogenomics (i.e. the influence of genetics on drug disposition) of triazole antifungal agents related to their CYP-mediated metabolism and summarizes their implications on triazole efficacy, safety, and tolerability...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020654/liranaftate-loaded-xanthan-gum-based-hydrogel-for-topical-delivery-physical-properties-and-ex-vivo-permeability
#7
Bibaswan Mishra, Susijit Sahoo, Sunit Kumar Sahoo
A topical microemulsion (ME)-based hydrogel was developed to enhance permeation of an antifungal drug, liranaftate (LRFE) for effective eradication of cutaneous fungal infection. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were used to determine the existence of MEs region. ME formulations were prepared with Di-isopropyl adaptate, Cremophore-EL, Ethanol and distilled water. Xanthan Gum (1.5% w/w) was used for preparation of hydrogel of LRFE microemulsion (HLM) and characterized. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of prepared HLM and saturated drug solution were compared...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016694/efficacy-of-azole-therapy-for-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Endi Lanza Galvão, Ana Rabello, Gláucia Fernandes Cota
BACKGROUND: Several controlled and uncontrolled studies addressing azole antifungal drugs for cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis have been published with inconclusive results. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies evaluating the efficacy and toxicity associated with azole therapy for tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODOLOGY: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and the Cochrane manual were followed, and the review methodology was registered (PROSPERO; CRD42016048668)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994001/comparison-between-etest-and-broth-microdilution-methods-for-testing-itraconazole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-susceptibility-to-antifungal-combinations
#9
Laura Bedin Denardi, Jéssica Tairine Keller, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Vanessa Oliveira, Fernanda Baldissera Piasentin, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
The checkerboard broth microdilution assay (BMD) is the most frequently used method for the in vitro evaluation of drug combinations. However, its use to evaluate the effect of antifungal drugs on filamentous fungi is sometimes associated with endpoint-reading difficulties, and different degrees of interaction are assigned to the same drug combination. We evaluated combinations of the azoles, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, with the echinocandins, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, against 15 itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical strains via the checkerboard BMD and Etest assay...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994000/fungal-olecranon-bursitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-by-knoxdaviesia-dimorphospora-sp-nov-case-report-and-review
#10
Marcela Guevara-Suarez, Marta Llaurado, Isabel Pujol, Emilio Mayayo, Adela Martin-Vicente, Josepa Gené
Bursitis is a common medical condition that can occur either with or without infection. We present a case of fungal olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent individual caused by the new species Knoxdaviesia dimorphospora. It is a dematiaceous filamentous fungus characterized by the production of two different conidia: hyaline and cylindrical, which rise up from phialidic conidiogenous cells located in the upper part of differentiated and unbranched conidiophores, and pale brown and ellipsoidal conidia produced by phialidic conidiogenous cells which are born directly on hyphae...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993976/boric-acid-and-commercial-organoboron-products-as-inhibitors-of-drug-resistant-candida-albicans
#11
Bryan Larsen, Marija Petrovic, Francesco DeSeta
Clinical use of boric acid as a topical antifungal in women who have failed standard antifungal therapy with azole drugs has been used sporadically for decades. Our previous in vitro work showing inhibition of Candida albicans growth was conducted on clinical isolates without antifungal drug susceptibility profiling. Here, we report that boric acid restricts growth of drug-resistant Candida albicans and inhibits hyphal growth and diminishes cell volume. The availability of over-the-counter organoboron compounds intended for use as oral nutritional supplements led us to determine if these also were inhibitory toward resistant Candida and show here that they also possess antifungal activity...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993334/choosing-optimal-antifungal-agents-to-prevent-fungal-infections-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients-trial-sequential-analysis-network-meta-analysis-and-pharmacoeconomic-analysis
#12
Yan Wang, Jiao Xie, Yuanming Xing, Lu Chen, Ying Li, Ti Meng, Weihua Dong, Xue Wang, Yalin Dong
The use of antifungal interventions in critically ill patients prior to invasive fungal infection (IFI) being microbiologically confirmed as well as the preferred drug are still controversial. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have compared untargeted antifungal treatments applied to non-neutropenic critically ill patients. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and proven IFI rates. A random-effects model was used with trial sequential analyses (TSA), a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to obtain indirect evidence, and a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model was completed from the patient perspective over a lifetime horizon...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993330/morphological-sectors-impacting-on-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-and-virulence-studies
#13
Emina Jukic, Michael Blatzer, Ulrike Binder, Lisa Mayr, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Michaela Lackner
Morphological heterogeneity of Aspergillus terreus cultures was observed during continued cultivation of AMB-resistant isolates on drug-free medium. Outgrowth leads to the emergence of multiple sectors that might result from increased growth rates at drug-free conditions. We evaluated the differences in AmB susceptibility and virulence between sector subcultures (ATSec), AmB-resistant strains (ATR), and AmB-susceptible strains (ATS). By comparing AmB resistant A. terreus strains (ATR) and A. terreus sector cultures (ATSec) a highly significant reduction of AmB MICs in ATSec was observed (ATR: MIC: 2-32μg/ml, ATSec 0...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992333/rapid-detection-of-fluconazole-resistance-in-candida-tropicalis-by-maldi-tof-ms
#14
Saikat Paul, Pankaj Singh, Shamanth A S, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Anup K Ghosh
With the changing epidemiology and emergence of antifungal resistance among Candida species, rapid antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is crucial for optimization of antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to standardize a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS) based AFST method (ms-AFST) for susceptibility of Candida tropicalis isolates. Clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were confirmed for fluconazole resistance by the CLSI (M27-A3) method. The incubation period and drug concentration were optimized to determine the minimal profile change concentration (MPCC) by MALDI-TOF MS...
July 12, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992260/simulations-of-cyp51a-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-model-bilayer-provide-insights-into-triazole-drug-resistance
#15
Anthony Nash, Johanna Rhodes
Azole antifungal drugs target CYP51A in Aspergillus fumigatus by binding with the active site of the protein, blocking ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance to azole antifungal drugs is now common, with a leucine to histidine amino acid substitution at position 98 the most frequent, predominantly conferring resistance to itraconazole, although cross-resistance has been reported in conjunction with other mutations. In this study, we create a homology model of CYP51A using a recently published crystal structure of the paralog protein CYP51B...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992138/antifungal-susceptibilities-to-amphotericin-b-triazoles-and-echinocandins-of-77-clinical-isolates-of-cryptic-aspergillus-species-in-multicenter-surveillance-in-korea
#16
Eun Jeong Won, Jong Hee Shin, Soo Hyun Kim, Min Ji Choi, Seung A Byun, Mi-Na Kim, Wee-Gyo Lee, Kyungwon Lee, Young Uh, Myung Geun Shin, Soon Pal Suh
We investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of cryptic Aspergillus species from nine Korean hospitals. Based on the CLSI epidemiological cutoff values, resistance rates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin were as follows: A. awamori (34 isolates; all 0%), A. tubingensis (22; 0%, 4.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, respectively), A. sydowii (16; 0%, 6.3%, 0%, 0%, and 6.3%), A. lentulus (2; 50%, 0%, 100%, 50%, and 0%), and A. tamarii (2; all 0%). A. calidoustus (one isolate) showed resistance to multiple drugs...
September 12, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992058/species-distribution-virulence-factors-and-antifungal-susceptibility-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-from-clinical-specimens-at-siriraj-hospital-thailand-from-2011-to-2015
#17
Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
The Candida parapsilosis complex has been described as the second or third most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections worldwide. This complex consists of three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. The distribution of species in this complex has never been studied in Thailand. Here we investigated the molecular epidemiology, in vitro on virulence factors, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates of these three species collected from patients in Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, from 2011 to 2015...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992055/amphotericin-b-concentrations-in-healthy-mallard-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-following-a-single-intratracheal-dose-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-an-atomizer
#18
Ashley Phillips, Christine V Fiorello, Rachel M Baden, Jack H Liu, Nathaniel C Burmas, Carlos A Ruvalcaba, Roger Monroy, F Charles Mohr, Ronette Gehring, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens, Lisa A Tell
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that primarily affects the respiratory tract. Amphotericin B has broad antifungal activity and is commonly used to treat aspergillosis, a fungal pneumonia that is a common sequela in oiled waterfowl as well as other birds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized amphotericin B in an avian model have been reported, but those of direct intratracheal delivery have yet to be established. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single 3 mg/kg dose of liposomal amphotericin B delivered intratracheally using a commercial atomizer would achieve plasma and lung tissue concentrations exceeding targeted minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Aspergillus species in adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)...
August 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990540/silver-nanoparticles-synthesis-approaches-and-their-antimicrobial-applications
#19
Farhan Ahmad
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are amongst the utmost striking nanosized materials that are extensively applied in a variety of biomedical applications which includes diagnostic use, disease management, medical device coating, drug delivery and for personal health care. With the growing interest and the use of AgNPs in the health care sector, it is becoming essential for a better understanding of AgNPs mechanism of action like biological interaction, their possible toxicity, and safety concern to human exposure...
October 6, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990518/click-reactions-in-chemistry-of-triterpenes-advances-towards-development-of-potential-therapeutics
#20
Jan Pokorný, Lucie Borková, Milan Urban
Triterpenoids are natural compounds with a large variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparazitic, antiinflammatory and others. Despite their low toxicity and simple availability from the natural resources, their clinical use is still severely limited by their higher IC50 and worse pharmacological properties than in the currently used therapeutics. This fact encouraged a number of researchers to develop new terpenic derivatives more suitable for the potential clinical use...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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