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neutropenic infection

Marguerite L Monogue, George Sakoulas, Victor Nizet, David P Nicolau
β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Colistin retains the highest susceptibility rate against A. baumannii, and has demonstrated synergy with other antimicrobials, including β-lactam-BLIs. Therefore, we assessed the potential individual activity and synergistic combinations in vivo against carbapenem-susceptible (CS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii isolates in neutropenic thigh and lung infection models...
March 13, 2018: Pharmacology
Otavio Cabral-Marques, Tabata Takahashi França, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Lena Friederike Schimke, Taj Ali Khan, Claudia Feriotti, Tania Alves da Costa, Osvaldo Reis Junior, Cristina Worm Weber, Janaíra Fernandes Ferreira, Fabiola Scancetti Tavares, Claudia Valente, Regina Sumiko Watanabe Di Gesu, Asif Iqbal, Gabriela Riemekasten, Gustavo Pessini Amarante-Mendes, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Paulo Vitor Soeiro Pereira, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich, Luigi D Notarangelo, Troy R Torgerson, Basel K Al-Ramadi, Hans D Ochs, Antonio Condino-Neto
BACKGROUND: Patients with X-linked Hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM) due to CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency often present episodic, cyclic or chronic neutropenia, suggesting abnormal neutrophil development in the absence of CD40L-CD40 interaction. However, even when not neutropenic and despite immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy, CD40L-deficient patients are susceptible to life-threatening infections caused by opportunistic pathogens, suggesting impaired function of phagocytes and the need of novel therapeutic approaches...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sue C Nang, Faye C Morris, Michael J McDonald, Mei-Ling Han, Jiping Wang, Richard A Strugnell, Tony Velkov, Jian Li
Objectives: The discovery of mobile colistin resistance mcr-1, a plasmid-borne polymyxin resistance gene, highlights the potential for widespread resistance to the last-line polymyxins. In the present study, we investigated the impact of mcr-1 acquisition on polymyxin resistance and biological fitness in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: K. pneumoniae B5055 was used as the parental strain for the construction of strains carrying vector only (pBBR1MCS-5) and mcr-1 recombinant plasmids (pmcr-1)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Bassem Mettias, Stuart Robertson, Malcolm A Buchanan
Chemotherapy increases susceptibility to infection due to the effect on cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Retropharyngeal abscess is a serious head and neck infection that rapidly progresses from toxicity, whether the patient is neutropenic or not. The risk should be carefully assessed with any chemotherapeutic agent, especially docetaxel.
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Manjulika Shukla, Isha Soni, Karen Matsuyama, Tran Tran, Mary Tanga, Leyi Gong, Sidharth Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is one of the most significant nosocomial pathogens, that is increasingly being isolated in healthcare settings worldwide. Owing to its inherent drug-resistant nature, coupled with its ability to readily acquire resistance to other antibiotic classes, there is a real dearth of antibiotics available to treat infections with MDR-AB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available library was screened against MDR-AB BAA-1605 to identify novel inhibitory molecules...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Vincenzo Marasco, Chiara Oltolini, Magda Marcatti, Raffaella Greco, Maria Teresa Lupo-Stanghellini, Matteo Carrabba, Massimo Bernardi, Jacopo Peccatori, Consuelo Corti, Fabio Ciceri
Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Three-hundred-forty-eight consecutive patients transplanted at our hospital from July 2012 to January 2016 were screened for a pre-transplant MDR-GNB colonization and evaluated for clinical outcomes. A pre-transplant MDR-GNB colonization was found in 16.9% of allo-HSCT and in 9.6% of auto-HSCT recipients. Both in auto- and in allo-HSCT, carriers of a MDR-GNB showed no significant differences in overall survival (OS), transplant-related mortality (TRM) nor infection-related mortality (IRM) compared to non-carriers...
March 1, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Ying Zhou, Chao Niu, Bo Ma, Xiaoyan Xue, Zhi Li, Zhou Chen, Fen Li, Shan Zhou, Xiaoxing Luo, Zheng Hou
Given its high resistance, enhanced virulence, and high transmissibility, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia is highly associated with high morbidity and mortality. Anti-virulence therapy is a promising strategy that bypasses the evolutionary pressure on the bacterium to develop resistance. RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP), as an accessory gene regulator (agr)-specific inhibitor, significantly restricts the virulence of S. aureus and protects infected mice from death by blocking the agr quorum sensing system...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yeter Düzenli Kar, Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Özcan Bör
Aim: Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hematology-oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate febrile neutropenic episodes in children with malignancy. Material and Methods: Sixty-eight children who received chemotherapy for malignancy between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic characteristics, laboratory data, infection foci, and frequency of microorganisms grown in culture were examined...
December 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Dilek Gurlek Gokcebay, Sibel Akpinar Tekgunduz
Severe neutropenia-associated invasive bacterial or fungal infections are still the major cause of mortality and morbidity in children receiving cancer chemotherapy. Granulocyte transfusion therapy has been used for many years in the management of neutropenic patients with severe infections in whom the clinical condition deteriorated despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Transfused granulocytes can increase the recipient's blood neutrophil count and accumulation of them into the site of infection. There are some data obtained from retrospective or prospective observational studies in pediatric granulocyte transfusion therapy, but results are not conclusive...
February 20, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Kirsten Rose-Felker, Ayesha Mukhtar, Michael S Kelleman, Shriprasad R Deshpande, William T Mahle
Neutropenia has been reported in pediatric heart transplant recipients, but its association with infectious morbidity and mortality is unknown. We sought to determine neutropenia's prevalence and impact on infection, rejection, and survival. A retrospective analysis of pediatric heart transplant recipients from March 2005 to August 2015 was performed. Demographics, medications, infection, and rejection data were collected. Of 142 pediatric heart transplant recipients, 77 (54.2%) developed neutropenia within 4...
February 23, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Annic Baumgartner, Katja Hoskin, Philipp Schuetz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition before and during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Yet, optimal use of nutritional support to improve outcomes remains controversial. Our aim was to do an up-to-date literature review regarding nutritional therapy in allogeneic HSCT, the neutropenic diet and the use of immunonutrients. RECENT FINDINGS: Several observational studies find malnutrition to be associated with poor outcome, increased complications and lower overall survival...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Mohamed M Elsebaei, Haroon Mohammad, Mohamed Abouf, Nader S Abutaleb, Youssef A Hegazy, Adel Ghiaty, Lu Chen, Jianan Zhang, Satish R Malwal, Eric Oldfield, Mohamed N Seleem, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub
The promising activity of phenylthiazoles against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, in particular MRSA, has been hampered by their limited systemic applicability, due to their rapid metabolism by hepatic microsomal enzymes, resulting in short half-lives. Here, we investigated a series of phenylthiazoles with alkynyl side-chains that were synthesized with the objective of improving stability to hepatic metabolism, extending the utility of phenylthiazoles from topical applications to treatment of a more invasive, systemic MRSA infections...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mohsen Meidani, Seyed Alireza Mirmohammad Sadeghi
Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h), upper and lower respiratory symptoms...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Bretislav Lipovy, Iva Kocmanova, Jakub Holoubek, Marketa Hanslianova, Matej Bezdicek, Hana Rihova, Ivan Suchanek, Pavel Brychta
Patients with critical thermal trauma belong to one of the most high-risk groups for development of infectious complications. Fungal infections are not among frequent complications during therapy of patients with thermal trauma, yet their incidence dramatically aggravates the prognosis for patients with this disorder. In the case report, we present the case of a young man with a critical burn, where Westerdykella dispersa was isolated. Identification of the pathogen was provided with a combination of cultivation and molecular biological confirmation...
February 17, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Lenaïg Le Clech, Jean-Philippe Talarmin, Marie-Anne Couturier, Jean-Christophe Ianotto, Christophe Nicol, Ronan Le Calloch, Stéphanie Dos Santos, Pascal Hutin, Didier Tandé, Virginie Cogulet, Christian Berthou, Gaëlle Guillerm
INTRODUCTION: Immediate empirical antibiotic therapy is mandatory in febrile chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, but its optimal duration is unclear, especially in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this 20-month prospective observational study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of short-term antibiotic treatment in afebrile or febrile patients exhibiting FUO, irrespective of their neutrophil count. The secondary objective was to describe the epidemiology of all episodes of febrile neutropenia...
February 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Emine Alp, Tuğba Tok, Leylagül Kaynar, Fatma Cevahir, İsmail Hakkı Akbudak, Kürşat Gündoğan, Mustafa Çetin, Jordi Rello
BACKGROUND: Haematological cancer (HC) patients are increasingly requiring intensive care (ICUs). The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of HC patients in our ICU and evaluate 5 days-full support as a breakpoint for patients' re-assessment for support. METHODS: Retrospective study enrolling 112 consecutive HC adults, requiring ICU in January-December 2015. Patients' data were collected from medical records and Infection Control Committee surveillance reports...
February 8, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Esther Segal, Michael Frenkel
Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. The mucosal-cutaneous forms-particularly vaginal infections-have a high prevalence. Vaginitis caused by Candida species is the second most common vaginal infection...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Sherwin K B Sy, Luning Zhuang, Huiming Xia, Marie-Eve Beaudoin, Virna J Schuck, Wright W Nichols, Hartmut Derendorf
Objectives: To characterize quantitatively the effect of avibactam in potentiating ceftazidime against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa by developing a mathematical model to describe the bacterial response to constant concentration time-kill information and validating it using both constant and time-varying concentration-effect data from in vitro and in vivo infection systems. Methods: The time course of the bacterial population dynamics in the presence of static concentrations of ceftazidime and avibactam was modelled using a two-state pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model, consisting of active and resting states, to account for bactericidal activities, bacteria-mediated ceftazidime degradation and inhibition of degradation by avibactam...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Prajwal Boddu, Pei-Ling Chen, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Victor G Prieto, Alex Won, Mark Chambers, Steven Kornblau
Oral fungal infections present with atypical and varied manifestations, and distinguishing them from other entities including leukemic infiltration can be diagnostically challenging. In this report, we describe a 62 year old female with acute myeloid leukemia who presented, towards the end of her second treatment cycle of decitabine in a prolonged neutropenic state, with a month of painful, necrotic-appearing marginal gingival lesions. She was duly initiated on empiric broad spectrum antifungal treatment but did not show a clinical response with the appearance of new skin lesions concerning for progressive fungemia...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology
Ercole Concia, Claudio Viscoli, Valerio Del Bono, Maddalena Giannella, Matteo Bassetti, Giuseppe Francesco De Rosa, Emanuele Durante Mangoni, Silvano Esposito, Massimo Giusti, Paolo Grossi, Francesco Menichetti, Federico Pea, Nicola Petrosillo, Mario Tumbarello, Stefania Stefani, Mario Venditti, Pierluigi Viale
Staphylococcus aureus is still an important problem in clinical and therapeutic area, worldwide. In Italy, in recent years, methicillin resistance remained stable, yet considerably high, the percentage of strains of MRSA being around 40%. It was deemed interesting and timely to carry out a consensus conference using the RAND/UCLA method to collect the opinion of a group of experts in infectious diseases on the role of glycopeptides in the management of MRSA infections within several clinical scenarios and namely in pneumonia, bacteremia and endocarditis, joint replacement infections, skin and soft tissue infections, diabetic foot, abdominal infections and central nervous system infections...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
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