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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158280/anti-pseudomonal-activity-of-phage-pev20-in-a-dry-powder-formulation-a-proof-of-principle-study-in-a-murine-lung-infection-model
#1
Rachel Yoon Kyung Chang, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Martin Wallin, Warwick Britton, Sandra Morales, Elizabeth Kutter, Jian Li, Hak-Kim Chan
Bacteriophage therapy is a promising alternative treatment to antibiotics as it has been documented to be efficacious against multi-drug resistant bacteria with minimal side effects. Several groups have demonstrated the efficacy of phage suspension in vivo to treat lung infections using intranasal delivery; however, phage dry powder administration to the lungs has not yet been explored. Powder formulations provide potential advantages over liquid formulation, including easy storage, transport and administration...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157145/clostridium-difficile-treatment-in-neutropenic-patients-clinical-outcomes-of-metronidazole-vancomycin-combinations-and-switch-therapy
#2
Jennifer D Tieu, Sarah A Schmidt, Jamie L Miller, Katherine E Kupiec, Grant H Skrepnek, Connie Liu, Winter J Smith
Background Clostridium difficile infection treatment guidelines exist for immunocompetent patients; however, there is a paucity of data evaluating clinical outcomes and time to C. difficile-associated diarrhea resolution in neutropenic patients. Objective To assess clinical outcomes in neutropenic patients treated with metronidazole, oral vancomycin, the combination of metronidazole plus oral vancomycin, and switch of metronidazole to oral vancomycin. Methods This retrospective, observational cohort study assessed adult neutropenic inpatients with C...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153062/-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-lightcycler%C3%A2-septifast-assay-in-the-childhood-febrile-neutropenia
#3
Esra Mimaroğlu, Elvan Çağlar Çıtak, Necdet Kuyucu, Gönül Arslan
Infection is the main problem among the patients receiving cancer therapy. The mortality rate can be reduced by the appropriate treatment in the right time. Although blood culture is the gold standard for the diagnoses of sepsis, many factors influence the results of blood culture in children. For this reason, real time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) has gained importance for the diagnoses of microbiological agents as it is faster than the conventional methods. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of SeptiFast (SF) test with blood culture among children with neutropenic fever...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150371/emergence-of-polymyxin-b-resistance-in-a-polymyxin-b-susceptible-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-bloodstream-infection-in-a-neutropenic-patient-during-polymyxin-b-therapy
#4
Alexandre P Zavascki, Raquel Girardello, Cibele M Magagnin, Laura C Antochevis, Rafael A Maciel, Jussara K Palmeiro, Ana C Gales
The emergence of resistance to polymyxins in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates has been a major clinical problem. This study evaluated the molecular mechanisms associated with polymyxin B (PMB) resistance that emerged in a previously PMB-susceptible KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae during PMB therapy for a bloodstream infection in a neutropenic patient. The first isolate (PMB-susceptible) was obtained while the patient was receiving meropenem and other isolates were recovered from 2 sets of blood cultures in different dates while the patient was receiving PMB therapy (4 of 6 blood cultures bottles yielded isolates with full PMB resistance)...
October 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149294/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-systemically-administered-polymyxin-b-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-thigh-and-lung-infection-models
#5
Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Jiping Wang, Veronika Wirth, Ke Chen, Keith S Kaye, Brian T Tsuji, Jian Li, Roger L Nation
Background: The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship for polymyxin B against Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is not known. Methods: Dose-fractionation studies with subcutaneous polymyxin B were conducted in neutropenic mice in which infection with three strains of K. pneumoniae had been produced in thighs or lungs. Dosing (thigh infection 0.5-120 mg/kg/day; lung infection 5-120 mg/kg/day) commenced 2 h after inoculation, and bacterial burden was measured 24 h later...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141316/-a-clinical-analysis-of-micafungin-treatment-of-pulmonary-invasive-fungal-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-or-post-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplantation
#6
K Huang, K Y Qiu, L L Deng, J P Fang, Y Li, H X Guo, D H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of micafungin (MCF) for pulmonary invasive fungal disease (PIFD) in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Method: Twenty-five neutropenic PIFD children with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were selected from January 2012 to June 2015, including 12 males and 13 females, age range 2-15 (average 6.2±2.0) years. There were 12 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after chemotherapy, 4 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and 9 cases of β-thalassemia major after allo-HSCT...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134688/neutropenic-fever-during-peripheral-blood-progenitor-cell-mobilization-is-associated-with-decreased-cd34-cell-collection-and-increased-apheresis-collection-days
#7
Jack Khouri, Lisa Rybicki, Navneet Majhail, Matt Kalaycio, Edward Copelan, Brad Pohlman, Brian Hill, Robert Dean, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Betty Hamilton, Steven Andresen, Ronald Sobecks, Brian Bolwell, Hien Liu
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilization with chemotherapy in addition to Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) improves cell collection compared to G-CSF alone; however, it is associated with increased risk of neutropenic fever (NF). METHODS: We analyzed risk factors for post-priming NF and NF association with autologous stem cell transplant outcomes. Between 1998 and 2008, 593 adult patients with lymphoma underwent PBPC mobilization with etoposide and G-CSF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130946/considerations-about-the-use-of-a-loading-dose-of-daptomycin-in-a-neutropenic-murine-thigh-infection-model-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#8
Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Eriko Murakami, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Bunji Uno, Hiroshige Mikamo
Previous clinical studies have showed the clinical benefits of the initiation of treatment with a daptomycin (DAP) loading dose, but only a few studies have evaluated its antimicrobial benefits. We evaluated the efficacy of a DAP loading dose against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. Three MRSA isolates (DAP MIC: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/L) were tested. Four DAP regimens simulating human concentration-time profiles, i.e., (i) day 1: 8 mg/kg and day 2: 6 mg/kg, (ii) days 1 and 2: 6 mg/kg/day, (iii) day 1: 8 mg/kg and day 2: 4 mg/kg, and (iv) days 1 and 2: 4 mg/kg/day, were administered to the mice...
November 11, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119669/sinusitis-caused-by-exserohilum-rostratum-after-cord-blood-transplantation-for-myelodysplastic-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Sumiko Kohashi, Takaaki Toyama, Norisato Hashimoto, Masatoshi Sakurai, Jun Kato, Taku Kikuchi, Yuya Koda, Kayoko Sugita, Naoki Hasegawa, Kyoko Yarita, Katsuhiko Kamei, Shinichiro Okamoto, Takehiko Mori
Invasive fungal disease is a serious infectious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Exserohilum rostratum is a species causing phaeohyphomycosis, which rarely causes invasive disease in humans. We treated a case of sinusitis caused by E. rostratum after cord blood transplantation (CBT). A 60-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome, who had a medical history of an operation to correct deviation of the nasal septum, developed sinusitis caused by E. rostratum under prolonged profound neutropenia after a second CBT because of the graft rejection of the first transplantation...
November 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112326/real-world-challenges-and-unmet-needs-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-suspected-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-hematological-diseases-an-illustrative-case-study
#10
Martin Hoenigl, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wölfler, Robert Krause
Recent years have seen important advances in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), complemented by the introduction of new therapies. Despite this, IPA remains a major cause of infection-related mortality in patients with hematological diseases. There are two main reasons for this. First, diagnosis of IPA remains a challenge, since risk factors and the clinical, radiological and mycological presentations vary not only by fungal disease stage, but also by patient group (e.g. neutropenic versus non-neutropenic patients)...
November 7, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111435/pharmacodynamics-of-cefiderocol-a-novel-siderophore-cephalosporin-explored-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-neutropenic-murine-thigh-model
#11
Islam M Ghazi, Marguerite L Monogue, Masakatsu Tsuji, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Cefiderocol is a siderophore cephalosporin that displays potent in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. We aimed to describe cefiderocol's pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and 24-hour efficacy using dose-ranging methods in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. METHODS: Infection was established in neutropenic mice (administered cyclophosphamide 150 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg 4 and 1 days prior to inoculation respectively) with 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (MIC range: 0...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110143/pharmacological-aspects-and-spectrum-of-action-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Jaime L Rocha, Marcelo R Formigoni-Pinto
PURPOSE: Ceftazidime-avibactam is an antimicrobial association active against several Enterobacteriaceae species, including those resistant to carbapenem. Considering the importance of this drug in the current panorama of multidrug-resistant bacteria, we performed a systematic review about ceftazidime-avibactam with emphasis on clinical and pharmacological published data. METHODS: A systematic search of the medical literature was performed. The databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science (until September 2017)...
November 7, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109160/activity-of-meropenem-vaborbactam-in-mouse-models-of-infection-due-to-kpc-producing-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre
#13
Mojgan Sabet, Ziad Tarazi, Thomas Nolan, Jonathan Parkinson, Debora Rubio-Aparicio, Olga Lomovskaya, Michael N Dudley, David C Griffith
Meropenem-vaborbactam (Vabomere™) is highly active against Gram-negative pathogens, especially KPC-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae The objective of these studies was to evaluate the efficacy of meropenem alone and in combination with vaborbactam in mouse thigh and lung infection models. Thighs or lungs of neutropenic mice were infected with KPC-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae with meropenem MICs ranging from ≤ 0.06 - 8 mg/L in the presence of vaborbactam 8 mg/L. Mice were treated with meropenem alone or meropenem in combination with vaborbactam every 2 hours for 24 hours to provide exposures comparable to 2 g doses of each component in humans...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078933/neutropenic-fever
#14
REVIEW
Lindsey White, Michael Ybarra
Fever is a common presenting complaint among adult or pediatric patients in the emergency department setting. Although fever in healthy individuals does not necessarily indicate severe illness, fever in patients with neutropenia may herald a life-threatening infection. Therefore, prompt recognition of patients with neutropenic fever is imperative. Serious bacterial illness is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for neutropenic patients. Neutropenic fever should trigger the initiation of a rapid work-up and the administration of empiric systemic antibiotic therapy to attenuate or avoid the progression along the spectrum of sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock syndrome, and death...
December 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072402/outcomes-of-high-risk-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#15
Asif Husain Osmani, Adnan Abdul Jabbar, Manesh Kumar Gangwani, Bilal Hassan
Fever during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Mortality depends on the duration and degree of neutropenia, bacteremia, sepsis, performance status, comorbidities and other parameters. The highest mortality rates in cancer patients hospitalized with febrile neutropenia (FN) are observed in those with documented infection. The objectives of the study were to present available tools for risk assessment, to review pathogens causing infections in adult FN patients and to assess outcomes...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066217/impact-of-mucosal-barrier-injury-laboratory-confirmed-bloodstream-infection-mbi-lcbi-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-clabsis-in-department-of-hematology-at-single-university-hospital-in-japan
#16
Yukiko Kato, Mao Hagihara, Ai Kurumiya, Tomoko Takahashi, Miki Sakata, Yuichi Shibata, Hideo Kato, Arufumi Shiota, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most serious complications especially in blood cancer patients. In January 2013, Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC) introduced a new surveillance definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI). This study was to determine the impact of MBI-LCBI on CLABSIs and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI-LCBI cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 consecutive patients...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065118/a-fresh-look-at-polymicrobial-bloodstream-infection-in-cancer-patients
#17
Cristina Royo-Cebrecos, Carlota Gudiol, Carmen Ardanuy, Helena Pomares, Mariona Calvo, Jordi Carratalà
OBJECTIVES: To assess the current incidence, clinical features, risk factors, aetiology, antimicrobial resistance and outcomes of polymicrobial bloodstream infection (PBSI) in patients with cancer. METHODS: All prospectively collected episodes of PBSI in hospitalised patients were compared with episodes of monomicrobial bloodstream infection (MBSI) between 2006 and 2015. RESULTS: We identified 194 (10.2%) episodes of PBSI and 1702 MBSI (89...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050538/evaluation-of-the-head-and-neck-cancer-patient-population-and-the-incidence-of-hospitalization-at-an-academic-medical-center
#18
Lindsay A Hazelden, Matthew J Newman, Stephanie Shuey, Julie M Waldfogel, Victoria T Brown
Purpose Patients with head and neck cancer are at risk for disease- and treatment-related toxicities that may be severe enough to require hospitalization. The risk factors associated with hospitalization in these patients are not well defined. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study of patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemotherapy at an academic medical center infusion clinic in a one-year period. The primary objective was to characterize the head and neck cancer population at an academic medical center...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045267/the-prevalence-and-investigation-of-risk-factors-of-oral-mucositis-in-a-pediatric-oncology-inpatient-population-a-prospective-study
#19
Gabrielle Allen, Richard Logan, Tom Revesz, Dorothy Keefe, Sam Gue
BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis can be a frequent and severe complication of chemotherapy in children. It can result in pain, infection, depression, prolonged admission, treatment delays, increase in patient morbidity, and increased costs. AIM: To record the prevalence and severity of oral mucositis among inpatients and explore the relationship of risks factors and the development of oral mucositis. DESIGN: During an 18-month period 643 clinical inpatient assessments were completed on 73 children who were admitted and had received chemotherapy in the last 14 days...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043231/voriconazole-plus-caspofungin-for-treatment-of-invasive-fungal-infection-in-children-with-acute-leukemia
#20
Kyu Ho Lee, Young Tae Lim, Jeong Ok Hah, Yu Kyung Kim, Chae Hoon Lee, Jae Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a life-threatening problem in immunocompromised patients. Despite timely diagnosis and appropriate antifungal therapy, clinical outcomes of IFIs remain unsatisfactory, necessitating treatment with a combination of antifungal agents. Therefore, childhood leukemic patients treated with voriconazole plus caspofungin were evaluated for the safety and efficacy of the combination antifungal therapy to treat IFIs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records were retrieved for patients admitted to the Pediatric Department of Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea, between April 2009 and May 2013...
September 2017: Blood Research
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