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neutropenic infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922236/microorganisms-isolated-from-cultures-and-infection-focus-and-antibiotic-treatments-in-febrile-neutropenic-children-from-%C3%A5-anl%C3%A4-urfa-turkey
#1
Z Canan Özdemir, Ahmet Koç, Ali Ayçiçek
Chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia predisposes patients to life threatening infections. We aimed to determine the causative microorganisms, infection focus and antibiotic treatment success in febrile neutropenic children with leukemia. A total of 136 febrile neutropenic episodes in 48 leukemic children were reviewed retrospectively from records. Among 136 febrile neutropenic episodes, 68 (50%) episodes were microbiologically documented. Methicillin sensitive coagulase (-) Staphylococcus aureus were the most common isolates from hemoculture (20...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910184/clinical-significance-of-pre-transplant-circulating-cd3-cd4-cd161-cell-frequency-on-the-occurrence-of-neutropenic-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Tae Woo Kim, Sung-Eun Lee, Ji-Young Lim, Da-Bin Ryu, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Hee-Je Kim, Seok Lee, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong Wook Lee, Woo-Sung Min, Chang-Ki Min
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to identify factors that are associated with an increased risk of infections during the neutropenic period in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The aim of this study was to identify the host immune cells responsible for infections before engraftment. METHODS: A total of 282 patients who underwent allo-SCT were enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were collected before conditioning therapy...
December 2, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909895/invasive-cutaneous-infection-due-to-scopulariopsis-brevicaulis-unsuccessfully-treated-with-high-dose-micafungin-in-a-neutropenic-patient
#3
Daniela Gavril, Paul-Louis Woerther, Aicha Ben Lakhdar, Linda Mahjoubi, Emilie Routier, Elisabeth Chachaty, Bertrand Gachot, Stephane De Botton, Jean-Baptiste Micol, Christophe Willekens
Scopulariopsis brevicaulis onychomycosis with local cutaneous invasion was diagnosed in an acute leukemia patient and unsuccessfully treated with high-dose micafungin, based on antifungal susceptibility testing. This case should alert clinicians to the possible severe evolution of onychomycosis in neutropenic patients and suggests that surgery should be preferred in such a situation.
December 1, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904453/outcome-of-severe-infections-in-afebrile-neutropenic-cancer-patients
#4
Ksenija Strojnik, Ksenija Mahkovic-Hergouth, Barbara Jezersek Novakovic, Bostjan Seruga
BACKGROUND: In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infection, who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at our cancer center between 2000 and 2011...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888542/clinical-outcomes-of-extended-versus-intermittent-infusion-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#5
Sheung-Yin Fan, Hoi-Ping Shum, Wing-Yee Cheng, Yat-Hei Chan, Sik-Yin McShirley Leung, Wing-Wa Yan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether critically ill patients receiving extended-infusion (EI) piperacillin/tazobactam would have improved clinical outcomes compared with patients receiving intermittent infusions. DESIGN: Single-center, open-label, prospective study. SETTING: Twenty-two-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. PATIENTS: A total of 367 adults who had a diagnosis of either bacterial infection or neutropenic fever and had received treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam for at least 48 hours between December 1, 2013, and August 31, 2015...
November 26, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885468/staphylococcus-lugdunensis-infections-filling-in-the-gaps-a-3-year-retrospective-review-from-a-comprehensive-cancer-center
#6
Lior Nesher, Jeffery Tarrand, Roy F Chemaly, Kenneth Vi Rolston
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus lugdunensis is considered to be more aggressive than other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). There are gaps in knowledge regarding the importance of isolating S. lugdunensis from different sources and in different patient subsets. Our objective was to describe the spectrum, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of infections caused by S. lugdunensis in patients with cancer. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cancer patients from whom S...
November 24, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872075/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-gepotidacin-against-gram-positive-organisms-using-data-from-murine-infection-models
#7
Catharine C Bulik, Ólanrewaju O Okusanya, Elizabeth A Lakota, Alan Forrest, Sujata M Bhavnani, Jennifer L Hoover, David R Andes, Paul G Ambrose
Gepotidacin (formerly GSK2140944) is a novel triazaacenaphthylene bacterial topoisomerase inhibitor with in vitro activity against conventional and biothreat pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae Using neutropenic murine thigh- and lung-infection models, the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) of gepotidacin against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were characterized. Single dose PK data from uninfected mice (16-128 mg/kg SC) were fit with candidate models. Dose-fractionation studies (one isolate/organism; 2-512 mg/kg/day) and dose-ranging studies (5 isolates/organism; 2-2048 mg/kg/day; MIC ranges: S...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869489/an-atypical-presentation-of-necrotising-fasciitis
#8
K Kunz, F Seidel, L Weidhase, P Hepp, S Strocka, T Gradistanac, S Petros
Necrotising fasciitis is a rare infection with a high mortality rate. Clinical manifestation may be influenced by an underlying disease state. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with an anaplastic large-cell lymphoma who presented with inconclusive signs of necrotising fasciitis following a neutropenic phase after chemotherapy. Surgical exploration did not reveal the typical macroscopic features of necrotising fasciitis. Microbiological investigations revealed Escherichia coli. The lack of massive tissue inflammation, probably due to the neutropenia in our patient, has not been described by other authors...
November 21, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857902/severe-congenital-cyclic-neutropenia-a-case-report
#9
Vidyavathi H Patil, Shivayogi M Hugar, Girish Balikai, Sudha Patil
Congenital cyclic neutropenia syndrome is a constitutional genetic disorder which is characterized by very low number of neutrophils (neutropenia). Patients suffering from this disorder clinically present with neutropenia at early age, history of recurrent fever, ulcerations in the oral cavity, gingivitis, and other recurrent infections. This paper describes a case report of a child with recurrent mouth ulcers, fever, and later diagnosed with severe congenital cyclic neutropenia. This also emphasizes the importance of identification of rare causes of immunosuppressive conditions in children presenting with recurrent oral ulcers and poor dental hygiene, to prevent long-term complications of oral cavity and also morbidity and mortality secondary to neutropenic sepsis...
October 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855062/safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-immunocompromised-pediatric-patients
#10
Nita L Seibel, Aziza T Shad, Ihor Bekersky, Andreas H Groll, Corina Gonzalez, Lauren V Wood, Paul Jarosinski, Donald Buell, William W Hope, Thomas J Walsh
The safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (L-AMB) were evaluated in 40 immunocompromised children and adolescents. The protocol was an open-label, sequential-dose-escalation, multidose pharmacokinetic study with 10 to 13 patients in each of the four dosage cohorts. Each cohort received daily dosages of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10 mg of amphotericin B in the form of L-AMB per kg of body weight. Neutropenic patients between ages 1 and 17 years were enrolled to receive empirical antifungal therapy or treatment of documented invasive fungal infections...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821453/pharmacodynamics-of-voriconazole-against-wild-type-and-azole-resistant-aspergillus-flavus-isolates-in-a-non-neutropenic-murine-model-of-disseminated-aspergillosis
#11
Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Manpreet Dhaliwal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jacques F Meis, Johan W Mouton
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) due to Aspergillus flavus is associated with a high mortality. Though voriconazole (VRC) is widely recommended as first-line treatment for IA, emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. is translating to treatment failure. We evaluated the efficacy of voriconazole in a non-neutropenic murine model of disseminated A. flavus infection using two voriconazole-resistant isolates (one harboring the Y319H substitution in the cyp51C-gene) and two wild-type isolates without mutations...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813353/rates-of-neutropenia-in-adults-with-influenza-a-or-b-a-retrospective-analysis-of-hospitalised-patients-in-south-east-queensland-during-2015
#12
P Higgins, N Runnegar, R J Bird, K A Markey
Neutropenia in adult patients is often attributed to intercurrent viral infections; however, there are limited data describing the frequency or natural history of this phenomenon. We examined all patients presenting to three large hospitals in the Metro South region of South East Queensland with laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B throughout the 2015 influenza season (January-October). Four hundred and thirty-six patients were studied and 15.3% of this cohort were neutropenic (absolute neutrophil count <2...
November 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807194/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-g-csf-receptor-reduces-neutrophil-trafficking-and-joint-inflammation-in-antibody-mediated-inflammatory-arthritis
#13
Ian K Campbell, David Leong, Kirsten M Edwards, Veronika Rayzman, Milica Ng, Gabrielle L Goldberg, Nicholas J Wilson, Karen Scalzo-Inguanti, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Kate E Lawlor, Ian P Wicks, Lorena E Brown, Adriana Baz Morelli, Con Panousis, Michael J Wilson, Andrew D Nash, Brent S McKenzie, Arna E Andrews
G-CSF is a hemopoietic growth factor that has a role in steady state granulopoiesis, as well as in mature neutrophil activation and function. G-CSF- and G-CSF receptor-deficient mice are profoundly protected in several models of rheumatoid arthritis, and Ab blockade of G-CSF also protects against disease. To further investigate the actions of blocking G-CSF/G-CSF receptor signaling in inflammatory disease, and as a prelude to human studies of the same approach, we developed a neutralizing mAb to the murine G-CSF receptor, which potently antagonizes binding of murine G-CSF and thereby inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and G-CSF receptor signaling...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799353/posaconazole-loaded-leukocytes-as-a-novel-treatment-strategy-targeting-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#14
Shane R Baistrocchi, Mark J Lee, Melanie Lehoux, Benjamin Ralph, Brendan D Snarr, Robert Robitaille, Donald C Sheppard
BACKGROUND:  Impaired delivery of antifungals to hyphae within necrotic lesions is thought to contribute to therapeutic failure in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). We hypothesized that transfusion of leukocytes loaded ex-vivo with the lipophilic antifungal posaconazole could improve delivery of antifungals to the sites of established infection and improve outcome in experimental IPA. METHODS:  The HL-60 leukemia cell line was differentiated to a neutrophil-like phenotype (dHL-60 cells) then exposed to a range of posaconazole concentrations...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799200/comparative-in-vivo-efficacy-of-tedizolid-in-neutropenic-versus-immunocompetent-murine-streptococcus-pneumoniae-lung-infection-models
#15
Kamilia Abdelraouf, David P Nicolau
Given that tedizolid exhibits substantial lung penetration, we hypothesize that it could achieve good efficacy against Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infections. We evaluated the pharmacodynamics of tedizolid for treatment of S. pneumoniae lung infections and compared efficacy of tedizolid human-simulated epithelial lining fluid (ELF) exposures in immunocompetent and neutropenic murine lung infection models. ICR mice were rendered neutropenic via intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide injections, then inoculated intranasally with S...
October 31, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798704/the-influenza-virus-protein-pb1-f2-increases-viral-pathogenesis-through-neutrophil-recruitment-and-nk-cells-inhibition
#16
Aurore Vidy, Pauline Maisonnasse, Bruno Da Costa, Bernard Delmas, Christophe Chevalier, Ronan Le Goffic
The influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis observed during IAV infections in mammals. In this study, using a mouse model, we compared the host response associated with PB1-F2 with an early transcriptomic signature that was previously associated with neutrophils and consecutively fatal IAV infections. This allowed us to show that PB1-F2 is partly involved in neutrophil-related mechanisms leading to death. Using neutropenic mice, we confirmed that the harmful effect of PB1-F2 is due to an excessive inflammation mediated by an increased neutrophil mobilization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795532/prophylactic-strategies-for-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Yuki Asano-Mori
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are one of the most serious complications developing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). They are difficult to treat once present and usually have a fatal course in profoundly immunosuppressed patients. Upfront prevention therefore plays an important role in overcoming this threat. The combination of a protected environment and antifungal prophylaxis against Candida spp. is conventionally applied to prevent IFIs during the neutropenic period after HSCT, whereas mold-active agents are recommended for prophylaxis against Aspergillus spp...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793737/benzylpenicillin-plus-an-aminoglycoside-versus-meropenem-in-neutropenic-lymphoma-and-leukaemia-patients-with-a-suspected-bacterial-infection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Dag Torfoss, Tone Fladhagen, Harald Holte, Lorentz Brinch, Fredrik Hellem Schjesvold, Yngvar Fløisand, Emil Nyquist, Jakob Dalgaard, Peter Meyer, Anne Kristine Lehmann, Jens Hammerstrøm, Tove Skjelbakken, E Arne Høiby, Leiv Sandvik, Stein Kvaløy
OBJECTIVES: In Norway, initial treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) has traditionally been benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside (PA). Internationally, FN is often treated with a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic. We aimed to compare these two regimens in a prospective, randomized, trial in lymphoma and leukaemia patients with an expected period of neutropenia ≥7days, and a suspected bacterial infection. METHODS: Adult neutropenic patients with lymphoma or leukaemia, and a suspected bacterial infection, were randomized for treatment with PA or meropenem (M)...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793578/diagnostic-value-of-sepsis-biomarkers-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-in-a-condition-of-high-prevalence-of-gram-negative-pathogens
#19
Igor Stoma, Igor Karpov, Anatoly Uss, Oleg Rummo, Natalia Milanovich, Igor Iskrov
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: A decision about the need for antimicrobial therapy in a patient with febrile neutropenia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is often complicated because of the low frequency of culture isolation and reduced clinical manifestation of infection. Usefulness and choice of sepsis biomarkers to distinguish bloodstream infection (BSI) from other causes of febrile episode is still argued in HSCT recipients in modern epidemiological situations characterized by the emergence of highly resistant gram-negative microorganisms...
October 20, 2016: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790948/nurses-knowledge-and-care-practices-for-infection-prevention-in-neutropenic-patients
#20
Gul Hatice Tarakcioglu Celik, Fatos Korkmaz
BACKGROUND: Neutropenia-associated infections can prolong hospitalization, increase re-admission, mortality and morbidity rates. AIM: To determine nurses' knowledge and infection control care practices in neutropenic patients. DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted between January and May 2012, at oncology adult inpatient units of a university hospital in TURKEY. Sample consisted of 51 staff nurses. METHODS: Data were collected by a form included socio-demographic characteristics, neutropenia knowledge questions, and infection control care practices...
October 28, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
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