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Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Bao Shi
Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its receptor, KissR (previously known as GPR54), play a critical role in the control of reproduction and puberty onset in mammals. Additionally, a number of studies have provided evidence of the existence of multiple Kiss/KissR systems in teleosts, but the physiological relevance and functions of these kisspeptin forms (Kiss1 and Kiss2) still remain to be investigated. To this end, we examined the direct actions of Kiss2 on hypothalamic functions in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
April 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Mina Hontani, Rina Shinooka, Akinori Hasegawa, Tomoki Kichise, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Hayami Yoshizawa, Rena Watanabe, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), a potent vasoconstrictor and inhibitor of angiogenesis, and its receptor, GPR54, have currently received much attention in relation to pre-eclampsia. However, it still remains unknown whether KP-10 could affect atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the effects of KP-10 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocyte-derived macrophages, human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro, and atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice in vivo...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Peng Wang, Meng Wang, Guangdong Ji, Shuangshuang Yang, Shicui Zhang, Zhenhui Liu
Amphioxus belongs to the Cephalochordata, which is the most basal subphylum of the chordates. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, key information about its regulation remains ambiguous. Here we clearly demonstrated the presence of a functional kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (Kiss-Kissr) system, which is involved in the regulation of reproduction in amphioxus. Evolutionary analyses revealed large expansion of Kiss and Kissr (gpr54) genes in amphioxus and they might represent the ancestral type of the Kiss/gpr54 genes in chordates...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
Sofia Leka-Emiri, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Paweł A Kołodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Joanna H Sliwowska
INTRODUCTION: Kisspeptin, which is encoded by the KISS1 gene and acts via GPR54, plays a role in the regulation of reproductive functions. Expression of KISS1 and GRPR54 has been found in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, and was shown to be influenced by metabolic status. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that kisspeptin could be involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line and in isolated rat adipocytes. METHODS: First, we characterized expression profiles of KISS1 and GPR54 mRNA and proteins in adipose cells isolated from male rats...
February 13, 2017: Endocrine
S Higo, N Iijima, H Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction and acts by stimulating neurones expressing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridisation (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurones in the rat brain that were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurones is prominent...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jinhong Jiang, Weidong Jin, Yali Peng, Zhen He, Lijuan Wei, Shu Li, Xiaoli Wang, Min Chang, Rui Wang
Kisspeptin (KP), the endogenous ligand of GPR54, is a mammalian amidated neurohormone, which belongs to the RF-amide peptide family. However, in contrast with the related members of the RF-amide family, little information is available regarding its role in the gastrointestinal motility. With regard to the recent data suggesting KP play an important role in food intake, and while gastrointestinal motility are closely related to it. Thus, in the present work, effects of central administration of KP-13, one of the endogenous active isoforms, on gastrointestinal motility were investigated...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
S Schäfer-Somi, S S Ay, D Kaya, M Sözmen, H B Beceriklisoy, A R Ağaoğlu, M Fındık, T van Haeften, S Aslan
Uterine tissue was collected from bitches after ovariohysterectomy at different times after ovulation. Samples were assigned to four groups: metestrous non-pregnant, day 10-12, n = 4; pre-implantation, day 10-12, n = 9; post-implantation, day 18-25, n = 13; mid-gestation, day 30-40, n = 7. RT-qPCR detection was performed for kiss1 and the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54, specific receptor for kisspeptin). In addition, immunohistochemistry was performed for detection of kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), GPR54, as well as pan-cytokeratin and vimentin...
October 23, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Charles E Roselli, Rebecka Amodei, Kyle P Gribbin, Keely Corder, Fred Stormshak, Charles T Estill
Prenatal exposure to excess androgen may result in impaired adult fertility in a variety of mammalian species. However, little is known about what feedback mechanisms regulate gonadotropin secretion during early gestation and how they respond to excess T exposure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous exposure to T on key genes that regulate gonadotropin and GnRH secretion in fetal male lambs as compared with female cohorts. We found that biweekly maternal testosterone propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from day 30 to day 58 of gestation acutely decreased (P < ...
November 2016: Endocrinology
Amir Babiker, Adnan Al Shaikh
Kisspeptin (previously known as metastin) is a protein encoded by the KISS-1 gene in humans. Kisspeptin producing neurons seem to bridge the gap between the sex steroid levels and feedback mechanisms that control the gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. Since 2003, there are many studies on the facets of neuroendocrine networks that control puberty and fertility. These have explored the role of Kisspeptins in puberty and fertility using animal models. Kisspeptins are universally recognized as essential activators of the gonadotropic axis and they play an essential role in the metabolic regulation of fertility...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Hasan Öztin, Eylem Çağıltay, Sinan Çağlayan, Mustafa Kaplan, Yaşam Kemal Akpak, Nilay Karaca, Mesut Tığlıoğlu
Male hypogonadism is defined as the deficiency of testosterone or sperm production synthesized by testicles or the deficiency of both. The reasons for hypogonadism may be primary, meaning testicular or secondary, meaning hypothalamohypophyseal. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), there is indeficiency in gonadotropic hormones due to hypothalamic or hypophyseal reasons. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an important stimulant in releasing follicular stimulant hormone (FSH), mainly luteinizing hormone (LH)...
December 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Rosanna Chianese, Gilda Cobellis, Teresa Chioccarelli, Vincenza Ciaramella, Marina Migliaccio, Silvia Fasano, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
BACKGROUND: The control of male fertility requires accurate endocrine, paracrine and autocrine communications along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. In this respect, the possible interplay between upcoming/classical modulators of reproductive functions deserves attention in that may be a successful tool for the future exploitation of new potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of fertility disorders. METHODS: In this review we will discuss upcoming data concerning the role of kisspeptins, the products of the Kiss1 gene, and estrogens - classically considered as female hormones - as well as their possible interplay in testis...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Laixiang Xu, Huiliang Xue, Shenning Li, Jinhui Xu, Lei Chen
Kisspeptins and G protein coupled receptor (GPR54) play significant roles in regulating reproductive activity among seasonal reproductive animals; however, the mechanisms of KiSS-1 and GPR54 gene affecting the seasonal reproduction in striped hamster are still unknown. In this study, real-time quantitative PCR was employed to examine the expression profiles of KiSS-1 and GPR54 in the hypothalamus, ovarian, testis, uterus and epididymis of striped hamsters among four different seasons. Our results showed that, among different seasons, the KiSS-1 expression mode of male striped hamster and the GPR54 expression mode of female striped hamster were consistent with the seasonal photoperiod in the hypothalamus...
August 31, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Rong Yang, Yi-Mei Wang, Li Zhang, Zeng-Ming Zhao, Jun Zhao, Shuang-Qing Peng
Sporadic epidemics and several researches in rodents indicated that zearalenone (ZEA) and its metabolites, the prevailing oestrogenic mycotoxins in foodstuffs, were a triggering factor for true precocious puberty development in girls. Nevertheless, the neuroendocrine mechanism through which ZEA mycoestrogens advance puberty onset is not fully understood. To elucidate this issue, hypothalamic kisspeptin-G-protein coupled receptor-54 (GPR54) signaling pathway that regulates the onset of puberty was focused on in the present study...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Vutha Pheng, Hiroko Tsukamura, Kei-Ichiro Maeda
Kisspeptin, encoded by KISS1/Kiss1 gene, is now considered a master regulator of reproductive functions in mammals owing to its involvement in the direct activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons after binding to its cognate receptor, GPR54. Ever since the discovery of kisspeptin, intensive studies on hypothalamic expression of KISS1/Kiss1 and on physiological roles of hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons have provided clues as to how the brain controls sexual maturation at the onset of puberty and subsequent reproductive performance in mammals...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Manuel D Gahete, Mari C Vázquez-Borrego, Antonio J Martínez-Fuentes, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Justo P Castaño, Raúl M Luque
Kisspeptin (Kiss1) is an amidated neurohormone that belongs to the RF-amide peptide family, which has a key role in the control of reproduction. Specifically, kisspeptin regulates reproductive events, including puberty and ovulation, primarily by activating the surface receptor Kiss1r (aka GPR54), at hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. More recently, it has been found that kisspeptin peptide is present in the hypophyseal portal circulation and that the Kiss1/Kiss1r system is expressed in pituitary cells, which suggest that kisspeptin could exert an endocrine, paracrine or even autocrine role at the pituitary gland level...
July 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Satoshi Imamura, Sung-Pyo Hur, Yuki Takeuchi, Selma Bouchekioua, Akihiro Takemura
The kisspeptin receptor (GPR54) mediates neuroendocrine control of kisspeptin in the brain and acts as a gateway for a pulsatile release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This study aimed to clone two GPR54 genes (gpr54-1 and gpr54-2) from the brain of the sapphire devil Chrysiptera cyanea, a tropical damselfish, and to study their involvement in reproduction. The partial sequences of the sapphire devil gpr54-1 cDNA (1059bp) and gpr54-2 cDNA (1098bp) each had an open reading frame encoding a protein of 353 and 366 amino acids, respectively, both of which had structural features of a G-protein-coupled receptor...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Sophie A Clarke, Waljit S Dhillo
Since its first description in 1996, the KISS1 gene and its peptide products, kisspeptins, have increasingly become recognised as key regulators of reproductive health. With kisspeptins acting as ligands for the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R (previously known as GPR54 or KPR54), recent work has consistently shown that administration of kisspeptin across a variety of species stimulates gonadotrophin release through influencing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the finding that kisspeptins are crucial for ensuring healthy development, with knockout animal models, as well as proband genetic testing in human patients affected by abnormal pubertal development, corroborating the notion that a functional kisspeptin receptor is required for appropriate gonadotrophin secretion...
June 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Yanping Yang, Jiancao Gao, Cong Yuan, Yingying Zhang, Yongjing Guan, Zaizhao Wang
17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a widely existed endocrine disrupting chemical in water environment. Kisspeptins act as indispensable regulators through GPR54 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This study aimed to provide further understanding of the effect of EE2 on HPG axis. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of kiss genes and GPR54s were performed in Gobiocypris rarus. The mRNA expression profiles of kiss1, kiss2, GPR54s and GnRHs were detected in G. rarus brain and/or gonad following 3- and 6-days EE2 (1, 5, 25 and 125 ng/L) exposure...
July 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Jiangfeng Mao, Bingkun Huang, Zhao Sun, Qin Han, Min Nie, Xueyan Wu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dexamethasone on function of hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: LPS (100 μg/kg), dexamethasone (DEX, 1 mg/kg) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were injected subcutaneously into castrated mice (n=5 in each group) for 4 weeks. The expression of Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 in hypothalamus were measured by immunohistochemistry, and plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay...
March 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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