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Sean P Graham, Kevin T Fielman, Mary T Mendonça
Complement-an immune protein cascade involved in pathogen lysis-was discovered as a temperature-labile component of vertebrate plasma, yet since that time the thermal performance of complement has not received much attention from a comparative or ecological perspective. We investigated two thermal hypotheses involving the complement system of the cottonmouth snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus). We tested whether complement performance would conform to optimal thermal reaction norms commonly observed in ectotherm ecophysiological studies, predicting that complement efficiency would be maximal at or near the cottonmouth's field body temperatures...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Saeedeh Salimi, Abbas Mohammadpour-Gharehbagh, Farshid Keshavarzi, Farzaneh Farajian-Mashhadi, Mahdieh Mousavi, Mahnaz Sandoughi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a multisystem and autoimmune disorder leading to damage of multi-organ systems. The current study aimed to assess the possible association between ERα gene polymorphisms and SLE in a southeast Iranian population. METHODS: The ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in 170 SLE patients and 186 healthy subjects. RESULTS: There was no association between ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms and SLE susceptibility; however, the combination of the TC/AA and CC/GG genotypes of ESR α PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were more frequent in SLE patients...
January 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Vania Regina Assis, Stefanny Christie Monteiro Titon, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Cristina de Oliveira Massoco, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Previous studies in a variety of vertebrates show stressed animals to exhibit acute increases in glucocorticoid levels, with consequences for immune modulation. Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are mostly associated with immunosuppression. However, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the amphibian physiological reaction to short- and long-term stress conditions, including glucocorticoid effects on the immune response. In order to better clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and immune response, newly captured Brazilian toads (Rhinella icterica) (1 week in captivity) were subjected to a daily transdermal application (TA), of corticosterone or vehicle, for 30 consecutive days...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Chuanling Zhang, Xueying Zhou, Tianzhuo Yao, Zhenyu Tian, Demin Zhou
Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a common vehicle for the delivery of a variety of therapeutic genes. A better understanding of the process of infection of AAV2 will advance our knowledge of AAV2 biology and allow for the optimization of AAV2 capsids with favorable transduction profiles. However, the precise fluorescent labeling of an AAV2 vector for probing virus tracking without affecting the nature of the virus remains a challenge. In this study, we precisely displayed lab-synthesized azide-moieties on the viral capsid at modifiable sites...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Tongxi Liu, Li Gao, Sheng Xie, Hongliang Sun, Min Liu, Zhenguo Zhai
PURPOSE: Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction within the mediastinum, which can result in compression of mediastinal structures. To investigate the clinical and imaging characteristics of TB-associated FM, patients with evidence of TB infection were retrospectively evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 patients with clinically diagnosed FM and evidence of TB infection were selected from the database of two institutional medical centers...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Kun Feng, Matthew Li, Wenwen Liu, Ali Ghorbani Kashkooli, Xingcheng Xiao, Mei Cai, Zhongwei Chen
Silicon has been intensively studied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) because of its exceptionally high specific capacity. However, silicon-based anode materials usually suffer from large volume change during the charge and discharge process, leading to subsequent pulverization of silicon, loss of electric contact, and continuous side reactions. These transformations cause poor cycle life and hinder the wide commercialization of silicon for LIBs. The lithiation and delithiation behaviors, and the interphase reaction mechanisms, are progressively studied and understood...
January 22, 2018: Small
Guoying Wang, Yanrong Liu, Xiuli Niu, Shiming Jia, Haoqi Tian, Xuefu Chen, Gaofeng Shi
Free radicals play an important role in the oxidizing power of the polluted air, the development of aging-related diseases, the formation of ozone, and the production of secondary particulate matters. The high variability of peroxyl radical concentration has prevented the detection of possible trends or distributions in the concentration of those species. We present a new method, free radical reaction combined with liquid chromatography photodiode array detection, for identifying and quantifying peroxyl radicals in polluted air...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Linghui Yu, Luyuan Paul Wang, Hanbin Liao, Jingxian Wang, Zhenxing Feng, Ovadia Lev, Joachim S C Loo, Moulay Tahar Sougrati, Zhichuan J Xu
Development of efficient, affordable, and sustainable energy storage technologies has become an area of interest due to the worsening environmental issues and rising technological dependence on Li-ion batteries. Na-ion batteries (NIBs) have been receiving intensive research efforts during the last few years. Owing to their potentially low cost and relatively high energy density, NIBs are promising energy storage devices, especially for stationary applications. A fundamental understanding of electrode properties during electrochemical reactions is important for the development of low cost, high-energy density, and long shelf life NIBs...
January 22, 2018: Small
Charlotte A Lee, Anil Dhawan, Valeria Iansante, Sharon Lehec, Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Celine Filippi, Simon Walker, Raquel Fernandez-Dacosta, Nigel Heaton, Sanjay Bansal, Ragai R Mitry, Emer Fitzpatrick
Neonatal livers are a potential source of good quality hepatocytes for clinical transplantation. We compared viability and function of neonatal and adult hepatocytes, and report their clinical use both intra-portally and in alginate microbeads. Following isolation from donor livers, hepatocyte function was assessed using albumin, alpha-1 antitrypsin and factor VII. Metabolic function was investigated by measuring resorufin conjugation, ammonia metabolism, UGT enzyme activity and cytochrome P450 function following induction...
January 21, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Weilu Cheng, Zhongyang Zhang, Ruodan Xu, Panpan Cai, Peter Kristensen, Menglin Chen, Yudong Huang
Effective and affordable, antibacterial and hemostatic materials are of great interests in clinical wound care practices. Herein, Enterobacteria phage T4 were incorporated in polycaprolactone/collagen I (PCL-ColI) nanofibers via electrospinning in order to eradicate Escherichia coli infection and meanwhile establish hemostasis. Tensile strength of the membrane was significantly enhanced with increased PCL ratio. Those with a collagen component above 70% were demonstrated to be more hemostatic with shorter hemostatic time and smaller amount of bleeding...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Markus Meuwly, Akshaya K Das
Conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate (NO$_3^-$) by dioxygenation (NOD) protects cells from lethal NO. Starting from NO-bound heme, the first step in converting NO to benign NO$_3^-$ is the ligand exchange reaction FeNO+O$_2$ $\rightarrow$ FeO$_2$+NO which is still poorly understood at a molecular level. For WT truncated Hemoglobin N (trHbN) and its Y33A mutant the barrier for the exchange reaction differs by 1.5 kcal/mol compared with 1.7 kcal/mol from experiment. It is directly confirmed that the ligand exchange reaction is rate limiting in trHbN and that entropic contributions account for 75 \% of the difference between WT and the mutant...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Hongjie Tang, Wei Chen, Jiangyan Wang, Thomas Dugger, Luz Cruz, David Kisailus
Carbon-based nanocomposites have shown promising results in replacing commercial Pt/C as high-performance, low cost, nonprecious metal-based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts. Developing unique nanostructures of active components (e.g., metal oxides) and carbon materials is essential for their application in next generation electrode materials for fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, a general approach for the production of 1D porous nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon fibers embedded with active ORR components, (M/MOx , i...
January 22, 2018: Small
Matthew James Abplanalp, Sándor Góbi, Alexandre Bergantini, Andrew M Turner, Ralf I Kaiser
Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in star- and planet-forming regions as well as on comets such as on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, but their origins have remained largely unexplained until now. Here, we report the first laboratory detection of distinct C3H8O (propanol, methyl ethyl ether) and C4H8O (n-butanal, i-butanal) isomers formed within interstellar analog ices through interaction with ionizing radiation. This study reveals that complex organics with propyl (C3H7) and butyl (C4H9) groups can be synthesized easily in deep space and may act as key evolutionary tracers of a cosmic ray driven non-equilibrium chemistry in low temperature interstellar ices at 10 K...
January 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Sara Ongay, Miriam Langelaar-Makkinje, Marcel P Stoop, Nora Liu, Hermen Overkleeft, Theo M Luider, Geny M M Groothuis, Rainer Bischoff
Formaldehyde fixation is widely used for long-term storage of tissue. However, due to formaldehyde-induced cross-links, fixated tissue proteins are difficult to extract hampering mass spectrometry (MS)-proteomic analyses. In the present work we evaluate cleavable protein crosslinkers as fixatives that allow tissue preservation as well as efficient protein extraction for MS-proteomics under mild conditions. We investigated disuccinimidyl tartrate (DST) and dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] (DSP) as cleavable fixating reagents...
January 22, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yunpeng Gao, Guojiao Wu, Qi Zhou, Jianbo Wang
A Pd-catalyzed oxygenative cross-coupling of ynamides and benzyl bromides has been developed. After subsequent hydrogenation, α,α-disubstituted amide derivatives were obtained in good yields. Migratory insertion of α-oxo palladium carbene species generated by intermolecular oxidation is proposed as the key step in this reaction. The study demonstrates the potential of ynamides as carbene precursors in Pd-catalyzed C-C bond-forming cross- coupling reactions.
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Benjamí Oller-Salvia, Gene Kym, Jason W Chin
Homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), generated by site-specific toxin linkage, show improved therapeutic indices with respect to traditional ADCs. However, current methods to produce site-specific conjugates suffer from low protein expression, slow reaction kinetics and low yields, or are limited to specific conjugation sites. Here we describe high yielding expression systems that efficiently incorporate a cyclopropene derivative of lysine (CypK) into antibodies through genetic code expansion. We express trastuzumab bearing CypK and conjugate tetrazine derivatives to the antibody...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Masatoshi Ohnishi, Tomoka Urasaki, Kyohei Egusa, Chihiro Kunobu, Tomoki Harada, Reika Shinkado, Hitomi Nishi, Shoji Maehara, Chinami Kitamura, Toshiyuki Hata, Kazuyoshi Ohashi, Hirotaka Shibuya, Atsuko Inoue
To elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Curcuma sp., we investigated whether dehydrocurdione, a sesquiterpene contained in Curcuma sp., induces heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an antioxidative enzyme, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Dehydrocurdione was extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma sp., and its purity was verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Treatment with 10-100 μM dehydrocurdione transiently and concentration-dependently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Docking simulation suggested the presence of the Michael reaction between dehydrocurdione and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap)1 keeping nuclear factor-erythroid2-related-factor (Nrf)2, a transcription factor, in the cytoplasm...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Victoria Smith, Anthony N Carlsen
The presentation of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) in a simple reaction time (RT) task significantly reduces RT due to the involuntary early initiation of a prepared movement; however, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. It has been proposed that a SAS triggers a cortically stored motor program by involuntarily increasing initiation-related activation. Sub-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to investigate cortical processes, as it increases cortical excitability for 6-30ms and significantly reduces RT...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Neil Burford, Christopher Frazee, Robert McDonald, Michael Ferguson, Brian Patrick, Andreas Decken
Reaction of Ph2SbCl3 with 2,2'-bipyridine and Me3SiOSO2CF3 releases chlorobenzene, which is interpreted as a reductive (SbV/SbIII) elimination from a cationic complex of a stiboranium cation. Conversely, reactions of Ph2SbCl3 with 4-methylpyridine-N-oxide and AgOSO2CF3 give redox resistant complexes with the generic formulae [Ph2SbCl3-xLx+1][OTf]x, including a compound containing the first example of a pnictogen(V) trication.
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Johnathon D Dooley, Hon Wai Lam
Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H functionalization-oxidative annulations of aromatic substrates with 1,3-enynes that contain allylic hydrogen atoms cis to the alkyne are described. The key step in these reactions is an alkenyl-to-allyl 1,4-rhodium(III) migration to give electrophilic pi-allylrhodium(III) species. Nucleophilic trapping of these species gives heterocycles such as benzopyrans, isobenzofuranones, and isoindolinones.
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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