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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931236/a-molecular-assay-to-quantify-male-and-female-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes-results-from-2-randomized-controlled-trials-using-primaquine-for-gametocyte-clearance
#1
Will Stone, Patrick Sawa, Kjerstin Lanke, Sanna Rijpma, Robin Oriango, Maureen Nyaurah, Paul Osodo, Victor Osoti, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Halimatou Diawara, Rob Woestenenk, Wouter Graumans, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, John Bradley, Ingrid Chen, Joelle Brown, Giulia Siciliano, Pietro Alano, Roly Gosling, Alassane Dicko, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
Background: Single low-dose primaquine (PQ) reduces Plasmodium falciparum infectivity before it impacts gametocyte density. Here, we examined the effect of PQ on gametocyte sex ratio as a possible explanation for this early sterilizing effect. Methods: Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to quantify female gametocytes (targeting Pfs25 messenger RNA [mRNA]) and male gametocytes (targeting Pf3D7_1469900 mRNA) in 2 randomized trials in Kenya and Mali, comparing dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) alone to DP with PQ...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931191/surgicel-use-in-control-of-primary-postadenoidectomy-bleeding
#2
Mohammad Waheed El-Anwar, Ahmad Abdel Nofal, Ashraf Elmalt
Although postadenoidectomy bleeding is a rare complication, it is serious and potentially fatal. Postnasal packing and cautery of the adenoid bed are the most popular methods of controlling postadenoidectomy bleeding. Many hazards and complications may arise from traditional nasopharyngeal packing and nasopharyngeal cautery. In this case series, oxidized regenerated cellulose (Surgicel Nu-Knit; Ethicon; Somerville, N.J) was inserted and used as postnasal packing to control primary postadenoidectomy bleeding in 9 cases after conventional curettage adenoidectomy...
September 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931006/up-regulation-of-calreticulin-in-mouse-liver-tissues-after-long-term-irradiation-with-low-dose-rate-gamma-rays
#3
Lan Yi, Nan Hu, Jie Yin, Jing Sun, Hongxiang Mu, Keren Dai, Dexin Ding
The biological effects of low-dose or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation on normal tissues has attracted attention. Based on previous research, we observed the morphology of liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice that received <50, 50-500, and 500-1000 μGy/h of 137Cs radiation for 180 d. We found that the pathological changes in liver tissues were more obvious as the irradiation dose rates increased. Additionally, differential protein expression in liver tissues was analyzed using a proteomics approach. Compared with the matched group in the 2D gel analysis of the irradiated groups, 69 proteins had ≥ 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930976/detection-of-residual-donor-erythroid-progenitor-cells-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-patients-with-hemoglobinopathies
#4
Roman Crazzolara, Gabriele Kropshofer, Michael Steurer, Sieghart Sopper, Wolfgang Schwinger
The presence of incomplete chimerism is noted in a large proportion of patients following bone marrow transplant for thalassemia major or sickle cell disease. This observation has tremendous implications, as subsequent therapeutic immunomodulation strategies can improve clinical outcome. Conventionally, polymerase chain reaction-based analysis of short tandem repeats is used to identify chimerism in donor-derived blood cells. However, this method is restricted to nucleated cells and cannot distinguish between dissociated single-cell lineages...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#5
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930960/prehospital-administration-of-freeze-dried-plasma-is-it-the-solution-for-trauma-casualties
#6
Amir Shlaifer, Maya Siman-Tov, Irina Radomislensky, Kobi Peleg, Avi Shina, Erez Nachum Baruch, Elon Glassberg, Avraham Yitzhak
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of possible preventable death in the battlefield. There is an increasing evidence for the effectiveness of blood component therapy in general, and plasma infusion in particular but their use is less applicable in the prehospital setting due to logistic difficulties. Israeli Defense Force has implemented the use of freeze-dried plasma (FDP) at the point of injury (POI), this adoption of FDP use entailed doubts regarding the feasibility and effectiveness of this practice...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930872/improving-vertical-jump-profiles-through-prescribed-movement-plans
#7
John K Mayberry, Bryce Patterson, Phil Wagner
Developing practical, reliable, and valid methods for monitoring athlete wellness and injury risk is an important goal for trainers, athletes, and coaches. Previous studies have shown that the countermovement vertical jump test (CMJ) is both a reliable and valid metric for evaluating an athlete's condition. This study examines the effectiveness of prescribed workouts on improving quality of movement during CMJ. The dataset consists of 2425 pairs of CMJ scans for high school, college, and professional athletes training at a privately owned facility...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930868/next-generation-sequencing-revealed-tp53-mutations-to-be-malignant-marker-for-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasms-that-could-be-detected-using-pancreatic-juice
#8
Shinichi Takano, Mitsuharu Fukasawa, Makoto Kadokura, Hiroko Shindo, Ei Takahashi, Sumio Hirose, Shinya Maekawa, Kunio Mochizuki, Hiromichi Kawaida, Jun Itakura, Ryohei Katoh, Hideki Fujii, Tadashi Sato, Nobuyuki Enomoto
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify the genetic mutations associated with malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and evaluate the possibility of detecting mutations in pure pancreatic juice by next-generation sequencing. METHODS: Resected tissues were collected from 50 patients with IPMN, and pure pancreatic juice samples were collected from 19 patients who had a resection. The extracted DNA was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting 52 cancer-related genes, including KRAS, GNAS, RNF43, and TP53; the mutations were then detected by next-generation sequencing and then analyzed for correlations with the clinicopathological characteristics...
September 19, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930865/presence-of-human-herpesvirus-6b-in-the-pancreas-of-subjects-with-and-without-type-1-diabetes
#9
Maja Ericsson, Oskar Skog
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) A and B in human pancreata and to search for signs of active infection in this organ of subjects with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Pancreata from brain-dead organ donors with and without T1D were examined for the presence of HHV6 genomic sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcripts by reverse transcriptase-PCR, and protein by immunohistochemistry...
September 19, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930847/guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-axonal-polyneuropathy-associated-with-toscana-virus-infection-a-case-report
#10
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli, Paola De Mitri, Donata Guidetti
RATIONALE: Numerous cases of post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne emerging pathogen in the Mediterranean area. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for acute facial weakness, associated to numbness paraesthesias at lower and upper limbs. The neurological examination revealed facial diplegia and reduced tendon reflexes. The nerve conduction studies documented an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN); the lumbar puncture detected albuminocytologic dissociation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930843/clinical-characteristics-of-a-kif21a-mutation-in-a-chinese-family-with-congenital-fibrosis-of-the-extraocular-muscles-type-1
#11
Huiqiong Chen, Tangbing Liu, Zhenhai Zeng, Yufei Wang, Yuanyuan Lin, Lulu Cheng, Qintuo Pan, Feng Gu, Zongming Song, Zongduan Zhang
The aim of the study is to characterize the clinical ocular phenotype with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) and to confirm whether the kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutation was the pathogenic gene in this Chinese family.Three affected individuals and 2 asymptomatic kinsfolk from a Chinese family underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, orbital computerized tomography (CT), and postoperative histological examinations were performed in the proband. All the recruited members were screened for 3 exons (8, 20, and 21) of KIF21A mutations using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing of corresponding PCR products...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930842/type-4b-hereditary-hemochromatosis-associated-with-a-novel-mutation-in-the-slc40a1-gene-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Wei Zhang, Tingxia Lv, Jian Huang, Xiaojuan Ou
RATIONALE: Hereditary hemochromatosis can be divided into HFE- and non-HFE-related based on genetic mutations in different genes. HFE-related hemochromatosis is the most common inherited genetic disease in European populations but rare in Asia-pacific region. Recently, non-HFE-related hemochromatosis has been reported in patients from the Asian countries. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 48-year-old Chinese Han woman who presented with abnormal liver function, diabetes mellitus, hyperferritinemia, and high transferrin saturation, with severe iron overload in parenchymal cells, Kupffer cells, and periportal fibrosis on liver biopsy...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930780/splinting-after-ear-reconstruction-a-stepwise-and-inexpensive-workflow-protocol
#13
Herman Vercruysse, James I J Green, Gaynor Osman, Brigitte Harrison, Kana Miyagi, Neil W Bulstrode
BACKGROUND: Long-term postoperative splinting plays a role in the prevention of contracture of the grafted skin after a second-stage ear reconstruction. The scar retraction could lead to an unfavorable aesthetic outcome. Splinting could play a role to overcome or prevent the loss of projection and the obliteration of the sulcus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have defined the characteristics of an ideal long-term splint and present a stepwise clinical protocol for the fabrication of an ethylene-vinyl acetate splint...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930716/antinociceptive-effect-of-ghrelin-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-involves-trpv1-opioid-systems
#14
Yuqing Mao, Zhengyang Li, Kan Chen, Huafang Yu, Shaoren Zhang, Miao Jiang, Yuanhua Ma, Chunli Liang, Hongyan Liu, Huanqing Li, Qian Hua, Hao Zhou, Yonghong Sun, Xiaoming Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), defined as recurrent abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, seriously affects quality of life and ability to work. Ghrelin is a brain-gut hormone, which has been reported to show antinociceptive effects in peripheral pain. We investigated the effect of ghrelin on visceral hypersensitivity and pain in a rat model of IBS. METHODS: Maternal deprivation (MD) was used to provide a stress-induced model of IBS in Wistar rats...
September 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930635/immobilization-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-on-hydrogen-terminated-silicon-substrate-as-a-transparent-conductive-protector
#15
Yudi Tu, Toru Utsunomiya, Sho Kokufu, Masahiro Soga, Takashi Ichii, Hiroyuki Sugimura
Silicon is a promising electrode material for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic reaction. However, the chemically active surface of silicon will be easily oxidized when exposed to the oxidation environment. We immobilized graphene oxide (GO) onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (H-Si) and reduced it through ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. This acted as an ultrathin conductive layer to protect H-Si from oxidation. The elemental evolution of GO was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and it was found that GO was partially reduced soon after the deposition onto H-Si and further reduced after UV or VUV light irradiation...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930581/biophysical-mechanisms-complementing-classical-cell-biology
#16
Richard H W Funk
This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930469/simulation-study-on-the-reaction-diffusion-coupling-in-simple-pore-structures
#17
Yanping Li, Mingcan Zhao, Chengxiang Li, Wei Ge
Most porous media (just like catalyst pellets) have complicated pore structures, and understanding the coupling of the diffusion and reaction processes in these pores is very important for improving their performance. In this work, a diffusion factor (D) and a reaction factor (R) are proposed to quantitatively describe the diffusion and reaction performance in these pores respectively at molecular level. The yield in unit time is used to quantify their productivity and is expressed as the product of D and R...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930466/a-stereoselective-michael-mannich-annelation-strategy-for-the-construction-of-novel-tetrahydrocarbazoles
#18
David R Williams, Seth A Bawel, Richard N Schaugaard
A novel annelation strategy has been devised for stereoselective synthesis of tetrahydrocarbazoles. The pathway features a regio- and stereocontrolled condensation of indole and its substituted derivatives with electron-deficient 1,3-dienes via a Michael-Mannich reaction sequence. An extension of this method to include cross-conjugated allenes as substrates also results in a Michael-Mannich-Michael cascade, incorporating 2 equiv of indole with increasing product complexity. The formal 4π + 2π cyclization describes a concise route to polycyclic alkaloids of this family...
September 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930459/interfacial-insights-into-a-carbon-capture-system-co2-uptake-to-an-aqueous-monoethanolamine-surface
#19
Laura E McWilliams, Nicholas Valley, Nina Vincent, Geraldine L Richmond
Monoethanolamine (MEA) is a benchmark scrubber for CO2 gas emissions reductions. Preliminary studies have indicated surface monoethanolamine could influence the greater chemistry of CO2 uptake. MEA is known to be surface active and orients at aqueous surfaces such that its nitrogen lone pair electrons are pointing toward the gas phase. This MEA orientation has the potential to facilitate CO2 surface chemistry, however a thorough description of the chemistry at play during this important carbon capture reaction is lacking...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930453/ab-initio-qm-mm-modelling-of-the-rate-limiting-proton-transfer-step-in-the-deamination-of-tryptamine-by-aromatic-amine-dehydrogenase
#20
Kara Elizabeth Ranaghan, William G Morris, Laura Masgrau, Kittusamy Senthilkumar, Linus O Johannissen, Nigel S Scrutton, Jeremy N Harvey, Frederick R Manby, Adrian J Mulholland
Aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) and related enzymes are at the heart of debates on the roles of quantum tunnelling and protein dynamics in catalysis. The reaction of tryptamine in AADH involves significant quantum tunnelling in the rate-limiting proton transfer step, shown e.g. by large H/D primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), with unusual temperature dependence. We apply correlated ab initio combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods, at levels up to local coupled cluster theory (LCCSD(T)/(aug)-cc-pVTZ), to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces for this reaction, which are necessary for quantitative analysis of tunnelling contributions and reaction dynamics...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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