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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725094/evolution-of-three-nobel-prize-themes-and-a-nobel-snub-theme-in-chemistry-a-bibliometric-study-with-focus-on-international-collaboration
#1
Sichao Tong, Per Ahlgren
In this study, three chemistry research themes closely associated with the Nobel Prize are bibliometrically analyzed-Ribozyme, Ozone and Fullerene-as well as a research theme in chemistry not associated with the Nobel Prize (a Nobel snub theme): Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation. We analyze, based on an algorithmically constructed publication-level classification system, the evolution of the four themes with respect to publication volume and international collaboration, using two datasets, one of them a subset of highly cited publications, for each considered time period...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715979/a-serendipitous-scientist
#2
Robert J Lefkowitz
Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699494/the-small-molecules-targeting-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-for-cancer-therapy
#3
Nannan Ao, Qianping Chen, Geng Liu
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the degradation of majority of the intracellular proteins. The fundamental importance of UPS was highlighted when Rose, Hershko, and Ciechanover were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The alterations in this process have been shown to contribute to the cancer progression. Therefore, pharmacological targeting of the UPS can potentially provide chemotherapeutics for the treatment of tumours. The application of bortezomib proved that interfering with UPS activity could be very effective against haematological malignancies...
July 10, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686374/-spatial-navigation-brief-overview-of-the-medicine-and-physiology-nobel-prize-2014
#4
Franciscus Boselie, Jean-Philippe Guyot
Various cells of the thalamus, hippocampus, and the medial entorhinal cortex plays a crucial role in spatial navigation ability. The highlighting of these cells and the understanding of their functioning by John O'Keefe, May-Britt and Edvard Moser have earned them the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 2014. The vision, olfaction, and the vestibular system contribute to this complex system. These observations may well explain why patients with vestibular disorder complain of spatial disorientation, often a source of deep anxiety...
October 5, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678417/stochastic-optical-reconstruction-microscopy-storm
#5
Jianquan Xu, Hongqiang Ma, Yang Liu
Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy...
July 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660642/towards-inclusive-occupational-therapy-introducing-the-core-approach-for-inclusive-and-occupation-focused-practice
#6
Robert B Pereira
BACKGROUND/AIM: Occupation is a human right and a social determinant of health. It is also taken for granted. Having access to, and participating in, occupation, is intricately linked to positive health and wellbeing. Despite theory and evidence to support the link between occupation, health and wellbeing, occupational therapists can struggle with applying an occupation focus in practice and knowing how to use occupational frameworks to enable occupation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Capabilities, Opportunities, Resources and Environments (CORE) approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice...
June 29, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657492/efficacy-of-losartan-as-add-on-therapy-to-prevent-aortic-growth-and-ventricular-dysfunction-in-patients-with-marfan-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#7
Laura Muiño-Mosquera, Sylvia De Nobele, Daniel Devos, Laurence Campens, Anne De Paepe, Julie De Backer
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a multisystemic hereditary connective tissue disease. Aortic root aneurysms and dissections are the most common and life-threatening cardiovascular disorders affecting these patients. Other cardiac manifestations include mitral valve prolapse, ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias. Medical treatment of cardiovascular features is ultimately aimed at slowing down aortic root growth rate and preventing dissection. Losartan has been proposed as a new therapeutic tool for this purpose...
June 28, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656847/the-telomere-effect-a-revolutionary-approach-to-living-younger-healthier-longer-blackburn-elizabeth-and-epel-elissa-the-telomere-effect-a-revolutionary-approach-to-living-younger-healthier-longer-417pp-%C3%A2-14-99-orion-books-9780297609230-0297609238-formula-see
#8
(no author information available yet)
Elizabeth Blackburn received a Nobel prize for discovering the molecular nature of telomeres (the ends of our chromosomes that serve as protective caps) and telomerase (the enzyme that maintains telomeres).
June 28, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641826/the-chemical-history-of-morphine-an-8000-year-journey-from-resin-to-de-novo-synthesis
#9
Karolina Brook, Jessica Bennett, Sukumar P Desai
Evidence of human use of opium dates back as far as the sixth millennium BCE. Ancient societies through the Renaissance period created a variety of opium products, proliferating its common use and subsequent addiction. Because the active moiety was not known at this time, the potency of these opium concoctions could neither be predicted nor controlled. The first step in identifying opium's active ingredient, morphine, was its chemical isolation in the early 1800s by Wilhelm Sertürner. The subsequent elucidation of morphine's chemical formula and Sir Robert Robinson's derivation of morphine's structural formula, which won him the 1947 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, round out 150 years of the incremental advances in our chemical understanding of morphine...
April 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633136/malaria-fever-therapy-for-general-paralysis-of-the-insane-a-historical-cohort-study
#10
Ingrid M Daey Ouwens, C Elisabeth Lens, Aernoud T L Fiolet, Alewijn Ott, Peter J Koehler, Piet A Kager, Willem M A Verhoeven
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This year marks the 100th anniversary of the first malaria fever treatment (MFT) given to patients with general paralysis of the insane (GPI) by the Austrian psychiatrist and later Nobel laureate, Julius Wagner-Jauregg. In 1921 Wagner-Jauregg reported an impressive therapeutic success of MFT and it became the standard treatment for GPI worldwide. In this study, MFT practice in the Dutch Vincent van Gogh psychiatric hospital in GPI patients who had been admitted in the period 1924-1954 is explored...
June 21, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632333/from-chemical-topology-to-molecular-machines-nobel-lecture
#11
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
To a large extent, the field of "molecular machines" started after several groups were able to prepare, reasonably easily, interlocking ring compounds (named catenanes for compounds consisting of interlocking rings and rotaxanes for rings threaded by molecular filaments or axes). Important families of molecular machines not belonging to the interlocking world were also designed, prepared, and studied but, for most of them, their elaboration was more recent than that of catenanes or rotaxanes. Since the creation of interlocking ring molecules is so important in relation to the molecular machinery area, we will start with this aspect of our work...
June 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622978/the-evolution-and-nomenclature-of-gnrh-type-and-corazonin-type-neuropeptide-signaling-systems
#12
REVIEW
Meet Zandawala, Shi Tian, Maurice R Elphick
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was first discovered in mammals on account of its effect in triggering pituitary release of gonadotropins and the importance of this discovery was recognized forty years ago in the award of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Investigation of the evolution of GnRH revealed that GnRH-type signaling systems occur throughout the chordates, including agnathans (e.g. lampreys) and urochordates (e.g. sea squirts). Furthermore, the discovery that adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the ligand for a GnRH-type receptor in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster provided evidence of the antiquity of GnRH-type signaling...
June 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622110/pavlov-and-cajal-two-different-pathways-to-a-nobel-prize
#13
Jairo A Rozo, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) were two contemporary scientists who not only had a great impact on Russian and Spanish science but also on the international stage. Both shared several common features in their life and work, yet they followed fundamentally different paths during their training as scientists. While Pavlov received his laboratory training under the guidance of Ilya Tsion (1843-1912), Cajal did not receive any formal training within a particular laboratory nor did he have a mentor in the traditional sense, rather he was mainly self-taught, although he was supported by key figures like Maestre de San Juan (1828-1890) and Luis Simarro (1851-1921)...
July 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621284/comparison-of-platform-switched-and-sloping-shoulder-implants-on-stress-reduction-in-various-bone-densities-finite-element-analysis
#14
Joji Markose, S Suresh, Shruthi Eshwar, K Rekha, Vipin Jain, Supriya Manvi
INTRODUCTION: Comparison of platform switched (PS), sloping shoulder, and regular implants on stress reduction in various bone densities with finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 three-dimensional finite element models were built to analyze the stress distribution model. Nobel Biocare 4.3 × 8 mm regular platform replace select implant with matching diameter easy abutment, Nobel Biocare 4.3 × 8 mm replace select implant PS with 3.5 mm diameter easy abutment, Bicon 4 × 8 mm implant with 4 mm diameter sloping shoulder abutments were created virtually in compact bone density using software...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614812/the-discovery-of-water-channels-aquaporins
#15
Dennis Brown
The movement of water into and out of cells is a fundamental biological process that is essential for life. Such water movement not only regulates the activity of individual cells but also is responsible for the functioning of many organ systems and for maintaining whole body water balance. It had long been suspected that water movement across biological cell membranes was in some way enhanced or facilitated by pores or channels, but the search to identify these channels was long and tedious. As is often the case in science, the secret of the water channel was eventually discovered by chance in 1992 by Peter Agre and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, who were working on red blood cell membrane proteins...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612706/autophagy-and-its-link-to-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Jai-Sing Yang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Yuan-Man Hsu, Shih-Chang Tsai, Shih-Yin Chen, Yng-Tay Chen, Ying-Ju Lin, Yu-Chuen Huang, Chao-Jung Chen, Wei-De Lin, Wen-Lin Liao, Wei-Yong Lin, Yu-Huei Liu, Jinn-Chyuan Sheu, Fuu-Jen Tsai
Autophagy, a double-edged sword for cell survival, is the research object on 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Autophagy is a molecular mechanism for maintaining cellular physiology and promoting survival. Defects in autophagy lead to the etiology of many diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, neurodegeneration, infection disease and aging. DM is a metabolic and chronic disorder and has a higher prevalence in the world as well as in Taiwan. The character of diabetes mellitus is hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both...
June 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612648/recovery-of-phosphorous-from-industrial-waste-water-by-oxidation-and-precipitation
#17
Rikard Ylmén, Anna M K Gustafsson, Caterina Camerani-Pinzani, Britt-Marie Steenari
This paper describes the development of a method for recovery of phosphorous from one of the waste waters at an Akzo Nobel chemical plant in Ale close to Göteborg. It was found that it is possible to transform the phosphorous in the waste water to a saleable product, i.e. a slowly dissolving fertiliser. The developed process includes oxidation of phosphite to phosphate with hydrogen peroxide and heat. The phosphate is then precipitated as crystalline struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) by addition of magnesium chloride...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603953/the-nobel-prized-cellular-target-autophagy-in-eye-diseases
#18
EDITORIAL
Kai Kaarniranta, Goran Petrovski, Anu Kauppinen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596628/identification-of-successful-mentoring-communities-using-network-based-analysis-of-mentor-mentee-relationships-across-nobel-laureates
#19
Julia H Chariker, Yihang Zhang, John R Pani, Eric C Rouchka
Skills underlying scientific innovation and discovery generally develop within an academic community, often beginning with a graduate mentor's laboratory. In this paper, a network analysis of doctoral student-dissertation advisor relationships in The Academic Family Tree indicates the pattern of Nobel laureate mentoring relationships is non-random. Nobel laureates had a greater number of Nobel laureate ancestors, descendants, mentees/grandmentees, and local academic family, supporting the notion that assortative processes occur in the selection of mentors and mentees...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592501/a-physicist-s-quest-in-biology-max-delbr%C3%A3-ck-and-complementarity
#20
Bernard S Strauss
Max Delbrück was trained as a physicist but made his major contribution in biology and ultimately shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was the acknowledged leader of the founders of molecular biology, yet he failed to achieve his key scientific goals. His ultimate scientific aim was to find evidence for physical laws unique to biology: so-called "complementarity." He never did. The specific problem he initially wanted to solve was the nature of biological replication but the discovery of the mechanism of replication was made by others, in large part because of his disdain for the details of biochemistry...
June 2017: Genetics
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