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Jack A Rall
This is a story about a great scientist, luck, great discovery that changed the future direction of muscle research, war, a clandestine war mission, postwar politics, and an attempt to rewrite scientific history. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, at 44 yr of age, won the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his work on vitamin C and the establishment of the groundwork of the citric acid cycle. He now wanted to investigate one of the fundamental aspects of life and settled on the study of muscle contraction. The Szent-Gyorgyi laboratory in Hungary during World War II demonstrated that contraction could be reproduced in vitro by threads consisting of just two proteins, myosin and the newly discovered protein by Bruno Straub that they called actin...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Rong-Chi Huang
Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
Ron Cowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature
Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir Roberto R Antonini, Margaret De Castro
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids has long been recognised within the last 75 years. Since the beginning, researchers have sought to identify basic mechanisms underlying the origin and emergence of the corticosteroid circadian rhythmicity among mammals. Accordingly, Young, Hall and Rosbash, laureates of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as well as Takahashi's group among others, have characterised the molecular cogwheels of the circadian system, describing interlocking transcription/translation feedback loops essential for normal circadian rhythms...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Marga Vicedo
The idea that some diseases result from a poor fit between modern life and our biological make-up is part of the long history of what historian of medicine Charles Rosenberg has called the "progress-and-pathology narrative." This article examines a key episode in that history: 1973 Nobel laureate Niko Tinbergen's use of an evolutionary framework to identify autism as a pathogenic effect of progress. Influenced by British psychiatrist John Bowlby's work, Tinbergen and his wife Elisabeth saw autistic children as victims of environmental stress caused mainly by mothers' failure to bond with their children and to protect them from conflicting situations...
April 16, 2018: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
Arianna Barbetta, Francisco Schlottmann, Tamar Nobel, David B Sewell, Meier Hsu, Kay See Tan, Hans Gerdes, Pari Shah, Manjit S Bains, Matthew Bott, James M Isbell, David R Jones, Daniela Molena
BACKGROUND: Induction therapy has not been proven to be beneficial for patients with clinical T2N0 esophageal adenocarcinoma. Surgery alone is associated with disappointing survival for patients found to have nodal disease on final pathologic examination. The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict pathologic nodal involvement in patients with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-proven T2N0 esophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with EUS-staged T2N0 (uT2N0) esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with surgery alone...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Göran K Hansson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Nature
Soraya de Chadarevian
Quite exactly 60 years ago, an article in Nature presented the first low-resolution model of a globular protein derived by direct structure determination. The work was part of an ongoing effort by John Kendrew and his colleagues at the Medical Research Council Unit for Molecular Biology in Cambridge (UK) that two years later led to the publication of the first atomic structure of the same protein, myoglobin.1,2 In 1962, John Kendrew together with Max Perutz, working in the same laboratory, received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their studies of the structures of globular proteins...
April 1, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Cristina Palmer, Bilal Farhan, Nobel Nguyen, Lishi Zhang, Rebecca Do, Danh V Nguyen, Gamal Ghoniem
INTRODUCTION: Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is defined as urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of urinary tract infection (UTI) or other obvious pathology. Electronic questionnaires (eQs) have been used in few specialties with hopes of improving treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction. However, they have not been widely utilized in the urological field. In treating OAB the main outcome is to improve patient's quality of life...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Urology
Peter Sandner
Nitric Oxide (NO) signaling represents one of the major regulatory pathways for cardiovascular function. After the discovery of NO, awarded with the Nobel Prize in 1998, this signaling cascade was stepwise clarified. We now have a good understanding of NO production and NO downstream targets such as the soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs) which catalyze cGMP production. Based on the important role of NO-signaling in the cardiovascular system, intense research and development efforts are currently ongoing to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of cGMP increase...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Sonia Ziada, Abdennour Braka, Julien Diharce, Samia Aci-Sèche, Pascal Bonnet
Nobel Laureate Richard P. Feynman stated: "[…] everything that living things do can be understood in terms of jiggling and wiggling of atoms […]." The importance of computer simulations of macromolecules, which use classical mechanics principles to describe atom behavior, is widely acknowledged and nowadays, they are applied in many fields such as material sciences and drug discovery. With the increase of computing power, molecular dynamics simulations can be applied to understand biological mechanisms at realistic timescales...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
John Patterson, Robert George
In London, November 1915, a telegram was received at the home of William Henry Bragg from the secretary of the Academy of Science in Stockholm announcing the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics for "the analysis of crystal structures by means of X-rays". A second similar telegram was addressed to his 25 year old son William Lawrence Bragg (Jenkin, 2008). This article commemorates the centenary of that event and the unveiling of a bust of Sir William Bragg alongside that of his son, Sir Lawrence Bragg, on North Terrace in Adelaide where he spent 23 years of his early career...
March 22, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Nobel O Sierra-Vega, Adriluz Sánchez-Paternina, Nadja Maldonado, Vanessa Cárdenas, Rodolfo J Romañach, Rafael Méndez
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the drug concentration in 3% (w/w) acetaminophen blends within the complex flow regime of the tablet press feed frame just before tablet compaction. NIR spectra also provided valuable information on the powder flow behavior within the feed frame and were used to track when a process enters or leaves the steady state. A partial least squares regression calibration model was developed with powder mixtures that varied from 1.5 to 4.5% (w/w) by obtaining 135 spectra after steady state for each concentration while the feed frame and die disc operated at 30...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Petra Schwille
What is life? There is hardly a more fundamental question raised by aspiring researchers, and one less prone to ever be answered in a scientifically satisfying way. In the long, productive and highly influential period of research following his Nobel-recognised work on relaxation kinetics, Manfred Eigen made seminal contributions towards a quantifiable definition of life, with a strong focus on its evolutionary character. In the last years of his time as an active researcher, however, he devoted himself to another, purely experimental topic: the detection and analysis of single biomolecules in aqueous solution...
March 22, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
(no author information available yet)
Günter Blobel was a scientific colossus who dedicated his career to understanding the mechanisms for protein sorting to membrane organelles. His monumental contributions established research paradigms for major arenas of molecular cell biology. For this work, he received many accolades, including the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1999. He was a scientist of extreme passion and a nurturing mentor for generations of researchers, imbuing them with his deep love of cell biology and galvanizing them to continue his scientific legacy...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Manuel Bratos, Jumping M Bergin, Jeffrey E Rubenstein, John A Sorensen
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Conventional impression techniques to obtain a definitive cast for a complete-arch implant-supported prosthesis are technique-sensitive and time-consuming. Direct optical recording with a camera could offer an alternative to conventional impression making. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a novel intraoral image capture protocol to obtain 3-dimensional (3D) implant spatial measurement data under simulated oral conditions of vertical opening and lip retraction...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Marco Esposito, Rubén Davó, Carlos Marti-Pages, Ada Ferrer-Fuertes, Carlo Barausse, Roberto Pistilli, Daniela Rita Ippolito, Pietro Felice
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcome of immediately loaded cross-arch maxillary prostheses supported by zygomatic implants vs conventional implants placed in augmented bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 71 edentulous patients with severely atrophic maxillas, who did not have sufficient bone volume to place dental implants or when it was possible to place only two implants in the front area (minimal diameter 3.5 mm and length of 8 mm) and less than 4.0 mm of bone height subantrally, were randomised according to a parallel group design...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Arun Mitra
Despite ongoing tensions in various parts of the world, the year 2017 ended on a positive note. The Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) was passed by the UN General Assembly on July 7, 2017, which will always be a red-letter day in history. It has raised many hopes for a future world without nuclear weapons and staved off the impending humanitarian catastrophe. Good health is a basic need of every individual. Therefore, each person yearns for a life free of violence and free of man-made catastrophes like the ones at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, which killed over two hundred thousand people and resulted in genetic mutations affecting generations thereafter...
March 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Carine Franc, Izabela Jelovac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Nils Hansson, Thorsten Halling, Heiner Fangerau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature
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