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Joerg Baten
The Nobel laureate Angus Deaton concentrated his work on puzzling developments and phenomena in economics. Puzzles are exciting elements in economics, because readers feel challenged by the question of how they can be solved. Among the puzzles analyzed by Deaton are: (1) Mortality increase of white, U.S. non-Hispanic men (2000 to today); (2) Why are height and income sometimes closely correlated, but not always?; (3) Height inequality among males and females; and (4) The Indian puzzle of declining consumption of calories during overall expenditure growth...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
David B Amabilino, Nina D Berova, John Caldwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Chirality
Gavin John le Nobel, Adrian Lewis James
Potassium-titanyl-phosphage (KTP) lasers possess many characteristics suitable for otologic surgery. The objective of this report is to provide recommendations on the use of KTP laser for cholesteatoma surgery based on a narrative review of currently available evidence. PubMed and the Cochrane Review of randomized control trials were searched for relevant publications on efficacy and adverse effects and relevant articles appraised by the authors using Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria for recommendations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Paul Jarrett, Robert Scragg
The earliest record between sun exposure and skin disease goes back five millennia to the ancient Egyptians. The modern scientific era of medical light therapy and skin diseases started in 1877 when Downs and Blunt reported that exposure to light inhibited fungal growth in test tubes. Continuing research generated a growing medical interest in the potential the effects of light to treat and cure skin diseases considered as parasitic. This culminated in the awarding of the 1903 Nobel Prize in Medicine to Niels Finsen for his pioneering work showing that light could successfully treat cutaneous mycobacterium tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), a disfiguring disorder common at the time...
November 28, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Jian-Jun Shu
Degeneracy is a salient feature of genetic codes, because there are more codons than amino acids. The conventional table for genetic codes suffers from an inability of illustrating a symmetrical nature among genetic base codes. In fact, because the conventional wisdom avoids the question, there is little agreement as to whether the symmetrical nature actually even exists. A better understanding of symmetry and an appreciation for its essential role in the genetic code formation can improve our understanding of nature's coding processes...
November 23, 2016: Bio Systems
A J Cox, H N Bengtson, K H Rohde, D M Kolpashchikov
The Nobel prize in chemistry in 2016 was awarded for 'the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Here we designed and assembled a molecular machine for the detection of specific RNA molecules. An association of several DNA strands, named multifunctional DNA machine for RNA analysis (MDMR1), was designed to (i) unwind RNA with the help of RNA-binding arms, (ii) selectively recognize a targeted RNA fragment, (iii) attract a signal-producing substrate and (iv) amplify the fluorescent signal by catalysis...
November 25, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yushi Futamura, Kai Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Osada
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015 was awarded for discoveries related to the control of parasitic diseases using natural products of microbial and plant origin. In current drug discovery programs, synthesized compounds are widely used as a screening source; however, this award reminds us of the importance of natural products. Here, we introduce our phenotypic screening methods based on changes in cell morphology and discuss their effectiveness and impact for natural products in drug discovery.
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kazumitsu Ueda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Haruo Ikeda
With the decision to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Drs. S. Ōmura, W.C. Campbell, and Y. Tu, the importance and usefulness of natural drug discovery and development have been revalidated. Since the end of the twentieth century, many genome analyses of organisms have been conducted, and accordingly, numerous microbial genomes have been decoded. In particular, genomic studies of actinomycetes, micro-organisms that readily produce natural products, led to the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for producing natural products...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yoko Takahashi
In the search for novel organic compounds, I think it is of paramount importance not to overlook the pursuit of microorganism diversity and the abilities those microorganisms hold as a resource. In commemoration of Professor Satoshi Ōmura's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, I will briefly describe the microorganism that produces avermectin and then discuss how innovating isolation methods and pioneering isolation sources have opened the door to numerous new microorganism resources. Furthermore, as exploratory research of substances views the world from many different angles-from biological activity to a compound's physiochemical properties-it is possible to discover a novel compound from a well-known microorganism...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Akira Arisawa, Azuma Watanabe
Production of pharmaceuticals and chemicals using microbial functions has bestowed numerous benefits onto society. The Nobel Prize awarded to Professor Ōmura, Distinguished Emeritus Professor of Kitasato University, showed the world the importance of the discovery and practical application of microorganisms. Now, increasing attention is turned toward the future path of this field. As people involved in the microorganism industry, we will review the industrial activities thus far and consider the possible future developments in this field and its potential contribution to society...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kunimoto Hotta
Professor Satoshi Ōmura was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is the third to win the award for research on antibiotic, following Fleming' (UK, 1945, discovery of penicillin) and Waksman (USA, 1952, discovery of streptomycin), and the second person after Waksman to receive the award for research on actinomycetes. By focusing his research on macrolides stemming from leucomycin research rather than β-lactams like penicillin or aminoglycosides like streptomycin, Prof. Ōmura realized many scientific achievements...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Shotaro Yamaguchi
Satoshi Ōmura, Professor Emeritus at Kitasato University, was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of a substance of tremendous value to mankind from a microorganism. As a researcher who regularly deals with enzymes produced by microorganisms and a person engaged in microorganism-based business, Professor Ōmura's Nobel Prize fills me with great pride and joy. It is perhaps not surprising that this Nobel Prize-winning research would emerge from Asia, specifically Japan, where people live in harmony with nature rather than try to conquer it...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Armond S Goldman, Frank C Schmalsteig
Karl Landsteiner applied the sciences of biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, and immunology in medical research to great success during the first half of the 20th century. Although he is principally known for elucidating the major blood group antigens A and B and their isoantibodies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Landsteiner made many other important medical discoveries. In that respect, he ascertained that paralytic poliomyelitis was due to a virus, the pancreas was damaged in cystic fibrosis, simple chemicals called haptens were able to combine with antibodies, and the Rh antigen that was later found to be the principal cause of hemolytic anemia of the newborn was found in most humans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Victoria Richards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Nature Chemistry
Elise Fouquerel, Patricia Opresko
The fields of telomere biology and DNA repair have enjoyed a great deal of cross-fertilization and convergence in recent years. Telomeres function at chromosome ends to prevent them from being falsely recognized as chromosome breaks by the DNA damage response and repair machineries. Conversely, both canonical and non-conical functions of numerous DNA repair proteins have been found to be critical for preserving telomere structure and function. In 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak were awarded the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of telomeres and telomerase...
November 18, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Terry R Walton
PURPOSE: To assess the estimated cumulative survival (ECS) and explore the technical and biologic complications of 256 TiUnite implants (Nobel Biocare) supporting one-piece cast abutment/metal-ceramic implant-supported single crowns (ISCs) in situ for up to 14 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective sequentially recruited cohort of 207 patients received 256 metal-ceramic ISCs on TiUnite implants between 2001 and 2014. All but 24 patients with 27 crowns were clinically evaluated between January 2014 and April 2015 in conjunction with or in addition to their tailored maintenance program...
November 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Adrian Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Science
Martin Enserink, Elizabeth Pennisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Science
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