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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936764/osteomyelitis-of-the-foot-non-surgical-management-spect-ct-scanning-and-minimising-the-duration-of-antibiotic-use
#1
EDITORIAL
William J Jeffcoate
In a paper in this issue of Diabetologia (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4417-x ), Vouillarmet and colleagues have explored the use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) to define remission during non-surgical management of osteomyelitis of the foot. Their experience in a non-controlled observational study of 45 individuals was that a negative white blood cell-SPECT/CT scan is a reliable marker of remission, while a positive scan at the end of antibiotic treatment may be relatively useful in the prediction of future short- to medium-term relapse...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913602/devoting-attention-to-glucose-variability-and-hypoglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
EDITORIAL
Martin K Rutter
In the Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE), insulin degludec was non-inferior to insulin glargine in terms of cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there were lower rates of severe hypoglycaemia with insulin degludec. DEVOTE investigators now extend these findings by presenting the results of two observational epidemiological analyses based on trial data. In the first of these analyses (DEVOTE 2), Zinman et al (Diabetologia DOI: 10...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906350/the-hundred-most-cited-publications-in-microbiota-of-diabetes-research-a-bibliometric-analysis
#3
Jiaxing Tian, Min Li, Fengmei Lian, Xiaolin Tong
BACKGROUND: Bibliometric analysis is an approach to evaluate the circumstances and trends in specific research field over time and to provide inspiration in future research and policy. Researches have a tremendous increase focus on the role of the microbiota in the development of diabetes in recent years; however, there is no published literature conducting a bibliometric analysis to explore the tendency. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed evaluation of the hundred most cited articles in microbiota of diabetes research...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831523/should-we-screen-for-type-2-diabetes-among-asymptomatic-individuals-yes
#4
EDITORIAL
David Simmons, Janice C Zgibor
RCTs of whether screening asymptomatic individuals for undiagnosed diabetes results in reduced mortality or has other benefits have been suggestive, but inconclusive. In this issue of Diabetologia, two additional controlled studies (DOIs: 10.1007/s00125-017-4323-2 and 10.1007/s00125-017-4299-y ) that investigated whether screening for type 2 diabetes in asymptomatic individuals is associated with a reduction in mortality are presented. Treating diabetes early, and identifying and treating impaired glucose tolerance, are of benefit, and economic modelling indicates such screening is cost-effective...
August 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831520/does-the-evidence-support-population-wide-screening-for-type-2-diabetes-no
#5
EDITORIAL
Jonathan E Shaw
Large-scale, centrally-coordinated screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes is an attractive option to reduce the mortality and morbidity resulting from inadequately controlled diabetes. However, there is limited research examining the direct consequences of such screening programmes on outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and death. Two papers published in this edition of Diabetologia (DOIs: 10.1007/s00125-017-4323-2 and 10.1007/s00125-017-4299-y ) examine data from one of the very few trials conducted in this area...
August 23, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580535/metabolically-inactive-insulin-friend-or-foe-in-the-prevention-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#6
EDITORIAL
Mikael Knip
About 20 years ago an American study suggested that daily subcutaneous injections of a metabolically inactive insulin analogue with a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid instead of phenylalanine) at position 25 of the B chain was as effective as intact insulin in preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. In this issue of Diabetologia Grönholm et al (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-017-4276-5 ) report that parenteral administration of the same insulin analogue has no preventive effect whatsoever on the development of diabetes in NOD mice; in fact, high doses of the metabolically inactive insulin accelerated disease development...
June 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451714/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-clinical-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Ann V Schwartz
Older adults with diabetes are at higher risk of fracture and of complications resulting from a fracture. Hence, fracture risk reduction is an important goal in diabetes management. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Beata Lecka-Czernik (DOI 10.1007/s00125-017-4269-4 ). Specifically, this review discusses the challenges of accurate fracture risk assessment in diabetes...
July 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439640/the-elusive-role-of-b-lymphocytes-and-islet-autoantibodies-in-human-type-1-diabetes
#8
EDITORIAL
Stef J Bloem, Bart O Roep
The role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in humans is not entirely evident. These cells are presumed to be important, but this assumption is largely based on animal models of autoimmune diabetes, where compelling evidence for the contribution of both B lymphocytes and insulin-specific autoantibodies to this disease is in place. For humans, this is much less the case; the exact way in which B lymphocytes and/or autoantibodies may contribute to type 1 diabetes is not yet known but the possibilities include a pathogenic function ('fire'), or they may represent a surrogate of loss of immune tolerance to beta cells ('smoke') or, indeed, they could be a marker of an attempt at immune regulation ('ice water')...
July 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#9
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
July 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132100/towards-a-systematic-nationwide-screening-strategy-for-mody
#10
EDITORIAL
Beverley Shields, Kevin Colclough
MODY is an early-onset monogenic form of diabetes. Correctly identifying MODY is of considerable importance as diagnosing the specific genetic subtype can inform the optimal treatment, with many patients being able to discontinue unnecessary insulin treatment. Diagnostic molecular genetic testing to confirm MODY is expensive, so screening strategies are required to identify the most appropriate patients for testing. In this issue of Diabetologia, Johansson and colleagues (DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4167-1 ) describe a nationwide systematic screening approach to identify individuals with MODY in the paediatric age range...
April 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957594/adding-exercise-or-subtracting-sitting-time-for-glycaemic-control-where-do-we-stand
#11
EDITORIAL
Paddy C Dempsey, Megan S Grace, David W Dunstan
While regular structured exercise is a well-established (though arguably under-utilised) cornerstone in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, population adherence to recommended exercise guidelines remains stubbornly low. Indeed, most adults are exposed to environmental settings (at work, in automobile travel and in the domestic environment) that may not only limit their physical activity, but also promote sitting for prolonged periods of time. However, recent experimental evidence indicates that reducing and breaking up sitting time may also be a useful strategy to improve glycaemic control...
March 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933335/iron-how-much-is-too-much
#12
EDITORIAL
Aidan McElduff
Gross iron overload has long been known to result in diabetes mellitus. However, it is now thought that milder levels of iron overload, possibly within the normal range, also increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The article by Rawal et al in this issue (Diabetologia doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4149-3 ) provides further support for the relationship between mild degrees of iron overload and the risk of gestational diabetes. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly discuss the background of this relationship and the implications it may have for routine pregnancy care...
February 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787620/reclassification-of-asymptomatic-beta-cell-autoimmunity-a-critical-perspective
#13
Mikael Knip, Jenni Selvenius, Heli Siljander, Riitta Veijola
Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease leading to almost total beta cell destruction and permanent exogenous insulin dependency. The appearance of clinical symptoms is preceded by an asymptomatic preclinical period, the duration of which is highly individual. The emergence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies into the peripheral circulation is the first detectable sign of beta cell autoimmunity. If type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in childhood the preclinical period lasts for an average of 2.5-3 years, but clinical symptoms may in some cases appear within a few months or be delayed for more than 20 years...
January 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717959/endotrophin-a-multifaceted-player-in-metabolic-dysregulation-and-cancer-progression-is-a-predictive-biomarker-for-the-response-to-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-treatment
#14
EDITORIAL
Kai Sun, Jiyoung Park, Min Kim, Philipp E Scherer
Endotrophin is a cleavage product derived from the collagen VI(α3) chain. Collagen VI is expressed in a number of different tissues, but adipose tissue is a particularly prominent source for this extracellular matrix constituent. Mice lacking collagen VI are metabolically healthier due to reduced fibrosis in adipose tissue. Endotrophin seems to be one of the key players of collagen VI-mediated signalling effects, including its pro-fibrotic nature and chemoattractant properties for macrophages, while also playing an important role in cancer progression and the chemoresistance of tumour cells...
January 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695900/an-oxidative-stress-paradox-time-for-a-conceptual-change
#15
EDITORIAL
Joel T Haas, Bart Staels
Oxidative stress has long been considered a key driving factor of many obesity-related health problems. However, recent work by Merry, Tran et al (Diabetologia DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4084-3 ) challenges this idea with an interesting study using a hepatocyte-specific Gpx1-knockout (HGKO) mouse. GPX1 is an important detoxification enzyme that converts H2O2 to water. The authors found that high-fat diet-fed HGKO mice were more insulin sensitive than wildtype controls, despite elevated hepatic levels of H2O2 and evidence of increased systemic oxidative stress...
December 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677766/steroid-induced-hyperglycaemia-in-hospitalised-patients-does-it-matter
#16
EDITORIAL
N Wah Cheung
Steroid-induced hyperglycaemia is a common problem faced by endocrinologists in hospital wards. In this issue of Diabetologia, Popovic and colleagues (DOI 10.1007/s00125-016-4091-4 ) have conducted a subanalysis within a randomised controlled trial of prednisone therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. The authors found that the presence of diabetes or hyperglycaemia related to steroid therapy did not attenuate the clinical benefits of steroid therapy. The relevance and possible implications of these findings are discussed...
December 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650286/epigenetic-markers-to-further-understand-insulin-resistance
#17
EDITORIAL
Charlotte Ling, Tina Rönn
Epigenetic variation in human adipose tissue has been linked to type 2 diabetes and its related risk factors including age and obesity. Insulin resistance, a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, may also be associated with altered DNA methylation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, linking epigenetic variation in target tissues to similar changes in blood cells may identify new blood-based biomarkers. In this issue of Diabetologia, Arner et al studied the transcriptome and methylome in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of 80 obese women who were either insulin-sensitive or -resistant (DOI 10...
November 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435863/can-genetic-evidence-help-us-to-understand-the-fetal-origins-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
EDITORIAL
Rachel M Freathy
Lower birthweight is consistently associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Animal models and studies of famine-exposed populations have provided support for the developmental origins hypothesis, under which exposure to poor intrauterine nutrition results in reduced fetal growth and also contributes to the developmental programming of later type 2 diabetes risk. However, testing this hypothesis is difficult in human studies and studies aiming to do so are mostly observational and have limited scope for causal inference due to the presence of confounding factors...
September 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421727/cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-a-novel-regulator-of-energy-homeostasis-expressed-in-a-subpopulation-of-pancreatic-islet-cells
#19
EDITORIAL
Patrick Gilon
Type 2 diabetes is characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia and its incidence is highly increased by exaggerated food consumption. It results from a lack of insulin action/production, but growing evidence suggests that it might also involve hyperglucagonaemia and impaired control of glucose homeostasis by the brain. In recent years, the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides have generated a lot of interest in the battle against obesity because, via the brain, they exert anorexic effects and they increase energy expenditure...
September 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153841/can-somatostatin-antagonism-prevent-hypoglycaemia-during-exercise-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Nadine Taleb, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
The prevention and management of exercise-induced hypoglycaemia remains a challenge for patients with type 1 diabetes. Strategies involving changes to insulin dosing and/or carbohydrate consumption in anticipation of or during different types of exercise have proved to be helpful but not sufficient to fully prevent the hypoglycaemic risk. Meanwhile, the defect in glucagon secretion in response to hypoglycaemia in diabetes and the contributory role of somatostatin to this dysregulation constitute an important therapeutic target...
August 2016: Diabetologia
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