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Uri Yogev, Adiel Atari, Amit Gross
The development of intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with low water exchange has accelerated in recent years as a result of environmental, economic and other concerns. In these systems, fish are commonly grown at high density, 50 to 150kg/m 3 , using high-protein (30%-60%) feeds. Typically, the RAS consists of a solid treatment and a nitrification unit; in more advanced RAS, there is an additional denitrification step. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a byproduct during nitrification and denitrification processes, is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys the ozone layer...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Edith González-Guevara, Verónica Custodio, Francisca Pérez-Severiano, Karen Olvera-Pérez, Sandra Salgado-Mozo, Carmen Rubio, Carlos Paz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sarah Milliken, Jeff Fraser, Shawn Poirier, John Hulse, Li-Lin Tay
Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0nM and 50mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection...
January 12, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
K Nakamura, K Saito, J Kashiwazaki, T Aoyagi, K Arai, Y Hara, S Kobari, H Mori, K Ohashi, Y Takano, M Kaku, K Kanemitsu
We evaluated the bacterial removal effects of hand washing with ozonated water using the ASTM E1174 standard test method. Thirty healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to three groups: ozonated water, antimicrobial soap and water, and non-antimicrobial soap and water. A 3 log 10 CFU reduction was achieved by washing hands with ozonated water or antimicrobial soap and water. However, ozonated water was not significantly superior to non-antimicrobial soap and water. Ozonated water may remove bacteria from the hands to at least a similar extent as that by non-antimicrobial soap and water in the absence of visible dirt or body fluid contamination...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Brian C McDonald, Joost A de Gouw, Jessica B Gilman, Shantanu H Jathar, Ali Akherati, Christopher D Cappa, Jose L Jimenez, Julia Lee-Taylor, Patrick L Hayes, Stuart A McKeen, Yu Yan Cui, Si-Wan Kim, Drew R Gentner, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H Goldstein, Robert A Harley, Gregory J Frost, James M Roberts, Thomas B Ryerson, Michael Trainer
A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)-including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products-now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements...
February 16, 2018: Science
Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The use of 185 nm radiation from a conventional low pressure mercury lamp generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) from the photolysis of water and offers an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for water treatment that does not require chemical addition. However, the influence of the water matrix on the process differs substantially from that of other ultraviolet and ozone based processes. In particular chloride (Cl - ), and not water, absorbs the majority of 185 nm photons when [Cl - ]>20mgL -1 and generates the chlorine atom radical (Cl) as a reactive species...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Marius Rasche, Mario Walther, Rene Schiffner, Nasim Kroegel, Sven Rupprecht, Peter Schlattmann, P Christian Schulze, Peter Franzke, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Aims High concentrations of air pollutants are associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction. The European Union has defined statutory limits for air pollutants based on upper absolute concentrations. We evaluated the association between rapid changes in air pollutants and the risk of myocardial infarction independently of absolute concentrations. Methods and results Using a hospital-based case-crossover study, effects of 24h changes of nitrogen oxides (NO X/2 ), particulate matter (PM 10 ), and ozone on the risk of myocardial infarction was assessed in 693 patients...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Abel A Silva, Ana L C Yamamoto, Marcelo P Corrêa
The maintenance of ground-based instruments to measure the incidence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the Sun demands strict and well-developed procedures. A piece of equipment can be out of service for a couple of weeks or months for calibration, repair, or even the improvement of the facilities where it has been set up. However, the replacement of an instrument in such circumstances can be logistically and financially prohibitive. On the other hand, the lack of data can jeopardize a long-term experiment...
February 15, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Emile S Massima Mouele, Olanrewaju Ojo Fatoba, Omotola Babajide, Kassim O Badmus, Leslie F Petrik
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) particularly non-thermal plasmas based on electrical discharges have been widely investigated for water and wastewater treatment. Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) generate large amounts of selective and non-selective reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, atomic oxygen, superoxide molecular anions and hydroxyl radicals, having been proved to be efficient for water decontamination among various forms of electrical discharge systems. The detection and quantification methods of these oxygen species in non-thermal plasmas have been reviewed...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Deberton Moura, Vithor Barcelos, Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud, Alexandre Boscaro França, Renata Lofrano, Carla Cristina Almeida Loures, Luzia Lima Rezende Naves, Mateus Souza Amaral, Fabiano Luiz Naves
Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic to combat bacterial infections. However, this drug can cause serious problems when discarded in waterways due to its great bioaccumulation potential. This compound can be treated via advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which are capable of converting amoxicillin into carbon dioxide and water. In this context, the use of ozone as an oxidizer has excelled in amoxicillin degradation. This paper aims at treating a synthetic solution of amoxicillin (0.1 g L -1 ) in a reactor with ozone bubbling...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sophie Becker, Dr Volker Bickert, Kai Reimers, Dr Martin Becker
In order to further clarify if and how much Ozone is generated during HVLD and to identify measures to reduce the impact of Ozone generation on product quality a highly sensitive analytical system [4] was employed to investigate the generation of Ozone at different operational conditions of HVLD integrity testing. The analytical system is based on oxidation of Iodide ions in solution and identification of the Iodine formed by N, N-Diethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DPD) according to DIN 38403 [4].Sensitivity of the system was found suitable to detect Ozone levels as low as 0...
February 14, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Bartlomiej Witkowski, Sara Jurdana, Tomasz Gierczak
Kinetics and mechanism of limononic acid, (3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoic acid, LA) oxidation by hydroxyl radicals (OH) and ozone (O3) were studied in the aqueous phase at 298±2 K. These reactions were investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to the electrospray ionization and quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). The rate coefficients determined for LA + OH reaction were: 1.3 ± 0.3 × 1010M-1s-1at pH=2 and 5.7 ± 0.6 × 109M-1s-1at pH=10. The rate coefficient determined for LA ozonolysis was 4...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yury I Kostyukevich, Eugene N Nikolaev
We present the simple approach for the combination of different ion sources on a single mass spectrometer without any interference between them. Each ion source can be positioned as far as 1 meter from the mass spectrometer; ions are transported by the means of flexible cooper tubes, which are connected, to the separate inlet capillaries. Special valves enable switching channels on and off. Using this approach, we successfully combined native ESI (electrospray ionization), regular ESI, beta-electrons ionization and APPI (Atmospheric pressure photoionization) of thermally desorbed vapors of petroleum on a single mass spectrometer...
February 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jeffrey P Benca, Ivo A P Duijnstee, Cindy V Looy
Although Siberian Trap volcanism is considered a primary driver of the largest extinction in Earth history, the end-Permian crisis, the relationship between these events remains unclear. However, malformations in fossilized gymnosperm pollen from the extinction interval suggest biological stress coinciding with pulsed forest decline. These grains are hypothesized to have been caused by enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation from volcanism-induced ozone shield deterioration. We tested this proposed mechanism by observing the effects of inferred end-Permian UV-B regimes on pollen development and reproductive success in living conifers...
February 2018: Science Advances
Buddhadeb Ghosh
Three ground-based ambient air studies were conducted in February through March of 2015, 2016, and 2017 at the Phillips 66 Research Center in Northeastern Oklahoma. C2-C12 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured using whole air sampling/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 2016 and 2017, online methane and ethane measurements were also conducted. Strong methane-ethane correlation identified oil & gas (O&G) upstream/midstream operations to be the primary methane source. C2-C5 alkanes were the dominant NMHCs whose average mixing ratio peaked in 2016 before dropping in 2017...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
April Reese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Science
G M Hidy
Observations of smog over the Los Angeles Basin (LAB) links high oxidant mixing ratios with poor visibility, sometimes < 5 km. By the 1970s investigators recognized that most of the aerosol affecting visibility was from gaseous oxidation products, sulfate, nitrate and organic carbon. This led to the 1972-1973 the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACHEX), which included observations at the ground and from aircraft. Part of ACHEX was the measurement of smog by blimp in a Lagrangian-like format. The experiment on September 6, 1973 demonstrated that a blimp could travel with the wind across the LAB, observing ozone (O3) and precursors, and particles of different size ranges...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Stefanie Pleik, Bernhard Spengler, Dhaka Ram Bhandari, Steven Luhn, Thomas Schäfer, Dieter Urbach, Dieter Kirsch
In forensic science, reconstructing the timing of events occurring during a criminal offense is of great importance. In some cases, the time when particular evidence was left on a crime scene is a critical matter. The ability to estimate the fingerprint age would raise the evidentiary value of fingerprints tremendously. For this purpose the most promising approach is the analysis of changes in the chemical compositions of fingerprint residues in the course of aging. The focus of our study is the identification of human specific compounds in fingerprint residues, characterized by a significant aging behavior that could analytically be used for the age determination of fingerprints in future...
February 12, 2018: Analyst
J D Kenny, B D Webber, E W Howe, R B Holden
Dieldrin and DDx removal through wastewater treatment, ozonation, and microfiltration was assessed for a water reuse project for groundwater replenishment in Monterey, California, USA. Full-scale sampling was conducted at the wastewater treatment plant, and physical wastewater treatment processes, ozonation, and microfiltration were tested at the bench scale. Removals observed through wastewater treatment, ozonation, and microfiltration were 84%, 44% to 63%, and 97% to 98%, respectively, for dieldrin, and 93%, 36% to 48%, and 92% to 94% for DDx...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jian-Xiong An, Hui Liu, Ruo-Wen Chen, Yong Wang, Wen-Xing Zhao, Derek Eastwood, John P Williams
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous ozone injection for refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Design: A retrospective evaluation was performed in the study. Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital pain center. Patients and methods: A total of 29 patients with a clinical diagnosis of refractory trigeminal neuralgia were enrolled...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
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