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Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
In Part II of this work we present the results of the downscaled offline Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) model, included in the "Technology Driver Model" (TDM) approach to future U.S. air quality projections (2046-2050) compared to a current-year period (2001-2005), and the interplay between future emission and climate changes. By 2046-2050, there are widespread decreases in future concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx  = NO + NO2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Adams Rackes, Tom Ben-David, Michael S Waring
This article presents an outcome-based ventilation (OBV) framework, which combines competing ventilation impacts into a monetized loss function ($/occ/h) used to inform ventilation rate decisions. The OBV framework, developed for U.S. offices, considers six outcomes of increasing ventilation: profitable outcomes realized from improvements in occupant work performance and sick-leave absenteeism; health outcomes from occupant exposure to outdoor fine particles and ozone; and energy outcomes from electricity and natural gas usage...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Xiaomeng Jin, Arlene M Fiore, Lee T Murray, Lukas C Valin, Lok N Lamsal, Bryan Duncan, K Folkert Boersma, Isabelle De Smedt, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Kelly Chance, Gail S Tonnesen
Determining effective strategies for mitigating surface ozone (O3 ) pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentrations of its precursors, NO x , and VOCs. The space-based tropospheric column ratio of formaldehyde to NO2 (FNR) has been used as an indicator to identify NO x -limited versus NO x -saturated O3 formation regimes. Quantitative use of this indicator ratio is subject to three major uncertainties: (1) the split between NO x -limited and NO x -saturated conditions may shift in space and time, (2) the ratio of the vertically integrated column may not represent the near-surface environment, and (3) satellite products contain errors...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Gregory R Wentworth, Yayne-Abeba Aklilu, Matthew S Landis, Yu-Mei Hsu
During May 2016 a very large boreal wildfire burned throughout the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in central Canada, and in close proximity to an extensive air quality monitoring network. This study examines speciated 24-h integrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements collected every sixth day at four and seven sites, respectively, from May to August 2016. The sum of PAHs (ΣPAH) was on average 17 times higher in fire-influenced samples (852 ng m-3 , n = 8), relative to non-fire influenced samples (50 ng m-3 , n = 64)...
April 2018: Atmospheric Environment
Zhaokun Xiong, Bo Lai, Ping Yang
A highly efficient electrolysis catalyzed ozone (ECO) process was developed for N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) degradation. The pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs ) of DMAC degradation by ECO process were 1.73-19.09 times greater than those by ozonation and electrolysis processes in a wide pH range of 3.0-10.0. Interestingly, we found O2 •- could be generated from ozone decomposition by a radical chain mechanism instead of monovalent reduction of O2 in ECO system at the initial pH of 3.0. Subsequently, the H2 O2 derived from O2 •- could participate in Fenton-like and peroxone reactions with the released Fe2+ from iron anode and the aerated O3 , respectively...
April 14, 2018: Water Research
Jacopo Bacenetti, Daniela Lovarelli, Doriana Tedesco, Roberto Pretolani, Valentina Ferrante
On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michal Zielinski, Mariusz Gasior, Dariusz Jastrzebski, Aneta Desperak, Dariusz Ziora
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a serious public health issue. Ambient pollution and meteorological factors are considered among precipitating factors. There are few data concerning the impact of ambient pollutants other than particulates on COPD exacerbations. Among gaseous pollutants four main groups of substances are primarily monitored: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3 ). In this study, 12,889 hospitalizations in the years 2006-2014 due to exacerbations of COPD in patients having a co-existing cardiovascular pathology were retrospectively analyzed...
April 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Amal Rammah, Kristina Walker Whitworth, Inkyu Han, Wenyaw Chan, Maria D Jimenez, Sara S Strom, Melissa L Bondy, Elaine Symanski
PURPOSE: Independent and combined effects of air pollution and psychosocial stressors on hypertension, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, among Hispanics are not well studied. METHODS: We administered a pilot-tested questionnaire on individual- and neighborhood-level psychosocial stressors, developed with community input, to nearly 2500 individuals from the MD Anderson Cancer Center cohort of Mexican-Americans. We used data from local air quality monitors to estimate individual exposures to ozone (O3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM2...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Min-Joo Kang, Fan-Long Jin, Soo-Jin Park
Silica nanoparticles were ozone-treated to increase the dispersibility of silica in a silicone matrix. Silicone rubber/silica composites were prepared using a melt-blending method. The effect of silica content on the mechanical and thermal properties of the silica-reinforced silicone composites was examined. The tensile strength of the prepared silicone/silica composites was maximized at 1 wt.% silica, due to the improved interfacial interactions between the silica reinforcement surface and the silicone matrix...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Zhipeng Li, Feng Liu, Hong You, Yi Ding, Jie Yao, Chao Jin
This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al2 O3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jagroop Pandhal, Anggun Siswanto, Dmitriy Kuvshinov, William B Zimmerman, Linda Lawton, Christine Edwards
There has been a steady rise in the incidences of algal blooms globally, and worryingly, there is increasing evidence that changes in the global climate are leading to a shift toward cyanobacterial blooms. Many cyanobacterial genera are harmful, producing several potent toxins, including microcystins, for which there are over 90 described analogues. There are a wide range of negative effects associated with these toxins including gastroenteritis, cytotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Although a variety of oxidation based treatment methods have been described, ozonation and advanced oxidation are acknowledged as most effective as they readily oxidise microcystins to non-toxic degradation products...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Omar A Alsager, Mohammed N Alnajrani, Hatem A Abuelizz, Ibrahim A Aldaghmani
The use of antibiotics in the dairy farming for curing and growth promotion results in the production of massive quantities of non-recyclable wastewater by the conventional purification techniques. Additionally, waste milk is produced during the drug withholding periods, which is not suitable for human or animal consumption and cause huge economic loss as well as present serious environmental waste. This study was designed to investigate the decomposition of various antibiotic compounds in un-buffered aqueous solutions and milk samples by ozonation process...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Byeong-Gon Kim, Pureun-Haneul Lee, Sun-Hye Lee, Choon-Sik Park, An-Soo Jang
Claudins (CLDNs) are a major transmembrane protein component of tight junctions (TJs) in endothelia and epithelia. CLDNs are not only essential for sustaining the role of TJs in cell permeability but are also vital for cell signaling through protein-protein interactions. Ozone induces oxidative stress and lung inflammation in humans and experimental models, but the impact of ozone on claudins remains poorly understood. This study was to determine the expression of TJ proteins, such as claudin 3, 4, 5, and 14 following ozone exposure...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Venkata S V Botlaguduru, Raghava R Kommalapati, Ziaul Huque
The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Urs von Gunten
Chemical oxidants have been applied in water treatment for more than a century, first as disinfectants and later to abate inorganic and organic contaminants. The challenge of oxidative abatement of organic micropollutants is the formation of transformation products with unknown (eco)toxicological consequences. Four aspects need to be considered for oxidative micropollutant abatement: (i) Reaction kinetics, controlling the efficiency of the process, (ii) mechanisms of transformation product formation, (iii) extent of formation of disinfection byproducts from the matrix, (iv) oxidation induced biological effects, resulting from transformation products and/or disinfection byproducts...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Takahiro Fujioka, Anh T Hoang, Tetsuji Okuda, Haruka Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tanaka, Long D Nghiem
A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF) of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m²h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone) could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yusef Omidi Khaniabadi, Mohammad Daryanoosh, Pierre Sicard, Afshin Takdastan, Philip K Hopke, Shirin Esmaeili, Alessandra De Marco, Rajab Rashidi
This study was conducted to quantify, by an approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the daily hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to exposure to particulate matter (PM10 ) and oxidants such as ozone (O3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) in a heavily polluted city in Iran. For the health impact assessment, in terms of COPD, the current published relative risk (RR) and baseline incidence (BI) values, suggested by the WHO, and the 1-h O3 concentrations and daily PM10 , NO2 , and SO2 concentrations were compiled...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katherine Newell, Christiana Kartsonaki, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Om Kurmi
BACKGROUND: Lack of research on the effects of gaseous pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx ], sulfur dioxide [SO2 ], carbon monoxide [CO] and ozone [O3 ]) in the ambient environment on health outcomes from within low and middle income countries (LMICs) is leading to reliance on results from studies performed within high income countries (HICs). This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the cardiorespiratory health effects of gaseous pollutants in LMICs exclusively. METHODS: Systematic searching was carried out and estimates pooled by pollutant, lag and outcome, and presented as excess relative risk per 10 μg/m3 (NOx , SO2 , O3 ) or 1 ppm (CO) increase pollutant...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Zhishun Wang, Qi Han, Yong-Lian Guo, Xiu-Heng Liu, Tao Qiu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) on inflammation and oxidative stress injury in rat model of renal transplantation. METHODS: Thirty six male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups. Sham group: rats were treated with opening and closing abdomen. Kidney transplantation group (KT group): SD rat received the donor's left kidney derived from another SD rat. Ozone oxidative preconditioning and kidney transplantation (OOP+KT group): donor SD rats received OzoneOP treatments by transrectal insufflations before kidney transplantation...
March 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Marc L Mansfield, Courtney F Hall
High winter ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah, and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, occurs because of the confluence of three separate factors: (1) extensive oil or natural gas production, (2) topography conducive to strong multi-day thermal inversions, and (3) snow cover. We surveyed 13 basins and valleys in the western USA for the existence and magnitude of these factors. Seven of the basins, because winter ozone measurements were available, were assigned to four different behavioral classes. Based on similarities among the basins, the remaining six were also given a tentative assignment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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