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Ze Liu, Seyedahmad Hosseinzadeh, Niels Wardenier, Yannick Verheust, Michael Chys, Stijn Van Hulle
The degradation of micropollutants (MPs), including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds, by ozone-based advanced oxidation techniques (AOP) was investigated in this study. The effect of different factors, such as ozone concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and initial pH, on the removal rate was studied in detail. The combination of UV with ozone/ H2 O2 increased the MPs degradation. For example, atrazine removal increased from 12.6% to 66.9%. Increasing the concentration of ozone and H2 O2 can enhance the degradation efficiency of MPs, while excess H2 O2 plays a role as scavenger for OH...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Vaughn Barry, Mitchel Klein, Andrea Winquist, Howard H Chang, James A Mulholland, Evelyn O Talbott, Judith R Rager, Paige E Tolbert, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
Although short-term exposure to ambient ozone (O3 ) can cause poor respiratory health outcomes, the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) between O3 and respiratory morbidity has not been widely investigated. We estimated the effect of daily O3 on emergency department (ED) visits for selected respiratory outcomes in 5 US cities under various model assumptions and assessed model fit. Population-weighted average 8-h maximum O3 concentrations were estimated in each city. Individual-level data on ED visits were obtained from hospitals or hospital associations...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
David C McDonald, Brendan C Sweeny, Shaun G Ard, Joshua J Melko, Jennifer E Ruliffson, Melanie C White, Albert A Viggiano, Nicholas S Shuman
The temperature dependent kinetics of Ni+ + O3 and of NiO+ + CH4/CD4 are measured from 300 - 600 K using a selected-ion flow tube apparatus. Together, these reactions comprise a catalytic cycle converting CH4 to CH3OH. The reaction of Ni+ + O3 proceeds at the collisional limit, faster than previously reported at 300 K. The NiO+ product reacts further with O3, also at the collisional limit, to yield both higher oxides (up to NiO5+ is observed) as well as undergoing an apparent reduction back to Ni+. This apparent reduction channel is due to the oxidation channel yielding NiO2+* with sufficient energy to dissociate...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ismail Hakki Akbudak, Vural Kucukatay, Ozgen Kilic-Erkek, Yasin Ozdemir, Melek Bor-Kucukatay
BACKGROUND: Ozone is used intensively worldwide in treatment and research of various pathologies due to its healing effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of major ozone autohemotherapy on erythrocyte deformability and aggregation. METHODS: 10 and 50μg/ml doses of ozone was applied for 20 minute to venous blood samples obtained from 10 healthy male volunteers. Erythrocyte aggregation, deformability were measured by an ektacytometer...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Makoto Watanabe, Yasutomo Hoshika, Naoki Inada, Takayoshi Koike
The primary objective of this study was to describe parameters related to the leaf biochemical assimilation capacity of photosynthesis, such as the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax ) and electron transport (Jmax ), as a function of the leaf nitrogen content throughout a canopy of Siebold's beech and Japanese oak grown under elevated ozone (O3 ) conditions during a growing season. To this end, we investigated the relationship between photosynthetic traits and leaf nitrogen content in various canopy positions of two tree species under free-air O3 exposure (60 nmol mol-1 , during daylight hours) in June, August, and October 2012...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carlos Gaete-Morales, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, Laurence Stamford, Adisa Azapagic
Around 40% of electricity in Chile is supplied by renewables and the rest by fossil fuels. Despite the growing electricity demand in the country, its environmental impacts are as yet unknown. To address this gap, the current study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the life cycle environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile. Both the individual sources and the electricity mix over the past 10 years are considered. The following sources present in the electricity mix are evaluated: coal, oil, natural gas, biogas, biomass, wind, solar photovoltaics (PV) and hydropower...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
P Zeng, X P Lyu, H Guo, H R Cheng, F Jiang, W Z Pan, Z W Wang, S W Liang, Y Q Hu
In August 2016, continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and trace gases were conducted at an urban site in Wuhan. Four high-ozone (O3 ) days and twenty-seven non-high-O3 days were identified according to the China's National Standard Level II (∼100 ppbv). The occurrence of high-O3 days was accompanied by tropical cyclones. Much higher concentrations of VOCs and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed on the high-O3 days (p < 0.01). Model simulations revealed that vehicle exhausts were the dominant sources of VOCs, contributing 45...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jian Zheng, Tao Lin, Wei Chen, Hui Tao, Yiwen Tan, Baiwen Ma
The O3 /BAC process has been widely used in drinking water treatment to improve the removal of dissolved organic matters (DOMs), including the precursors of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). In this study, the removal of N-DBP precursors by biological activated carbon (BAC) filters with different usage time of granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. Results showed that the BAC filter with 6 years of usage time of GAC (old BAC filter) had a poor performance in the removal of precursors of N-DBPs such as dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN; an average of only 4...
June 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Yang Guo, Huijiao Wang, Bin Wang, Shubo Deng, Jun Huang, Gang Yu, Yujue Wang
Prediction of micropollutant abatements by catalytic ozonation is critical for its process design and optimization in water treatment. In this study, a chemical kinetic model based on ozone (O3 ) and hydroxyl radical (OH) rate constants (kO3 and kOH ) and O3 and OH exposures is proposed for the generalized prediction of micropollutant abatement by homogeneous catalytic ozonation. Several micropollutants with kO3 ranging from <0.15 to 1.0 × 106  M-1  s-1 were spiked in water matrices (deionized water and surface water) and then treated by ozonation alone and homogeneous catalytic ozonation with varying transition metals (Ti2+ , Co2+ , Ni2+ , Zn2+ , Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Fe2+ , and Fe3+ )...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Allan H Harvey, Eugene Paulechka, Patrick F Egan
Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) has been widely used as a radiator gas in pressure threshold Cherenkov detectors for high-energy particle physics. However, that compound is becoming unavailable due to the Montreal Protocol. To find a replacement with suitably high refractive index, we use a combination of theory and experiment to examine the polarizability and refractivity of several non-ozone-depleting compounds. Our measurements show that the fourth-generation refrigerants R-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) and R-1234ze(E) ( trans -1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) have sufficient refractivity to replace R-12 in this application...
June 2018: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Ron Wever, Bea E Krenn, Rokus Renirie
Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases in seaweeds, cyanobacteria, fungi, and possibly phytoplankton play an important role in the release of halogenated volatile compounds in the environment. These halocarbons have effects on atmospheric chemistry since they cause ozone depletion. In this chapter, a survey is given of the different sources of these enzymes, some of their properties, the various methods to isolate them, and the bottlenecks in purification. The assays to detect and quantify haloperoxidase activity are described as well as their kinetic properties...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Kai Meng, Xiangde Xu, Xinghong Cheng, Xiaobin Xu, Xiaoli Qu, Wenhui Zhu, Cuiping Ma, Yuling Yang, Yuguang Zhao
The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China suffers from heavy air pollution, especially in heating period. SO2 and NO2 are two of the key primary gaseous pollutants emitted by coal burning. The increase in air pollution caused by heating in the south-central part of the BTH region is higher than that in the northern part. And the distribution of SO2 and NO2 increment has significant differences. In this work, SO2 and NO2 emissions over the BTH region are determined using an adaptive "nudging" constrained method and a variational processing technique based on Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite data and surface measurement data collected in 2015...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sameena N Malik, Prakash C Ghosh, Atul N Vaidya, Sandeep N Mudliar
The study investigates the effect of catalytic ozone pretreatment via Fe2+ and nZVI on biodegradability enhancement of complex textile effluent. The nZVI particles were synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM and SEM analyses. Results showed that nano catalytic ozone pretreatment led to higher biodegradability index (BOD5 /COD = BI) enhancement up to 0.61 (134.6%) along with COD, color and toxicity removal up to 73.5%, 87%, and 92% respectively. The disappearance of the corresponding GCMS & FTIR spectral peaks during catalyzed ozonation process indicated the cleavage of chromophore group and degradation of organic compounds present in the textile effluent...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Andri Pyrgou, Panos Hadjinicolaou, Mat Santamouris
Near-surface ozone is enhanced under particular chemical reactions and physical processes. This study showed the seasonal variation of near-surface ozone in Nicosia, Cyprus and focused in summers when the highest ozone levels were noted using a seven year hourly dataset from 2007 to 2014. The originality of this study is that it examines how ozone levels changed under heatwave conditions (defined as 4 consecutive days with daily maximum temperature over 39 °C) with emphasis on specific air quality and meteorological parameters with respect to non-heatwave summer conditions...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu-Hua Li, Su-Wen Cheng, Chung-Shin Yuan, Tzu-Fan Lai, Chung-Hsuang Hung
Chinese cooking fume is one of the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air. An innovative control technology combining photocatalytic degradation and ozone oxidation (UV/TiO2 +O3 ) was developed to decompose VOCs in the cooking fume. Fiberglass filter (FGF) coated with TiO2 was prepared by an impregnation procedure. A continuous-flow reaction system was self-designed by combining photocatalysis with advanced ozone oxidation technique. By passing the simulated cooking fume through the FGF, the VOC decomposition efficiency in the cooking fume could be increased by about 10%...
June 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Aymen Amine Assadi, Sivachandiran Loganathan, Phuong Nguyen Tri, Sara Gharib-Abou Ghaida, Abdelkrim Bouzaza, Anh Nguyen Tuan, Dominique Wolbert
This paper mainly deals with the isovaleraldehyde degradation with the help of a nonthermal plasma surface discharge (NPSD) coupled with photocatalysis. The efficiency of NPSD reactor, for gas treatment, was studied for different binary mixtures: (1) mixture of aldehydes (Isovaleraldehyde and Butyraldehyde) and (2) mixture of aldehyde and amine (Isovaleraldehyde and Trimethylamine). A planar continuous reactor is used to investigate the effect of addition of another pollutant on the performance of oxidation process...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Akihiro Tsuchida, Koji Oshimo, Satoshi Horikoshi
Decomposition of urea in aqueous solution was carried out using a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) consisting of two photoreactors with a triple tube structure that generate vacuum-UV/UV light and reactive oxygen species (ROS) using microwaves (MW) as an energy source. The rate of decomposition of urea was highest under acidic conditions (pH 4) compared with those at pH 7 and 10.When used in combination with dispersed TiO2 , a photocatalyst, high decomposition efficiency was achieved with less power consumption...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Mark P Little, Zaria Tatalovich, Martha S Linet, Michelle Fang, Gerald M Kendall, Michael G Kimlin
Solar ultraviolet radiation is the primary risk factor for skin cancers and sun-related eye disorders. Estimates of individual ambient ultraviolet irradiance derived from ground-based solar measurements and from satellite measurements have rarely been compared. Using self-reported residential history from 67,189 persons in a nationwide occupational US radiologic technologists cohort, we estimated ambient solar irradiance using data from ground-based meters and noontime satellite measurements. The mean distance-moved from city of longest residence in childhood increased from 137...
June 13, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Xiangjiang Wang, Guiqing Wang, Chunlei Liu, Daozhang Cai
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate intra-articular ozone injection following arthroscopic surgery for knee osteoarthritis (OA) with regard to its efficacy in pain reduction, joint function and quality of life improvement. The present study retrospectively evaluated 80 patients with symptomatic knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II or III), who either did or did not receive 20 ml of 20 µg/ml ozone as an intra-articular injection after arthroscopic surgery. The minimum follow-up period was 12 months...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yue Wang, Meiling Tan, Haiping Ouyang, Linhong Deng
Ozone (O3 ) as a major air pollutant is widely recognized for causing pathological changes of the airway system. However, it is not clear whether O3 exposure of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) influences the proliferation and collagen synthesis of submucosal fibroblasts and contributes to the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in diseases, including asthma. In the present study, a co-culture method was applied to culture human lung fibroblasts (HLFs) with human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) that were pre-stimulated with O3 ...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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