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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238434/formation-of-known-and-unknown-disinfection-by-products-from-natural-organic-matter-fractions-during-chlorination-chloramination-and-ozonation
#1
Chunmei Li, Donghong Wang, Xiong Xu, Zijian Wang
Natural organic matter (NOM) is the main precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment processes. Previous studies of the relationships between DBP formation and NOM fractionation have mainly been focused on currently regulated DBPs and a few certain emerging DBPs. In this work, the Suwannee River NOM solution was fractionated into groups with different hydrophobicities using DAX-8 resins, and volatile and semi-volatile DBPs formed during the chlorination, chloramination and ozonation of the NOM fractions were examined by a nontargeted screening of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry procedure...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237472/flow-stock-and-impact-assessment-of-refrigerants-in-the-japanese-household-air-conditioner-sector
#2
Mianqiang Xue, Naoya Kojima, Takashi Machimura, Akihiro Tokai
Refrigerants provide society with great benefits while have the potential to cause adverse effects on the environment and human health. The present study estimated time-dependent flows and stocks and assessed the effects of refrigerants (R-22, R-410a, and R-32) in household air conditioners in Japan. It was found that stock of R-22 and R-410a peaked at 49,147t in 2000 and 55,994t in 2017, respectively. The largest flow of R-22 and R-410a to waste phase occurred at 3417t/yr. in 2005 and 4011t/yr. in 2023, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237270/combined-treatment-approaches-based-on-ultrasound-for-removal-of-triazophos-from-wastewater
#3
Rajashree H Jawale, Parag R Gogate
Pesticides have been the major contributors to the growth of agricultural productivity, but the wide spread use in the fields and discharge from the manufacturing industries have also contributed to environmental concerns. In the present work, degradation of triazophos (O,O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) phosphorothioate) as a model pollutant has been investigated using high volume continuous ultrasonic flow cell for the first time. Effect of power dissipation and initial pH on the extent of triazophos degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated initially...
February 15, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237269/catalytic-ozonation-of-paracetamol-using-commercial-and-pt-supported-nanocomposites-of-al2o3-the-impact-of-ultrasound
#4
Asu Ziylan-Yavaş, Nilsun H Ince
The study is the assessment of commercial γ-Al2O3 and its sonolytically modified nanocomposite in catalytic ozonation of paracetamol (PCT), which is an emerging water contaminant and a highly reactive compound with ozone. The results showed that commercial alumina was ineffective regardless of the solution pH, due to the low affinity of the catalyst surface for PCT and the high reactivity of the solute with molecular ozone. The modified catalyst, which was synthesized by decoration of the original surface with nanoparticles of platinum provided considerable improvement in the performance of the catalyst, particularly in mineralization of the target compound...
February 16, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236758/synergetic-effect-of-combined-pretreatment-for-energy-efficient-biogas-generation
#5
R Yukesh Kannah, S Kavitha, J Rajesh Banu, Ick Tae Yeom, M Johnson
Physiochemical disintegration of waste activated biosolids (WAB) through thermochemical (TC) pretreatment requires high energy and cost for efficient energy generation. Therefore in the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the biodegrdability and to minimize the operational cost of TC pretreatment by combining it with ozonation. A higher solubilization of about 30.4% was achieved at lesser energy input of about 141.02kJ/kgTS and a ozone dosage of about 0.0012mgO3/mgSS through this combined thermo chemo ozone (TCO3) pretreatment...
February 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236545/air-pollution-and-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-treated-with-primary-percutaneous-coronary-angioplasty-a-direct-correlation
#6
Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli, Fabio dell'Avvocata, Claudio Picariello, Luca Conte, Lina Marcantoni, Paolo Cardaioli, Giovanni Zuliani, Loris Roncon
PURPOSE: The relationships between air pollutant concentration levels and admission for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have never been assessed. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 4 consecutive years of medical and instrumental data (1st January 2012 to 1st March 2016) to identify patients admitted with STEMI and subsequently treated with primary PCI in our third referral center. Daily atmospheric pressure data (in hectopascal [hPa]) and air pollutant concentration levels were obtained from the regional meteorological service which had a monitoring site in our city (Rovigo, Italy)...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231551/acute-effect-of-ozone-exposure-on-daily-mortality-in-seven-cities-of-jiangsu-province-china-no-clear-evidence-for-threshold
#7
Kai Chen, Lian Zhou, Xiaodong Chen, Jun Bi, Patrick L Kinney
BACKGROUND: Few multicity studies have addressed the health effects of ozone in China due to the scarcity of ozone monitoring data. A critical scientific and policy-relevant question is whether a threshold exists in the ozone-mortality relationship. METHODS: Using a generalized additive model and a univariate random-effects meta-analysis, this research evaluated the relationship between short-term ozone exposure and daily total mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China during 2013-2014...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229949/predicting-reactivity-of-model-dom-compounds-towards-chlorine-with-mediated-electrochemical-oxidation
#8
Glen Andrew de Vera, Wolfgang Gernjak, Jelena Radjenovic
Chlorine demand of a water sample depends on the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM). It is an important parameter for water utilities used to assess oxidant and/or disinfectant consumption of source waters during treatment and distribution. In this study, model compounds namely resorcinol, tannic acid, vanillin, cysteine, tyrosine, and tryptophan were used to represent the reactive moieties of complex DOM mixtures. The reactivity of these compounds was evaluated in terms of Cl2 demand and electron donating capacity (EDC)...
January 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229145/oxidation-potentials-of-phenols-and-anilines-correlation-analysis-of-electrochemical-and-theoretical-values
#9
Ania S Pavitt, Eric J Bylaska, Paul G Tratnyek
Phenols and anilines have been studied extensively as reductants of environmental oxidants (such as manganese dioxide) and as reductates (e.g., model contaminants) that are transformed by environmental oxidants (ozone, triple organic matter, etc.). The thermodynamics and kinetics of these reactions have been interpreted using oxidation potentials for substituted phenols and anilines, often using a legacy experimental dataset that is of uncertain quality. Although there are many alternative oxidation potential data, there has been little systematic analysis of the relevance, reliability, and consistency of the data obtained by different methods...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228618/preventive-effect-of-intravesical-ozone-supplementation-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-male-rats
#10
Kerem Teke, Tayyar A Ozkan, Oguz O Cebeci, Hasan Yilmaz, Muhammed E Keles, Levend Ozkan, Meltem O Dillioglugil, Demir K Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Although non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is widely seen in men, most laboratory studies of new intravesical therapies to prevent NMIBC have been conducted on female animals. In addition, ozone (O3) has been shown to be a beneficial agent as an intravesical application in the treatment of various disorders. In the current study, we evaluated the immunohistopathological oxidative-antioxidative effects of intravesical O3 treatment on n-methyl-n-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced NMIBC. Male Wistar-Albino rats (n=51) were divided into four groups: sham (n=6), O3 only (n=15), MNU only (n=15), and MNU+O3 (n=15)...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228528/clinical-genetic-and-structural-basis-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-11%C3%AE-hydroxylase-deficiency
#11
Ahmed Khattab, Shozeb Haider, Ameet Kumar, Samarth Dhawan, Dauood Alam, Raquel Romero, James Burns, Di Li, Jessica Estatico, Simran Rahi, Saleel Fatima, Ali Alzahrani, Mona Hafez, Noha Musa, Maryam Razzghy Azar, Najoua Khaloul, Moez Gribaa, Ali Saad, Ilhem Ben Charfeddine, Berenice Bilharinho de Mendonça, Alicia Belgorosky, Katja Dumic, Miroslav Dumic, Javier Aisenberg, Nurgun Kandemir, Ayfer Alikasifoglu, Alev Ozon, Nazli Gonc, Tina Cheng, Ursula Kuhnle-Krahl, Marco Cappa, Paul-Martin Holterhus, Munier A Nour, Daniele Pacaud, Assaf Holtzman, Sun Li, Mone Zaidi, Tony Yuen, Maria I New
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), resulting from mutations in CYP11B1, a gene encoding 11β-hydroxylase, represents a rare autosomal recessive Mendelian disorder of aberrant sex steroid production. Unlike CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the disease is far more common in the Middle East and North Africa, where consanguinity is common often resulting in identical mutations. Clinically, affected female newborns are profoundly virilized (Prader score of 4/5), and both genders display significantly advanced bone ages and are oftentimes hypertensive...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228026/general-technique-for-analytical-derivatives-of-post-projected-hartree-fock
#12
Takashi Tsuchimochi, Seiichiro Ten-No
In electronic structure theory, the availability of an analytical derivative is one of the desired features for a method to be useful in practical applications, as it allows for geometry optimization as well as computation of molecular properties. With the recent advances in the development of symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) methods, we here aim at further extensions by devising the analytic gradients of post-PHF approaches with a special focus on spin-extended (spin-projected) configuration interaction with single and double substitutions (ECISD)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226247/biologically-active-filters-an-advanced-water-treatment-process-for-contaminants-of-emerging-concern
#13
Shuangyi Zhang, Stephen W Gitungo, Lisa Axe, Robert F Raczko, John E Dyksen
With the increasing concern of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in source water, this study examines the hypothesis that existing filters in water treatment plants can be converted to biologically active filters (BAFs) to treat these compounds. Removals through bench-scale BAFs were evaluated as a function of media, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dual media, empty bed contact time (EBCT), and pre-ozonation. For GAC BAFs, greater oxygen consumption, increased pH drop, and greater dissolved organic carbon removal normalized to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were observed indicating increased microbial activity as compared to anthracite/sand dual media BAFs...
February 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223483/seasonal-prediction-of-us-summertime-ozone-using-statistical-analysis-of-large-scale-climate-patterns
#14
Lu Shen, Loretta J Mickley
We develop a statistical model to predict June-July-August (JJA) daily maximum 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations in the eastern United States based on large-scale climate patterns during the previous spring. We find that anomalously high JJA ozone in the East is correlated with these springtime patterns: warm tropical Atlantic and cold northeast Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), as well as positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over Hawaii and negative SLP anomalies over the Atlantic and North America...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221959/efficacy-of-ozonation-treatments-of-smoked-fish-for-reducing-its-benzo-a-pyrene-concentration-and-toxicity
#15
Irina Rozentale, Janis Ancans, Elena Bartkiene, Arturs Viksna, Vadims Bartkevics
Ozone is widely used in food processing, for example, to decompose mycotoxins or pesticide residues, to extend the shelf life of products, and for sanitation. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of expanding the application of ozone for oxidative degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The evaluation was conducted by ozonation of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) standard solution and smoked fish (sprats) contaminated with PAHs. The effect of ozonation was immediate in the BaP solution; 89% of this toxic compound was decomposed after only 1 min of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221936/evaluation-of-a-recirculating-dipper-well-combined-with-ozone-sanitizer-for-control-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-food-service-operations
#16
Giselle Almeida, Kristen E Gibson
In the retail food service industry, small countertop sinks, or dipper wells, are utilized to rinse and store serving utensils between uses. These dipper wells are designed to operate under a constant flow of water, which serves both to prevent the accumulation of microorganisms and to aid in the cleanliness of the dipper well itself. Here, a recirculating dipper well ozone sanitation system (DWOSS) was evaluated for the control and inactivation of Escherichia coli , Listeria innocua , PRD1 bacteriophage, and Staphylococcus aureus present on a stainless steel disher...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221773/air-quality-impacts-of-electrifying-vehicles-and-equipment-across-the-united-states
#17
Uarporn Nopmongcol, John Grant, Eladio Knipping, Mark Alexander, Rob Schurhoff, David Young, Jaegun Jung, Tejas Shah, Greg Yarwood
U.S.-wide air quality impacts of electrifying vehicles and off-road equipment are estimated for 2030 using 3-D photochemical air quality model and detailed emissions inventories. Electrification reduces tailpipe emissions and emissions from petroleum refining, transport, and storage, but increases electricity demand. The Electrification Case assumes approximately 17% of light duty and 8% of heavy duty vehicle miles traveled and from 17% to 79% of various off-road equipment types considered good candidates for electrification is powered by electricity...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219854/does-neighborhood-social-and-environmental-context-impact-race-ethnic-disparities-in-childhood-asthma
#18
Mackenzie Brewer, Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, Justin T Denney, Kristin M Osiecki, Brady Moffett, Keila Lopez
Utilizing over 140,000 geocoded medical records for a diverse sample of children ages 2-12 living in Houston, Texas, we examine whether a comprehensive set of neighborhood social and environmental characteristics explain racial and ethnic disparities in childhood asthma. Adjusting for all individual risk factors, as well as neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, particulate matter, ozone concentration, and race/ethnic composition, reduced but did not fully attenuate the higher odds of asthma diagnosis among black (OR=2...
February 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219661/protective-effects-of-topical-vitamin-c-compound-mixtures-against-ozone-induced-damage-in-human-skin
#19
Giuseppe Valacchi, Alessandra Pecorelli, Giuseppe Belmonte, Erika Pambianchi, Franco Cervellati, Stephen Lynch, Yevgeniy Krol, Christian Oresajo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218687/uv-radiation-from-physics-to-impacts
#20
EDITORIAL
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has affected life at least since the first life forms moved out of the seas and crawled onto the land. Therefore, one might assume that evolution has adapted to natural UV radiation. However, evolution is mostly concerned with the propagation of the genetic code, not with a long, happy, and fulfilling life. Because rickets is bad for a woman giving birth, the beneficial effects of UV-radiation outweigh the adverse effects like aged skin and skin tumors of various grades of malignancy that usually only afflict us at older age...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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