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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684457/%C3%A2-%C2%BA4-gaba-a-receptors-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-are-associated-with-resilience-against-activity-based-anorexia-for-adolescent-female-mice-but-not-for-males
#1
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Chiye Aoki
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model of anorexia nervosa, a mental illness with highest mortality and with onset that is most frequently during adolescence. We questioned whether vulnerability of adolescent mice to ABA differs between sexes and whether individual differences in resilience are causally linked to alpha4betadelta-GABAA R expression. C57BL6/J WT and α4-KO adolescent male and female mice underwent ABA induction by combining wheel access with food restriction. ABA vulnerability was measured as the extent of food restriction-evoked hyperactivity on a running wheel and body weight losses...
April 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682695/two-decades-long-journey-from-riluzole-to-edaravone-revisiting-the-clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-the-only-two-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-therapeutics
#2
REVIEW
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, R Jayachandra Babu, Nuggehally R Srinivas
The recent approval of edaravone has provided an intravenous option to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in addition to the existing oral agent, riluzole. The present work was primarily undertaken to provide a comprehensive clinical pharmacokinetic summary of the two approved ALS therapeutics. The key objectives of the review were to (i) tabulate the clinical pharmacokinetics of riluzole and edaravone with emphasis on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties; (ii) provide a comparative scenario of the pharmacokinetics of the two drugs wherever possible; and (iii) provide perspectives and introspection on the gathered clinical pharmacokinetic data of the two drugs with appropriate conjectures to quench scientific curiosity...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680500/cross-talk-between-egfr-and-il-6-drives-oncogenic-signaling-and-offers-therapeutic-opportunities-in-cancer
#3
Kriti Ray, Beata Ujvari, Venkata Ramana, John Donald
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a known target in cancer therapy and targeting the receptor has proven to be extremely successful in treating cancers that are dependent on EGFR signaling. To that effect, targeted therapies to EGFR such as Cetuximab, Panitumumab-monoclonal antibodies and Gefitinib, Erlotinib-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have had success in therapeutic scenarios. However, the development of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to combine anti- EGFR therapies with other inhibitors, so that resistance can be overcome by the targeting of alternate signaling pathways...
April 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679892/electric-field-driven-assembly-of-live-bacterial-cell-microarrays-for-rapid-phenotypic-assessment-and-cell-viability-testing
#4
Meenal Goel, Abhishek Verma, Shalini Gupta
Microarray technology to isolate living cells using external fields is a facile way to do phenotypic analysis at the cellular level. We have used alternating current dielectrophoresis (AC-DEP) to drive the assembly of live pathogenic Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria into miniaturized single cell microarrays. The effects of voltage and frequency were optimized to identify the conditions for maximum cell capture which gave an entrapment efficiency of 90% in 60 min. The chip was used for calibration-free estimation of cellular loads in binary mixtures and further applied for rapid and enhanced testing of cell viability in the presence of drug via impedance spectroscopy...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679303/do-the-sglt-2-inhibitors-offer-more-than-hypoglycemic-activity
#5
REVIEW
Eduardo Flores, Carlos G Santos-Gallego, Nely Diaz-Mejía, Juan Jose Badimon
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic health conditions in the USA; it affects approximately 10% of adults with up to one-quarter being undiagnosed. T2DM is associated with substantial cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. T2DM is a pathological condition characterized by elevated levels of glucose and associated with high CV risk. Traditional hypoglycemic drugs have demonstrated their capability for effective and maintained management of high glucose levels, but they have not significantly impacted on the incidence of CV events...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677411/shift-in-drug-vs-alcohol-prevalence-in-milwaukee-county-motor-vehicle-decedents-2010-2016
#6
Kiran A Faryar Faryarka Ucmail Uc Edu, Sara A Kohlbeck, Sara J Schreiber
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of alcohol and nonalcohol drugs in motor vehicle crash (MVC) decedents in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. METHODS: A retrospective review of MVC decedents in Milwaukee County from 2010 to 2016 was performed. Substances were divided into 5 categories based on chemical composition and clinical effects: alcohol, cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine, opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines and methamphetamines...
March 2018: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677369/targeted-drug-delivery-in-the-suprachoroidal-space-by-swollen-hydrogel-pushing
#7
Jae Hwan Jung, Patcharin Desit, Mark R Prausnitz
Purpose: The purpose is to target model drug particles to the posterior region of the suprachoroidal space (SCS) of the eye controlled via pushing by hydrogel swelling. Methods: A particle formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid (HA) with fluorescent polymer particles and a hydrogel formulation containing 4% HA were introduced in a single syringe as two layers without mixing, and injected sequentially into the SCS of the rabbit eye ex vivo and in vivo using a microneedle...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676652/-here-s-to-a-night-of-drunken-mistakes-exploring-experiences-regrets-and-optimism-in-young-adult-drinkers
#8
Emma L Davies, Mary Sissons Joshi
BACKGROUND: Studies exploring "anticipated regret" concerning alcohol rarely consider the broader consequences of excessive drinking that might be regretted. Even if specific regrettable experiences are identified, interventions targeting them may not succeed because individuals are often optimistic about their risk susceptibility. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the consequences young adult drinkers reported, and the extent to which these were regretted...
April 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675601/asymptotic-analysis-of-a-tmdd-model-when-a-reaction-contributes-to-the-destruction-of-its-product
#9
Lida I Michalaki, Dimitris A Goussis
The multi-scale dynamics of a two-compartment with first order absorption Target-Mediated Drug Disposition (TMDD) pharmacokinetics model is analysed, using the Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) algorithm. It is shown that the process evolves along two Slow Invariant Manifolds (SIMs), on which the most intense components of the model are equilibrated, so that the less intensive are the driving ones. The CSP tools allow for the identification of the components of the TMDD model that (i) constrain the evolution of the process on the SIMs, (ii) drive the system along the SIMs and (iii) generate the fast time scales...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675596/post-finasteride-syndrome-and-post-ssri-sexual-dysfunction-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Giancarlo Panzica, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Sexual dysfunction is a clinical condition due to different causes including the iatrogenic origin. For instance, it is well known that sexual dysfunction may occur in patients treated with antidepressants like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). A similar side effect has been also reported during treatment with finasteride, an inhibitor of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase, for androgenetic alopecia. Interestingly, sexual dysfunction persists in both cases after drug discontinuation. These conditions have been named post-SSRI sexual dysfunction (PSSD) and post-finasteride syndrome (PFS)...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672062/structure-and-interaction-of-nanoparticle-protein-complexes
#11
Sugam Kumar, Indresh Yadav, Vinod Kumar Aswal, Joachim Kohlbrecher
The integration of nanoparticles with proteins is of high scientific interest due to the amazing potential displayed by their complexes, combining the nanoscale properties of nanoparticles with the specific architectures and functions of the protein molecules. The nanoparticle-protein complexes, in particular, are useful in the emerging field of nanobiotechnology (nanomedicine, drug delivery and biosensors) as the nanoparticles having sizes comparable to that of living cells, can access and operate within the cell...
April 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669855/squalene-epoxidase-drives-nafld-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-is-a-pharmaceutical-target
#12
Dabin Liu, Chi Chun Wong, Li Fu, Huarong Chen, Liuyang Zhao, Chuangen Li, Yunfei Zhou, Yanquan Zhang, Weiqi Xu, Yidong Yang, Bin Wu, Gong Cheng, Paul Bo-San Lai, Nathalie Wong, Joseph J Y Sung, Jun Yu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an emerging malignancy in the developed world; however, mechanisms that contribute to its formation are largely unknown, and targeted therapy is currently not available. Our RNA sequencing analysis of NAFLD-HCC samples revealed squalene epoxidase ( SQLE ) as the top outlier metabolic gene overexpressed in NAFLD-HCC patients. Hepatocyte-specific Sqle transgenic expression in mice accelerated the development of high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced HCC...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668918/glutamatergic-signaling-drives-ketamine-mediated-response-in-depression-evidence-from-dynamic-causal-modeling
#13
Jessica R Gilbert, Julia S Yarrington, Kathleen E Wills, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
Background: The glutamatergic modulator ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression. Thus, modulating glutamatergic transmission may be critical to effectively treating depression, though the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. Methods: This double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study analyzed data from 18 drug-free MDD subjects and 18 heathy controls who received a single intravenous infusion of ketamine hydrochloride (0...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667437/transdermal-buprenorphine-for-moderate-chronic-noncancer-pain-syndromes
#14
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Flaminia Coluzzi, Robert Taylor
Chronic noncancer pain has remained a challenging clinical problem. Opioid analgesics are effective, but they are known to be associated with opioid use disorder and potentially treatment-limiting side effects. Buprenorphine is a Schedule III synthetic opioid in the USA with a chemical structure similar to that of morphine but with a longer duration of action, greater potency, and other unique pharmacological attributes. Its role in treatment of chronic noncancer pain may be broader than currently thought. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of transdermal buprenorphine in moderate chronic noncancer pain syndromes patients will be discussed...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666300/a-pan-cancer-landscape-of-interactions-between-solid-tumors-and-infiltrating-immune-cell-populations
#15
David Tamborero, Carlota Rubio-Perez, Ferran Muiños, Radhakrishnan Sabarinathan, Josep Maria Piulats, Aura Muntasell, Rodrigo Dienstmann, Nuria Lopez-Bigas, Abel Gonzalez-Perez
PURPOSE: Throughout their development tumors are challenged by the immune system and they acquire features to evade its surveillance. A systematic view of these traits which sheds light on how tumors respond to immunotherapies is still lacking. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we computed the relative abundance of an array of immune cell populations to measure the immune infiltration pattern of 9,174 tumors of 29 solid cancers. We then clustered tumors with similar infiltration pattern to define immune-phenotypes...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665883/plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-animals-current-status-and-future-directions
#16
Jian Sun, Ximin Zeng, Xing-Ping Li, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jun Lin
Colistin, a peptide antibiotic belonging to the polymyxin family, is one of the last effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections. Recent discovery of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from people and food animals has caused a significant public health concern and drawn worldwide attention. Extensive usage of colistin in food animals has been proposed as a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1; thus, there is a worldwide trend to limit colistin usage in animal production...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663959/quality-assurance-of-rifampicin-containing-fixed-drug-combinations-in-south-africa-dosing-implications
#17
R Court, M T Chirehwa, L Wiesner, B Wright, W Smythe, N Kramer, H McIlleron
SETTING: Rifampicin (RMP) drives treatment response in drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Low RMP concentrations increase the risk of poor outcomes, and drug quality needs to be excluded as a contributor to low RMP exposure. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We performed an open-label, three-way cross-over study of three licensed RMP-containing formulations widely used in South Africa to evaluate the bioavailability of RMP in a two-drug fixed-dose combination tablet (2FDC) and a four-drug FDC (4FDC) against a single-drug reference...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662081/a-quantitative-lumifluo-assay-to-test-inhibitory-compounds-blocking-p53-degradation-induced-by-human-papillomavirus-oncoprotein-e6-in-living-cells
#18
Lorenzo Messa, Marta Celegato, Chiara Bertagnin, Beatrice Mercorelli, Giulio Nannetti, Giorgio Palù, Arianna Loregian
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the causative agents for the onset of several epithelial cancers in humans. The deregulated expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is the driving force sustaining the progression of malignant transformation in pre-neoplastic lesions. Targeting the viral E6 oncoprotein through inhibitory compounds can counteract the survival of cancer cells due to the reactivation of p53-mediated pathways and represents an intriguing strategy to treat HPV-associated neoplasias...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661805/slashed-cost-of-hepatitis-c-drugs-spurs-drive-to-eliminate-the-disease
#19
Richard Hurley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661145/therapeutic-cancer-vaccine-phase-i-clinical-tolerance-study-of-hu-rhegf-rp64k-mont-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Puyuan Xing, Hongyu Wang, Sheng Yang, Xiaohong Han, Yan Sun, Yuankai Shi
BACKGROUND: Hu-rhEGF-rP64k/Mont is a biotechnology product for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The vaccine induces a neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response, against the normal circulating self-protein antigen epidermal growth factor (EGF), which prevents its binding to and activation of the EGF receptor, inhibiting the transduction of the signals that drive cancer cell proliferation, survival and spread. This phase I study aimed to evaluate the safety and the immunological response of Hu-rhEGF-rP64k vaccine in NSCLC patients...
April 16, 2018: BMC Immunology
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