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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231220/plug-and-actuate-on-demand-multimodal-individual-addressability-of-microarray-plates-using-modular-hybrid-acoustic-wave-technology
#1
Amgad R Rezk, Shwathy Ramesan, Leslie Y Yeo
The microarray titre plate remains a fundamental workhorse in genomic, proteomic and cellomic analyses that underpin the drug discovery process. Nevertheless, liquid handling technologies for sample dispensing, processing and transfer have not progressed significantly beyond conventional robotic micropipetting techniques, which are not only at their fundamental sample size limit, but are also prone to mechanical failure and contamination. This is because alternative technologies to date suffer from a number of constraints, mainly their limitation to carry out only a single liquid operation such as dispensing or mixing at a given time, and their inability to address individual wells, particularly at high throughput...
December 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231195/hsd3b1-status-as-a-biomarker-of-androgen-deprivation-resistance-and-implications-for-prostate-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Hettel, Nima Sharifi
Patients with advanced prostate cancer who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) almost invariably develop castration-resistant disease. The mechanism of resistance is largely based on synthesis of intratumoral androgens from adrenal precursors, requiring enzymatic action of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5→4 isomerase 1 (3β-HSD1), encoded by HSD3B1. A nucleotide polymorphism (1245A>C) in HSD3B1 results in a protein variant with increased steady-state levels and subsequently increased androgen synthesis from extragonadal precursors...
December 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230217/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-of-tuberculosis-molecular-drivers-and-immunological-consequences
#3
REVIEW
Meg L Donovan, Thomas E Schultz, Taylor J Duke, Antje Blumenthal
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health threat. Urgent needs in the fight against TB include improved and innovative treatment options for drug-sensitive and -resistant TB as well as reliable biological indicators that discriminate active from latent disease and enable monitoring of treatment success or failure. Prominent interferon (IFN) inducible gene signatures in TB patients and animal models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection have drawn significant attention to the roles of type I IFNs in the host response to mycobacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229599/downregulating-neuropilin-2-triggers-a-novel-mechanism-enabling-egfr-dependent-resistance-to-oncogene-targeted-therapies
#4
Sabrina Rizzolio, Chiara Battistini, Gabriella Cagnoni, Maria Apicella, Viviana Vella, Silvia Giordano, Luca Tamagnone
Neuropilins are a class of cell surface proteins implicated in cell migration and angiogenesis, with aberrant expression in human tumors. Here we show that the expression of Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) controls EGFR protein levels, thereby impinging on intracellular signaling, viability and response to targeted therapies of oncogene-addicted cells. Notably, increased NRP2 expression in EGFR-addicted tumor cells led to downregulation of EGFR protein and tumor cell growth inhibition. Nrp2 also blunted upregulation of an EGFR "rescue" pathway induced by targeted therapy in Met-addicted carcinoma cells...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229491/could-cannabis-liberalisation-lead-to-wider-changes-in-drug-policies-and-outcomes
#5
Brendan Hughes, Lucas Wiessing, Don Des Jarlais, Paul Griffiths
Cannabis policies are changing in some countries. This may have consequences that extend beyond cannabis-specific outcomes, such as an impact on the consumption patterns of other substances. Changes in cannabis policies may also influence policy responses to other drugs, as countries re-assess the balance between law enforcement and public health objectives. If this happens, it could have important health and social consequences, especially in those countries where a 'war on drugs' policy perspective has inhibited investment in evidence based responses in areas such as treatment and harm reduction...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228699/iron-depletion-is-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-to-target-cancer-stem-cells
#6
Takayuki Ninomiya, Toshiaki Ohara, Kazuhiro Noma, Yuki Katsura, Ryoichi Katsube, Hajime Kashima, Takuya Kato, Yasuko Tomono, Hiroshi Tazawa, Shunsuke Kagawa, Yasuhiro Shirakawa, Fumiaki Kimura, Ling Chen, Tomonari Kasai, Masaharu Seno, Akihiro Matsukawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Adequate iron levels are essential for human health. However, iron overload can act as catalyst for the formation of free radicals, which may cause cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which maintain the hallmark stem cell characteristics of self-renewal and differentiation capacity, have been proposed as a driving force of tumorigenesis and metastases. In the present study, we investigated the role of iron in the proliferation and stemness of CSCs, using the miPS-LLCcm cell model. Although the anti-cancer agents fluorouracil and cisplatin suppressed the proliferation of miPS-LLCcm cells, these drugs did not alter the expression of stemness markers, including Nanog, SOX2, c-Myc, Oct3/4 and Klf4...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228654/lack-of-chemopreventive-effects-of-p2x7r-inhibitors-against-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Altaf Mohammed, Naveena B Janakiram, Venkateshwar Madka, Gopal Pathuri, Qian Li, Rebekah Ritchie, Laura Biddick, Hannah Kutche, Yuting Zhang, Anil Singh, Hariprasad Gali, Stan Lightfoot, Vernon E Steele, Chen S Suen, Chinthalapally V Rao
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an almost uniformly lethal disease with inflammation playing an important role in its progression. Sustained stimulation of purinergic receptor P2X7 drives induction of NLRP inflammasome activation. To understand the role of P2X7 receptor and inflammasome, we performed transcriptomic analysis of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice pancreatic tumors by next generation sequencing. Results showed that P2X7R's key inflammasome components, IL-1β and caspase-1 are highly expressed (p < 0.05) in pancreatic tumors...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226685/size-effect-on-lipid-nanocapsules-mediated-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#8
Yining Xu, Dario Carradori, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Veronique Preat, Ana Beloqui
L cells are enteroendocrine cells located throughout the gastrointestinal tract that secrete physiologically important peptides. The most characterized peptides secreted by L cells are the peptide YY (PYY) and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) -1 and -2. These peptides are released rapidly into the circulation after oral nutrient ingestion. Recently, lipid-based nanoparticles (NP) have been described as triggers for GLP-1 secretion by L cells. NP physicochemical properties play a key role in the NP-cell interaction, and drive NP cell internalization...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223932/pregnancy-related-knowledge-of-women-with-epilepsy-an-internet-based-survey-in-german-speaking-countries
#9
Carolin Dierking, Thomas Porschen, Uwe Walter, Johannes Rösche
There are several issues, which have to be acknowledged, when treating women with epilepsy (WWE). The need for counseling WWE in Germany with epilepsy on pregnancy-related matters was stressed in several papers and medical guidelines. Physicians treating WWE in Germany therefore should be aware of the information needs of their patients. We aimed to determine the level of pregnancy-related knowledge of WWE and their informational needs concerning pregnancy and childbirth issues in German-speaking countries by an internet-based survey...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223477/immuno-oncology-from-the-perspective-of-somatic-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Santiago González, Nadezda Volkova, Philip Beer, Moritz Gerstung
The past years have witnessed significant success for cancer immunotherapies that activate a patient's immune system against their cancer cells. At the same time our understanding of the genetic changes driving tumor evolution have progressed dramatically. The study of cancer genomes has shown that tumors are best understood as cell populations governed by the rules of evolution, leading to the emergence and spread of cell lineages with pathogenic mutations. Moreover, somatic evolution can explain the acquisition of mutations conferring drug resistance in the ever-lasting battle for reaching even fitter cell states...
December 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223151/the-power-and-limitations-of-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-assays
#11
REVIEW
N B Ustinov, E G Zavyalova, I G Smirnova, A M Kopylov
Influenza virus hemagglutinins (HAs) are surface proteins that bind to sialic acid residues at the host cell surface and ensure further virus internalization. Development of methods for the inhibition of these processes drives progress in the design of new antiviral drugs. The state of the isolated HA (i.e. combining tertiary structure and extent of oligomerization) is defined by multiple factors, like the HA source and purification method, posttranslational modifications, pH, etc. The HA state affects HA functional activity and significantly impacts the results of numerous HA assays...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223147/the-unmet-provision-of-allergy-services-in-hong-kong-impairs-capability-for-allergy-prevention-implications-for-the-asia-pacific-region
#12
Tak-Hong Lee, Ting-Fan Leung, Gary Wong, Marco Ho, Jaime Rosa Duque, Philip Hei Li, Chak-Sing Lau, Wai-Fan Lam, Adrian Wu, Eric Chan, Christopher Lai, Yu-Lung Lau
There is a high and rising prevalence of many allergic diseases in the Asia Pacific, including Hong Kong, which is unmatched by a commensurate provision of clinical allergy services. In the last 3 years, the allergy profile in Hong Kong has increased due to greater public engagement and more frequent educational activities, scientific outputs and publication of local guidelines on allergy prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Two new drug allergy clinics have been established in public hospitals, and for the first time in 20 years, Hong Kong has its first trainee in adult allergy...
December 10, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221669/regulation-of-pro-and-anti-atherogenic-cytokines
#13
Mitali Ray, Michael V Autieri
Despite advances in prevention and treatment, vascular diseases continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Incidence is expected to worsen as the number of patients with common co-morbidities linked with atherosclerotic vascular disease, such as obesity and diabetes, continues to increase, reaching epidemic proportions. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven vascular inflammatory disease involving multiple cell types in various stages of inflammation, activation, apoptosis, and necrosis...
December 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221181/analysis-of-ctcl-cell-lines-reveals-important-differences-between-mycosis-fungoides-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-vs-htlv-1-leukemic-cell-lines
#14
Elena Netchiporouk, Jennifer Gantchev, Matthew Tsang, Philippe Thibault, Andrew K Watters, John-Douglas Matthew Hughes, Feras M Ghazawi, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Denis Sasseville, Ivan V Litvinov
HTLV-1 is estimated to affect ~20 million people worldwide and in ~5% of carriers it produces Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), which can often masquerade and present with classic erythematous pruritic patches and plaques that are typically seen in Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS), the most recognized variants of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). For many years the role of HTLV-1 in the pathogenesis of MF/SS has been hotly debated. In this study we analyzed CTCL vs. HTLV-1+ leukemic cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219122/towards-the-use-of-breath-for-detecting-mycobacterial-infection-a-case-study-in-a-murine-model
#15
Flavio Antonio Franchina, Theodore Robert Mellors, Minara Aliyeva, Jeffrey Wagner, Nirav Daphtary, Lennart Lundblad, Sarah M Fortune, Eric J Rubin, Jane E Hill
In the present research, the potential of breath analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) was investigated for the discrimination between healthy and infected mice. A pilot study employing a total of 16 animals was used to develop a method for breath analysis in a murine model for studying MTBC (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex) using the M. bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin). Breath was collected in Tedlar bags and concentrated onto thermal desorption tubes for the subsequent analysis by GC×GC-MS...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218886/clingen-cancer-somatic-working-group-standardizing-and-democratizing-access-to-cancer-molecular-diagnostic-data-to-drive-translational-research
#16
Subha Madhavan, Deborah Ritter, Christine Micheel, Shruti Rao, Angshumoy Roy, Dmitriy Sonkin, Matthew Mccoy, Malachi Griffith, Obi L Griffith, Peter Mcgarvey, Shashikant Kulkarni
A growing number of academic and community clinics are conducting genomic testing to inform treatment decisions for cancer patients (1). In the last 3-5 years, there has been a rapid increase in clinical use of next generation sequencing (NGS) based cancer molecular diagnostic (MolDx) testing (2). The increasing availability and decreasing cost of tumor genomic profiling means that physicians can now make treatment decisions armed with patient-specific genetic information. Accumulating research in the cancer biology field indicates that there is significant potential to improve cancer patient outcomes by effectively leveraging this rich source of genomic data in treatment planning (3)...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217540/cancer-stem-cell-suppressing-activity-of-chrysotoxine-a-bibenzyl-from-dendrobium-pulchellum
#17
Narumol Bhummaphan, Varisa Pongrakhananon, Boonchoo Sritularak, Pithi Chanvorachote
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recognized as rare populations driving cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in leading cancers. Attempts have been paid toward identifying compound that specifically targets these CSCs. Therefore, the investigations of the novel therapeutic strategies for CSCs targeting is required. The cytotoxic effects of Chrysotoxine on human NSCLC-derived H460 and H23 cells were tested by MTT assay. The Effect of Chrysotoxine suppresses CSC-like phenotypes was determined in CSC-rich populations and primary CSCs in 3D culture and Extreme limiting dilution assay...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216878/adaptive-phenotype-drives-resistance-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Nicoletta Ferrari, Ilaria Granata, Matteo Capaia, Marina Piccirillo, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Roberta Venè, Antonella Brizzolara, Andrea Petretto, Elvira Inglese, Martina Morini, Simonetta Astigiano, Adriana Agnese Amaro, Francesco Boccardo, Cecilia Balbi, Paola Barboro
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa), the second most common cancer affecting men worldwide, shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behaviour representing the epiphenomenon of an extreme heterogeneity. Androgen deprivation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced forms but after few years the majority of patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form that poses considerable therapeutic challenges. METHODS: Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, invasion and reporter assays, and in vivo studies were performed to characterize androgen resistant sublines phenotype in comparison to the parental cell line LNCaP...
December 8, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214743/gc-ms-ms-detects-potential-pregabalin-abuse-in-susceptible-subjects-hair
#19
Federica Ianni, Kyriaki Aroni, Alessio Gili, Roccaldo Sardella, Mauro Bacci, Massimo Lancia, Benedetto Natalini, Cristiana Gambelunghe
Pregabalin, a GABA analogue, binds to the alpha 2 delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels. It is recognized as efficacious in pathologies such as epilepsy, neuropathic pain and anxiety disorders. Since pregabalin prescriptions have increased worldwide, reports of its abuse have been accumulating, mainly in patients with opioid abuse disorders. The present study investigated potential pregabalin abuse by means of hair analysis, a matrix that provides valuable retrospective information. Half of the pool of 280 susceptible patients had been occasional drug users and were being monitored for driving licence renewals...
December 7, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212236/growth-differentiation-factor-15-mediates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-invasion-of-breast-cancers-through-igf-1r-foxm1-signaling
#20
Bridgette F Peake, Siobhan M Eze, Lily Yang, Robert C Castellino, Rita Nahta
Expression of the inflammatory cytokine growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is significantly elevated in many tumor types in association with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), drug resistance, and progressive disease. However, few studies have examined GDF15 expression, signaling, or function in breast cancer. In the current study, we demonstrate that GDF15 is associated with high tumor grade, ER-negativity, and HER2 overexpression in patients with breast cancer. Stable overexpression of GDF15 upregulates expression of mesenchymal markers and transcription factors, including FoxM1, and increases cellular invasion...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
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