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oxidised LDL

Alexina Orsoni, Patrice Thérond, Ricardo Tan, Philippe Giral, Paul Robillard, Anatol Kontush, Peter J Meikle, M John Chapman
AIMS: Atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOH) in MetS is indeterminate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma triglycerides (-41%) and LDL-C (-38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
Dongxu Fu, Jeremy Y Yu, Shihe Yang, Mingyuan Wu, Samar M Hammad, Anna R Connell, Mei Du, Junping Chen, Timothy J Lyons
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Intra-retinal extravasation and modification of LDL have been implicated in diabetic retinopathy: autophagy may mediate these effects. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect autophagy marker LC3B in human and murine diabetic and non-diabetic retinas. Cultured human retinal capillary pericytes (HRCPs) were treated with in vitro-modified heavily-oxidised glycated LDL (HOG-LDL) vs native LDL (N-LDL) with or without autophagy modulators: green fluorescent protein-LC3 transfection; small interfering RNAs against Beclin-1, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP); autophagy inhibitor 3-MA (5 mmol/l) and/or caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk (100 μmol/l)...
October 2016: Diabetologia
Mohamed Jalloul Nsaibia, Ablajan Mahmut, Haifa Mahjoub, Abdellaziz Dahou, Rihab Bouchareb, Marie-Chloé Boulanger, Jean-Pierre Després, Yohan Bossé, Benoît J Arsenault, Eric Larose, Philippe Pibarot, Patrick Mathieu
INTRODUCTION: Structural valve degeneration (SVD) leads to the failure of aortic valve bioprostheses. It is suspected that lipid-derived factors could play a role in SVD. We hypothesised that oxidised low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), OxLDL/LDL, OxLDL/high-density lipoprotein (OxLDL/HDL) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) may be associated with SVD. METHODS: We included 199 patients who underwent an aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis and had an echocardiography follow-up to evaluate the function of the prosthesis...
July 4, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Laura Toxqui, M Pilar Vaquero
Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW) or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW), on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L) or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period...
2016: Nutrients
Jeremy Y Yu, Mei Du, Michael H Elliott, Mingyuan Wu, Dongxu Fu, Shihe Yang, Arpita Basu, Xiaowu Gu, Jian-Xing Ma, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J Lyons
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to determine whether plasma lipoproteins, after leakage into the retina and modification by glycation and oxidation, contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: To simulate permeation of plasma lipoproteins into retinal tissues, streptozotocin-induced mouse models of diabetes and non-diabetic mice were challenged with intravitreal injection of human 'highly-oxidised glycated' low-density lipoprotein (HOG-LDL), native- (N-) LDL, or the vehicle PBS...
September 2016: Diabetologia
M S Nogueira, M C Kessuane, A A B Lobo Ladd, F V Lobo Ladd, B Cogliati, I A Castro
The effect of oxidised fatty acids on atherosclerosis progression is controversial. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effect of long-term consumption of weakly oxidised PUFA from flaxseed oil on oxidative stress biomarkers of LDL-receptor(-/-) mice. To test our hypothesis, mice were separated into three groups. The first group received a high-fat diet containing fresh flaxseed oil (CONT-), the second was fed the same diet prepared using heated flaxseed oil (OXID), and the third group received the same diet containing fresh flaxseed oil and had diabetes induced by streptozotocin (CONT+)...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Vijayetha P Patil, Anuradha B Patil, Vidya S Patil, Deepti G Ingleshwar
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidaemia of Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) is known to be linked to oxidative reactions and atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase (PON1) has been implicated in the prevention of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) lipid peroxidation and also degrades biologically active oxidised lipids in lipoprotein. AIM: The present study was taken up to assess PON1 levels in paediatric nephrotic syndrome and also to see if any correlation exists between lipid parameters and PON1...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Raquel Mateos, Sara Martínez-López, Gema Baeza Arévalo, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Beatriz Sarriá, Laura Bravo-Clemente
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives in olive oil protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. Biscuits could be a convenient alternative to broaden consumers' choice of HT-rich foods, although the biscuit matrix could affect HT bioavailability. We performed a crossover, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate HT bioavailability in HT-enriched biscuits (HT-B) versus non-enriched biscuits (C-B), and the effects on oxidative postprandial status. On two separate days, 13 subjects consumed 30 g of C-B or HT-B (5...
August 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Yanwu Hu, Kai Liu, Sun Bo, Mengtong Yan, Yang Zhang, Chunsheng Miao, Liqun Ren
Puerarin, an isoflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, has been shown to process antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemic, and anti-hyperglycemic activities in vivo and in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effects and the possible mechanisms of puerarin in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). VSMCs were cultured and pretreated with different concentrations of puerarin (0, 1, 10, 50 µM) before stimulated by ox-LDL (50 µg/mL)...
February 2016: Die Pharmazie
Hala Hussein, Samir Saheb, Martine Couturier, Marielle Atassi, Alexina Orsoni, Alain Carrié, Patrice Therond, Sandrine Chantepie, Paul Robillard, Eric Bruckert, M John Chapman, Anatol Kontush
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) features elevated oxidative stress and accelerated atherosclerosis driven by elevated levels of atherogenic lipoproteins relative to subnormal levels of atheroprotective high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Small, dense HDL3 potently protects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against proinflammatory oxidative damage. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antioxidative and/or anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are defective in FH and whether such defects are corrected by LDL apheresis...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Jonathan Watt, Simon Kennedy, Nadeem Ahmed, James Hayhurst, John D McClure, Colin Berry, Roger M Wadsworth, Keith G Oldroyd
OBJECTIVE: The balance between coronary endothelial dysfunction and repair is influenced by many protective and deleterious factors circulating in the blood. We studied the relationship between oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and coronary endothelial function in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: 33 patients with stable CHD were studied. Plasma oxLDL was measured using ELISA, coronary endothelial function was assessed using intracoronary acetylcholine infusion and EPCs were quantified using flow cytometry for CD34(+)/KDR(+) cells...
2016: Open Heart
Deepika Awasthi, Sheela Nagarkoti, Amit Kumar, Megha Dubey, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Priya Pathak, Tulika Chandra, Manoj Kumar Barthwal, Madhu Dikshit
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation was initially linked with host defence and extracellular killing of pathogens. However, recent studies have highlighted their inflammatory potential. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has been implicated as an independent risk factor in various acute or chronic inflammatory diseases including systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). In the present study we investigated effect of oxLDL on NETs formation and elucidated the underlying signalling mechanism...
April 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Luiz Gustavo Marin Emed, Daniela Gunther Passaglia, Surya T Guerios, Paula G D João, André I S Moser, Dulcinéia S P Abdalla, Luis Cesar Guarita-Souza, Emanuella Stella Mikilita, Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso da Costa, José Rocha Faria-Neto
We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Sanjiv Kumar Bansal, Sarita Agarwal, Mridul Kumar Daga
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and has assumed alarming proportions in India with gradual increase in its incidence and prevalence over the last decade. India is in the middle of epidemic of coronary artery disease which is leading cause of hospital admissions, morbidity and mortality. In the Indian population, there is higher tendency to develop CAD at a younger age, which cannot be explained on the basis of conventional lipid parameters...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Katarzyna Kaliś
The article discusses vitamin C from the point of view of its supplementation with food and in the form of oral supplements. The dual action of vitamin C is connected with the presence of oxygen, which may reduce the amount of the vitamin in food products, influence thermal resistance, cause degradation and show an antioxidation effect. Vitamin C stimulates the immune cells and collagen synthesis. It may protect the LDL fraction against oxidation, and therefore it is interesting for cosmetology, rheumatology, immunology and dietetics...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Eunyoung Park, Indika Edirisinghe, Ying Yng Choy, Andrew Waterhouse, Britt Burton-Freeman
The aim of the present study was to test grape seed extract (GSE) as a functional ingredient to lower blood pressure (BP) in individuals with pre-hypertension. A single-centre, randomised, two-arm, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 12-week, parallel study was conducted in middle-aged adults with pre-hypertension. A total of thirty-six subjects were randomised (1:1) to Placebo (n 18) or GSE (n 18) groups; twenty-nine of them completed all the protocol-specified procedures (Placebo, n 17; GSE, n 12). Subjects consumed a juice (167 kJ (40 kcal)) containing 0 mg (Placebo) or 300 mg/d GSE (150 mg) twice daily for 6 weeks preceded by a 2-week Placebo run-in and followed by 4-week no-beverage follow-up...
January 28, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Monika Praschberger, Marcela Hermann, Juergen Wanner, Leo Jirovetz, Markus Exner, Stylianos Kapiotis, Bernhard M K Gmeiner, Hilde Laggner
Uremic toxins have been shown to play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in uraemia. The oxidative modification of LDL may play a role in early atherogenesis. Enhanced LDL oxidation has been found in uremic patients which may account for accelerated atherosclerosis observed in CKD. The uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) has been reported to exert oxidative and antioxidative activity...
October 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Helen Griffiths, Dias Irundika, Gyh Lip, Corinne Spickett, Cristina Polidori
Elevated cholesterol in mid-life has been associated with increased risk of dementia in later life. We have previously shown that low density lipoprotein (LDL) is more oxidised in the plasma of dementia patients although total cholesterol levels remained unchanged. Increased systemic oxidative modification (oxLDL) and nitration is also observed during hypercholesterolemia. We have investigated the hypothesis that disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB) function by oxLDL and their lipids may increase risk of neurodegeneration in later life and that statin intervention can mitigate the effects of hyperlipidaemia in mid-life...
October 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chao Chang, Hua Yang, Shuan-Li Xin, Ji-Xiang Liu, Xiu-Feng Zhao, Li-Jun Liu, Li-Ying Han, Li-Min Meng, Qin Li
OBJECTIVE: Macrophage apoptosis plays a key role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. This study investigated the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) on oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanism. METHODS: A model of ox-LDL-induced macrophage injury was established to evaluate the role of BNP. Flow cytometry was employed to detect apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (x0394;x03A8;m), and confocal microscopy was used to determine cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels...
2015: Cardiology
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