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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871983/bluegill-sunfish-use-high-power-outputs-from-axial-muscles-to-generate-powerful-suction-feeding-strikes
#1
Ariel L Camp, Thomas J Roberts, Elizabeth L Brainerd
Suction-feeding fish rapidly expand the mouth cavity to generate high-velocity fluid flows that accelerate food into the mouth. Such fast and forceful suction expansion poses a challenge, as muscle power is limited by muscle mass and the muscles in fish heads are relatively small. The largemouth bass powers expansion with its large body muscles, with negligible power produced by the head muscles (including the sternohyoideus). However, bluegill sunfish - with powerful strikes but different morphology and feeding behavior - may use a different balance of cranial and axial musculature to power feeding and different power outputs from these muscles...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750554/dispensing-pollen-via-catapult-explosive-pollen-release-in-mountain-laurel-kalmia-latifolia
#2
Callin M Switzer, Stacey A Combes, Robin Hopkins
The astonishing amount of floral diversity has inspired countless assumptions about the function of diverse forms and their adaptive significance, yet many of these hypothesized functions are untested. We investigated an often-repeated adaptive hypothesis about how an extreme floral form functions. In this study, we conducted four investigations to understand the adaptive function of explosive pollination in Kalmia latifolia, the mountain laurel. We first performed a kinematic analysis of anther movement. Second, we constructed a heat map of pollen trajectories in three-dimensional space...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746384/maximum-movement-workloads-and-high-intensity-workload-demands-by-position-in-ncaa-division-i-collegiate-football
#3
Gabriel J Sanders, Brad Roll, Corey A Peacock, Roger O Kollock
Sanders, GJ, Roll, B, Peacock, CA, and Kollock, RO. Maximum movement workloads and high-intensity workload demands by position in NCAA division I collegiate football. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to quantify the average and maximum (i.e., peak) movement workloads, and the percent of those workloads performed at high intensity by NCAA division I football athletes during competitive games. Using global positioning system devices (Catapult Sports), low, moderate, and high and total multidirectional movement workloads were quantified by each position...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745789/the-physical-characteristics-of-specific-phases-of-play-during-rugby-union-match-play
#4
Dale B Read, Ben Jones, Sean Williams, Padraic Phibbs, Josh Darrall-Jones, Greg Roe, Jonathon Weakley, Andrew Rock, Kevin Till
PURPOSE: This study quantified the frequencies and timings of rugby union match-play phases (i.e., attacking, defending, ball in play (BIP) and ball out of play (BOP)) and then compared the physical characteristics of attacking, defending and BOP between forwards and backs. METHODS: Data were analysed from 59 male rugby union academy players (259 observations). Each player wore a micro-technology device (Optimeye S5, Catapult) with video footage analysed for phase timings and frequencies...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739977/energy-and-time-optimal-trajectories-in-exploratory-jumps-of-the-spider-phidippus-regius
#5
Mostafa R A Nabawy, Girupakaran Sivalingam, Russell J Garwood, William J Crowther, William I Sellers
Jumping spiders are proficient jumpers that use jumps in a variety of behavioural contexts. We use high speed, high resolution video to measure the kinematics of a single regal jumping spider for a total of 15 different tasks based on a horizontal gap of 2-5 body lengths and vertical gap of +/-2 body lengths. For short range jumps, we show that low angled trajectories are used that minimise flight time. For longer jumps, take-off angles are steeper and closer to the optimum for minimum energy cost of transport...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670530/validity-of-the-catapult-clearsky-t6-local-positioning-system-for-team-sports-specific-drills-in-indoor-conditions
#6
Live S Luteberget, Matt Spencer, Matthias Gilgien
Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of position, distance traveled and instantaneous speed of team sport players as measured by a commercially available local positioning system (LPS) during indoor use. In addition, the study investigated how the placement of the field of play relative to the anchor nodes and walls of the building affected the validity of the system. Method: The LPS (Catapult ClearSky T6, Catapult Sports, Australia) and the reference system [Qualisys Oqus, Qualisys AB, Sweden, (infra-red camera system)] were installed around the field of play to capture the athletes' motion...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584514/the-same-story-or-a-unique-novel-within-participant-principle-component-analysis-of-training-load-measures-in-professional-rugby-union-skills-training
#7
Dan Weaving, Nicholas E Dalton, Christopher Black, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Padraic J Phibbs, Michael Gray, Ben Jones, Gregory A B Roe
PURPOSE: The study aimed to identify which combination of external and internal training load (TL) metrics capture similar or unique information for individual professional players during skills training in rugby union using principal component analysis (PCA). METHOD: TL data were collected from twenty-one male professional rugby union players across a competitive season. This included PlayerLoad™, total distance (TD), and individualised high-speed distance (HSD; >61% maximal velocity; all external TL) obtained from a micro-technology device worn by each player (Optimeye X4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) and the session-rating of perceived exertion (sRPE; internal TL)...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535641/player-monitoring-in-indoor-team-sports-concurrent-validity-of-inertial-measurement-units-to-quantify-average-and-peak-acceleration-values
#8
Mareike Roell, Kai Roecker, Dominic Gehring, Hubert Mahler, Albert Gollhofer
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534003/energy-absorption-capacity-in-natural-fiber-reinforcement-composites-structures
#9
Elías López-Alba, Sebastian Schmeer, Francisco Díaz
The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials...
March 13, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496627/jumping-mechanisms-and-performance-in-beetles-ii-weevils-coleoptera-curculionidae-rhamphini
#10
Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz
We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles...
March 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436403/chronic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Matthias Griese
Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD) are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD) has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420555/validity-and-reliability-of-an-accelerometer-based-player-tracking-device
#12
Daniel P Nicolella, Lorena Torres-Ronda, Kase J Saylor, Xavi Schelling
This study aimed to determine the intra- and inter-device accuracy and reliability of wearable athletic tracking devices, under controlled laboratory conditions. A total of nineteen portable accelerometers (Catapult OptimEye S5) were mounted to an aluminum bracket, bolted directly to an Unholtz Dickie 20K electrodynamic shaker table, and subjected to a series of oscillations in each of three orthogonal directions (front-back, side to side, and up-down), at four levels of peak acceleration (0.1g, 0.5g, 1.0g, and 3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373427/noninvasive-assessment-of-internal-and-external-player-load-implications-for-optimizing-athletic-performance
#13
Aaron D Heishman, Michael A Curtis, Ethan Saliba, Robert J Hornett, Steven K Malin, Arthur L Weltman
Heishman, AD, Curtis, MA, Saliba, E, Hornett, RJ, Malin, SK, and Weltman, AL. Noninvasive assessment of internal and external player load: implications for optimizing athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1280-1287, 2018-Few data exist that assess athlete tracking and monitoring for the development of strategies to optimize performance and reduce fatigue in elite athletes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of external load and internal stress monitoring as assessment tools for examining a performance index of fatigue...
May 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#14
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 16, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192842/validity-of-an-ultra-wideband-local-positioning-system-to-measure-locomotion-in-indoor-sports
#15
F R Serpiello, W G Hopkins, S Barnes, J Tavrou, G M Duthie, R J Aughey, K Ball
The validity of an Ultra-wideband (UWB) positioning system was investigated during linear and change-of-direction (COD) running drills. Six recreationally-active men performed ten repetitions of four activities (walking, jogging, maximal acceleration, and 45º COD) on an indoor court. Activities were repeated twice, in the centre of the court and on the side. Participants wore a receiver tag (Clearsky T6, Catapult Sports) and two reflective markers placed on the tag to allow for comparisons with the criterion system (Vicon)...
August 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146519/drug-discovery-tomorrow-how-to-catapult-ourselves-into-the-future
#16
EDITORIAL
Chris Molloy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955355/gene-regulatory-network-for-tapetum-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Dan-Dan Li, Jing-Shi Xue, Jun Zhu, Zhong-Nan Yang
In flowering plants, male gametophyte development occurs in the anther. Tapetum, the innermost of the four anther somatic layers, surrounds the developing reproductive cells to provide materials for pollen development. A genetic pathway of DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 in regulating tapetum development has been proven. Here we used laser microdissection and pressure catapulting to capture and analyze the transcriptome data for the Arabidopsis tapetum at two stages. With a comprehensive analysis by the microarray data of dyt1, tdf1, ams, and ms188 mutants, we identified possible downstream genes for each transcription factor...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949184/superpropulsion-of-droplets-and-soft-elastic-solids
#18
Christophe Raufaste, Gabriela Ramos Chagas, Thierry Darmanin, Cyrille Claudet, Frédéric Guittard, Franck Celestini
We investigate the behavior of droplets and soft elastic objects propelled with a catapult. Experiments show that the ejection velocity depends on both the projectile deformation and the catapult acceleration dynamics. With a subtle matching given by a peculiar value of the projectile/catapult frequency ratio, a 250% kinetic energy gain is obtained as compared to the propulsion of a rigid projectile with the same engine. This superpropulsion has strong potentialities: actuation of droplets, sorting of objects according to their elastic properties, and energy saving for propulsion engines...
September 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889919/emerging-immunotherapy-in-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Prateek Mendiratta, Brian I Rini, Moshe C Ornstein
Immunotherapy has recently catapulted to the forefront of treatments for patients with solid tumors. Given its inherent immunogenic properties, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has historically responded to immunotherapy and remains primed for further development. Although immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin 2 was a primary treatment for advanced RCC (aRCC), recent discoveries of key molecular and immunological alterations have led to the FDA-approval of nivolumab, an antiprogrammed cell death inhibitor, which has demonstrated an overall survival in patients with previously treated aRCC...
September 7, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880690/cognitive-intervention-for-early-stage-dementia-research-and-techniques
#20
John W DenBoer
Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-estimated phenomena, with estimates ranging from 15 to 25% of the current U.S. POPULATION: The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of world's most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/early stage dementia will be reviewed...
September 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
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