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Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Christopher Black, William Shaw, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of timing gates and 10 Hz GPS units (Catapult Optimeye S5) against a criterion measure (50 Hz radar gun) for assessing maximum sprint velocity (Vmax). METHODS: Nine male professional rugby union players performed three maximal 40 m sprints with three minutes rest between each effort with Vmax assessed simultaneously via timing gates, 10 Hz GPSOpen (Openfield software), GPSSprint (Sprint software) and radar gun...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
A Miniewicz, S Bartkiewicz, H Orlikowska, K Dradrach
In the report we demonstrate how, using laser light, effectively trap gas bubbles and transport them through a liquid phase to a desired destination by shifting the laser beam position. The physics underlying the effect is complex but quite general as it comes from the limited to two-dimension, well-known, Marangoni effect. The experimental microscope-based system consists of a thin layer of liquid placed between two glass plates containing a dye dissolved in a solvent and a laser light beam that is strongly absorbed by the dye...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Nick B Murray, Georgia M Black, Rod J Whiteley, Peter Gahan, Michael H Cole, Andy Utting, Tim J Gabbett
PURPOSE: Throwing loads are known to be closely related to injury risk, however for logistic reasons, typically only pitchers have their throws counted, and then only during innings. Accordingly, all other throws made are not counted, and therefore estimates of throws made by players may be inaccurately recorded and under-reported. A potential solution to this is the use of wearable microtechnology to automatically detect, quantify, and report pitch counts in baseball. This study investigated the accuracy of baseball pitching and throwing detection in both practice and competition using a commercially available wearable microtechnology unit...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Vamsi V Alli, Jie Yang, Jianjin Xu, Andrew T Bates, Aurora D Pryor, Mark A Talamini, Dana A Telem
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), there has been continued evolution in technique, instrumentation and postoperative management. With increased experience, LC has migrated to the outpatient setting. We asked whether increased availability and experience has impacted incidence of and indications for LC. METHODS: The New York (NY) State Planning and Research Cooperative System longitudinal administrative database was utilized to identify patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1995 and 2013...
September 7, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Bruce C Stuart, Xian Shen, Charlene C Quinn, Nicole Brandt, Pamela Roberto, F Ellen Loh, Franklin Hendrick, Caroline Kim, Xingyue Huang, Swapnil Rajpathak
BACKGROUND: Noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents (NAAs) are the mainstay of treatment for type 2 diabetes, yet persistence in NAA use is suboptimal in many diabetes patients. Most of the research on NAA discontinuance has focused on sociodemographic characteristics and general health status, but such factors are inherently limited in explaining dynamic events such as discontinuance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative importance of static and proximal dynamic factors in explaining long-term NAA discontinuance among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jan Dommerholt, Floris P J T Rutjes, Floris L van Delft
A nearly forgotten reaction discovered more than 60 years ago-the cycloaddition of a cyclic alkyne and an organic azide, leading to an aromatic triazole-enjoys a remarkable popularity. Originally discovered out of pure chemical curiosity, and dusted off early this century as an efficient and clean bioconjugation tool, the usefulness of cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition is now adopted in a wide range of fields of chemical science and beyond. Its ease of operation, broad solvent compatibility, 100 % atom efficiency, and the high stability of the resulting triazole product, just to name a few aspects, have catapulted this so-called strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) right into the top-shelf of the toolbox of chemical biologists, material scientists, biotechnologists, medicinal chemists, and more...
April 2016: Top Curr Chem (J)
Erik H Van Iterson, John S Fitzgerald, Calvin C Dietz, Eric M Snyder, Ben J Peterson
Wearable microsensor technology incorporating triaxial accelerometry is used to quantify an index of mechanical stress associated with sport-specific movements termed PlayerLoad™. The test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad™ in the environmental-setting of ice-hockey is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad™ in ice-hockey players during performance of tasks simulating game-conditions. Division I collegiate male ice-hockey players (N=8) wore Catapult Optimeye S5 monitors during repeat performance of 9 ice-hockey tasks simulating game-conditions...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Katherine W Gonzalez, Brian G Dalton, Brendan Kurtz, Michael C Keirsey, Tolulope A Oyetunji, Shawn D St Peter
BACKGROUND: Wound classification has catapulted to the forefront of surgical literature and quality care discussions. However, it has not been validated in laparoscopy or children. We analyzed pediatric infection rates based on wound classification and reviewed the most common noninfectious complications which could be a more appropriate measure for quality assessment. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 800 patients from 2011 to 2014 undergoing common procedures at a tertiary pediatric hospital...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jane P F Bai
There are emergent needs for cost-effective treatment worldwide, for which repurposing to develop a drug with existing marketing approval of disease(s) for new disease(s) is a valid option. Although strategic mining of electronic health records has produced real-world evidences to inform drug repurposing, using omics data (drug and disease), knowledge base of protein interactions, and database of transcription factors have been explored. Structured integration of all the existing data under the framework of drug repurposing will facilitate decision making...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
William Y Chey, Wendy L Frankel, Sashwati Roy, Soma Datta, Chandan K Sen, Mary Dillhoff, Peter Muscarella, Konrad H Soergel, Ronald K Tompkins, Ta-Min Chang, Edward L Bradley, Edwin Christopher Ellison
OBJECTIVES: To document the existence of primary pancreatic secretinoma in patients with watery diarrhea syndrome (WDS) and achlorhydria and establish secretin as a diarrheogenic hormone. BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been widely accepted as the main mediator of WDS. However, in 1968, Zollinger et al reported 2 female patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, WDS, and achlorhydria. During surgery on the first, a 24-year-old patient, they noticed distended duodenum filled with fluid and a dilated gallbladder containing dilute bile with high bicarbonate concentration...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Roger L Chavez, Fangjie Liu, James J Feng, Chuan-Hua Chen
Surface energy released upon drop coalescence is known to power the self-propelled jumping of liquid droplets on superhydrophobic solid surfaces, and the jumping droplets can additionally carry colloidal payloads toward self-cleaning. Here, we show that drop coalescence on a spherical particle leads to self-propelled launching of the particle from virtually any solid surface. The main prerequisite is an intermediate wettability of the particle, such that the momentum from the capillary-inertial drop coalescence process can be transferred to the particle...
July 4, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
Aimée Sakes, Marleen van der Wiel, Paul W J Henselmans, Johan L van Leeuwen, Dimitra Dodou, Paul Breedveld
BACKGROUND: In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. METHODS: We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase...
2016: PloS One
Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz
The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Natalie K Wagner, Brad M Ochocki, Kerri M Crawford, Aldo Compagnoni, Tom E X Miller
1.A wealth of population-genetic studies have documented that many successful biological invasions stem from multiple introductions from genetically distinct source populations. Yet, mechanistic understanding of whether and how genetic mixture promotes invasiveness has lagged behind documentation that such mixture commonly occurs. We conducted a laboratory experiment to test the influence of genetic mixture on the velocity of invasive range expansion. 2.The mechanistic basis for effects of genetic mixture could include evolutionary responses (mixed invasions may harbor greater genetic diversity and thus elevated evolutionary potential) and / or fitness advantages of between-population mating (heterosis)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
G P Sutton, M Doroshenko, D A Cullen, M Burrows
Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Malcolm Burrows
Locusts jump by using a catapult mechanism in which energy produced by slow contractions of the extensor tibiae muscles of the hind legs is stored in distortions of the exoskeleton, most notably (1) the two semi-lunar processes at each knee joint and (2) the tendons of the extensor muscles themselves. The energy is then suddenly released from these stores to power the rapid, propulsive movements of the hind legs. The reliance on the mechanical storage of energy is likely to impact on jumping because growth occurs by a series of five moults, at each of which the exoskeleton is replaced by a new one...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Seema Patel
Red yeast rice (RYR), the fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus has been an integral part of Oriental food and traditional Chinese medicine, long before the discovery of their medicinal roles. With the identification of bioactive components as polyketide pigments (statins), and unsaturated fatty acids, RYR has gained a nutraceutical status. Hypercholesterolemic effect of this fermented compound has been validated and monacolin K has been recognized as the pivotal component in cholesterol alleviation...
May 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Stephen M Rogers, Joanna Riley, Caroline Brighton, Gregory P Sutton, Darron A Cullen, Malcolm Burrows
The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, shows a strong phenotypic plasticity. It can develop, depending upon population density, into either a solitarious or gregarious phase that differs in many aspects of behaviour, physiology and morphology. Prominent amongst these differences is that solitarious locusts have proportionately longer hind femora than gregarious locusts. The hind femora contain the muscles and energy-storing cuticular structures that propel powerful jumps using a catapult-like mechanism. We show that solitarious locusts jump on average 23% faster and 27% further than gregarious locusts, and attribute this improved performance to three sources: first, a 17...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Xiangxiang Zeng, Yuanlu Liao, Yuansheng Liu, Quan Zou
Deciphering the gene disease association is an important goal in biomedical research. In this paper, we use a novel relevance measure, called HeteSim, to prioritize candidate disease genes. Two methods based on heterogeneous networks constructed using protein-protein interaction, gene-phenotype associations, and phenotype-phenotype similarity, are presented. In HeteSim MultiPath (HSMP), HeteSim scores of different paths are combined with a constant that dampens the contributions of longer paths. In HeteSim SVM (HSSVM), HeteSim scores are combined with a machine learning method...
February 12, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
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