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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293144/from-the-elastica-compass-to-the-elastica-catapult-an-essay-on-the-mechanics-of-soft-robot-arm
#1
C Armanini, F Dal Corso, D Misseroni, D Bigoni
An elastic rod is clamped at one end and has a dead load attached to the other (free) end. The rod is then slowly rotated using the clamp. When the load is smaller than the buckling value, the rod describes a continuous set of quasi-static forms and its end traces a (smooth, convex and simple) closed curve, which would be a circle if the rod were rigid. The closed curve is analytically determined through the integration of the Euler's elastica, so that for sufficiently small loads the mechanical system behaves as an 'elastica compass'...
February 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276911/the-effect-of-physical-contact-on-changes-in-fatigue-markers-following-rugby-union-field-based-training
#2
Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Kevin Till, Padraic Phibbs, Dale Read, Jonathon Weakley, Andrew Rock, Ben Jones
Repeated physical contact in rugby union is thought to contribute to post-match fatigue; however, no evidence exists on the effect of contact activity during field-based training on fatigue responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of contact during training on fatigue markers in rugby union players. Twenty academy rugby union players participated in the cross-over study. The magnitude of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular function (NMF), whole blood creatine kinase concentration [CK] and perception of well-being was assessed pre-training (baseline), immediately and 24 h post-training following contact and non-contact, field-based training...
February 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265552/a-timely-shift-from-shotgun-to-targeted-proteomics-and-how-it-can-be-groundbreaking-for-cancer-research
#3
REVIEW
Sara S Faria, Carlos F M Morris, Adriano R Silva, Micaella P Fonseca, Patrice Forget, Mariana S Castro, Wagner Fontes
The fact that cancer is a leading cause of death all around the world has naturally sparked major efforts in the pursuit of novel and more efficient biomarkers that could better serve as diagnostic tools, prognostic predictors, or therapeutical targets in the battle against this type of disease. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has proven itself as a robust and logical alternative to the immuno-based methods that once dominated the field. Nevertheless, intrinsic limitations of classic proteomic approaches such as the natural gap between shotgun discovery-based methods and clinically applicable results have called for the implementation of more direct, hypothesis-based studies such as those made available through targeted approaches, that might be able to streamline biomarker discovery and validation as a means to increase survivability of affected patients...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193637/jumping-performance-of-flea-hoppers-and-other-mirid-bugs-hemiptera-miridae
#4
M Burrows, M Dorosenko
The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs which were respectively 140% and 190% longer than the front legs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153609/wearable-microtechnology-can-accurately-identify-collision-events-during-professional-rugby-league-match-play
#5
Billy T Hulin, Tim J Gabbett, Rich D Johnston, David G Jenkins
OBJECTIVES: Collision frequency during rugby league matches is associated with team success, greater and longer lasting fatigue and increased injury risk. This study researched the sensitivity and specificity of microtechnology to count collision events during rugby league matches. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study. METHODS: While wearing a microtechnology device (Catapult, S5), eight professional rugby league players were subjected to a total of 380 collision events during matches...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124290/bulk-isolation-of-basidiospores-from-wild-mushrooms-by-electrostatic-attraction-with-low-risk-of-microbial-contaminations
#6
Kiran Lakkireddy, Ursula Kües
The basidiospores of most Agaricomycetes are ballistospores. They are propelled off from their basidia at maturity when Buller's drop develops at high humidity at the hilar spore appendix and fuses with a liquid film formed on the adaxial side of the spore. Spores are catapulted into the free air space between hymenia and fall then out of the mushroom's cap by gravity. Here we show for 66 different species that ballistospores from mushrooms can be attracted against gravity to electrostatic charged plastic surfaces...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104752/reduced-prosthetic-stiffness-lowers-the-metabolic-cost-of-running-for-athletes-with-bilateral-transtibial-amputations
#7
Owen N Beck, Paolo Taboga, Alena Marie Grabowski
Inspired by the spring-like action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. Yet, manufacturer recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed fifteen trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979983/accelerated-deflation-promotes-homogeneous-airspace-liquid-distribution-in-the-edematous-lung
#8
You Wu, Tam L Nguyen, Carrie E Perlman
Edematous lungs contain regions with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. Liquid is trapped in flooded alveoli by a pressure barrier--higher liquid pressure at the border than in the center of flooded alveoli--that is proportional to surface tension, T Stress is concentrated between aerated and flooded alveoli, to a degree proportional to T Mechanical ventilation, by cyclically increasing T, injuriously exacerbates stress concentrations. Overcoming the pressure barrier to redistribute liquid more homogeneously between alveoli should reduce stress concentration prevalence and ventilation injury...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971988/nothing-ventured-nothing-gained-is-the-innovation-fund-the-catapult-to-a-new-generation-of-care-concepts-and-a-competitive-market-in-health-care-in-germany
#9
D Droeschel, L Vollmer, J Helfrich, S Walzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967272/activity-profiles-in-international-female-team-handball-using-playerload-tm
#10
Eirik H Wik, Live S Luteberget, Matt Spencer
Team handball matches place diverse physical demands on players, which may result in fatigue and decreased activity levels. However, previous speed-based methods of quantifying player activity may not be sensitive for capturing short-lasting team handball-specific movements. PURPOSE: To examine activity profiles of a female team handball team and individual player profiles, using inertial measurement units (IMUs). METHODS: Match data was obtained from one female national team in nine international matches (n=85 individual player samples), using the Catapult OptimEye S5...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916601/gaucher-disease-progress-and-ongoing-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Pramod K Mistry, Grisel Lopez, Raphael Schiffmann, Norman W Barton, Neal J Weinreb, Ellen Sidransky
Over the past decades, tremendous progress has been made in the field of Gaucher disease, the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Many of the colossal achievements took place during the course of the sixty-year tenure of Dr. Roscoe Brady at the National Institutes of Health. These include the recognition of the enzymatic defect involved, the isolation and characterization of the protein, the localization and characterization of the gene and its nearby pseudogene, as well as the identification of the first mutant alleles in patients...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826498/functional-diversity-of-resilin-in-arthropoda
#12
REVIEW
Jan Michels, Esther Appel, Stanislav N Gorb
Resilin is an elastomeric protein typically occurring in exoskeletons of arthropods. It is composed of randomly orientated coiled polypeptide chains that are covalently cross-linked together at regular intervals by the two unusual amino acids dityrosine and trityrosine forming a stable network with a high degree of flexibility and mobility. As a result of its molecular prerequisites, resilin features exceptional rubber-like properties including a relatively low stiffness, a rather pronounced long-range deformability and a nearly perfect elastic recovery...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736256/validity-of-10-hz-gps-and-timing-gates-for-assessing-maximum-velocity-in-professional-rugby-union-players
#13
Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Christopher Black, William Shaw, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of timing gates and 10 Hz GPS units (Catapult Optimeye S5) against a criterion measure (50 Hz radar gun) for assessing maximum sprint velocity (Vmax). METHODS: Nine male professional rugby union players performed three maximal 40 m sprints with three minutes rest between each effort with Vmax assessed simultaneously via timing gates, 10 Hz GPSOpen (Openfield software), GPSSprint (Sprint software) and radar gun...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713512/marangoni-effect-visualized-in-two-dimensions-optical-tweezers-for-gas-bubbles
#14
A Miniewicz, S Bartkiewicz, H Orlikowska, K Dradrach
In the report we demonstrate how, using laser light, effectively trap gas bubbles and transport them through a liquid phase to a desired destination by shifting the laser beam position. The physics underlying the effect is complex but quite general as it comes from the limited to two-dimension, well-known, Marangoni effect. The experimental microscope-based system consists of a thin layer of liquid placed between two glass plates containing a dye dissolved in a solvent and a laser light beam that is strongly absorbed by the dye...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712118/zika-virus-epidemic-an-update
#15
Gregory Valentine, Lucila Marquez, Mohan Pammi
Zika Virus (ZIKV), previously the cause of only rare and sporadic human infections, is now considered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Over the past two years, ZIKV has become a pandemic encompassing much of the Americas. ZIKV is now proven to cause microcephaly and ophthalmic anomalies in the newborn. Hydrops fetalis, developmental delay, and other anomalies are increasingly being attributed to ZIKV infection in fetuses and neonates. Sequelae of congenital infection and rapid spread of ZIKV throughout the Americas has catapulted Zika virus concerns to the forefront of the medical community...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617847/automatic-detection-of-pitching-and-throwing-events-in-baseball-with-inertial-measurement-sensors
#16
Nick B Murray, Georgia M Black, Rod J Whiteley, Peter Gahan, Michael H Cole, Andy Utting, Tim J Gabbett
PURPOSE: Throwing loads are known to be closely related to injury risk, however for logistic reasons, typically only pitchers have their throws counted, and then only during innings. Accordingly, all other throws made are not counted, and therefore estimates of throws made by players may be inaccurately recorded and under-reported. A potential solution to this is the use of wearable microtechnology to automatically detect, quantify, and report pitch counts in baseball. This study investigated the accuracy of baseball pitching and throwing detection in both practice and competition using a commercially available wearable microtechnology unit...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604366/nineteen-year-trends-in-incidence-and-indications-for-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-the-ny-state-experience
#17
Vamsi V Alli, Jie Yang, Jianjin Xu, Andrew T Bates, Aurora D Pryor, Mark A Talamini, Dana A Telem
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), there has been continued evolution in technique, instrumentation and postoperative management. With increased experience, LC has migrated to the outpatient setting. We asked whether increased availability and experience has impacted incidence of and indications for LC. METHODS: The New York (NY) State Planning and Research Cooperative System longitudinal administrative database was utilized to identify patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1995 and 2013...
September 7, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574743/proximal-predictors-of-long-term-discontinuance-with-noninsulin-antihyperglycemic-agents
#18
Bruce C Stuart, Xian Shen, Charlene C Quinn, Nicole Brandt, Pamela Roberto, F Ellen Loh, Franklin Hendrick, Caroline Kim, Xingyue Huang, Swapnil Rajpathak
BACKGROUND: Noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents (NAAs) are the mainstay of treatment for type 2 diabetes, yet persistence in NAA use is suboptimal in many diabetes patients. Most of the research on NAA discontinuance has focused on sociodemographic characteristics and general health status, but such factors are inherently limited in explaining dynamic events such as discontinuance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative importance of static and proximal dynamic factors in explaining long-term NAA discontinuance among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573141/strain-promoted-1-3-dipolar-cycloaddition-of-cycloalkynes-and-organic-azides
#19
REVIEW
Jan Dommerholt, Floris P J T Rutjes, Floris L van Delft
A nearly forgotten reaction discovered more than 60 years ago-the cycloaddition of a cyclic alkyne and an organic azide, leading to an aromatic triazole-enjoys a remarkable popularity. Originally discovered out of pure chemical curiosity, and dusted off early this century as an efficient and clean bioconjugation tool, the usefulness of cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition is now adopted in a wide range of fields of chemical science and beyond. Its ease of operation, broad solvent compatibility, 100 % atom efficiency, and the high stability of the resulting triazole product, just to name a few aspects, have catapulted this so-called strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) right into the top-shelf of the toolbox of chemical biologists, material scientists, biotechnologists, medicinal chemists, and more...
April 2016: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548782/reliability-of-triaxial-accelerometry-for-measuring-load-in-men-s-collegiate-ice-hockey
#20
Erik H Van Iterson, John S Fitzgerald, Calvin C Dietz, Eric M Snyder, Ben J Peterson
Wearable microsensor technology incorporating triaxial accelerometry is used to quantify an index of mechanical stress associated with sport-specific movements termed PlayerLoad™. The test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad™ in the environmental-setting of ice-hockey is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the test-retest reliability of PlayerLoad™ in ice-hockey players during performance of tasks simulating game-conditions. Division I collegiate male ice-hockey players (N=8) wore Catapult Optimeye S5 monitors during repeat performance of 9 ice-hockey tasks simulating game-conditions...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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