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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169515/fabrication-of-patterned-superhydrophobic-hydrophilic-substrates-by-laser-micromachining-for-small-volume-deposition-and-droplet-based-fluorescence
#1
K J Bachus, L Mats, H W Choi, G T T Gibson, R D Oleschuk
The deposition of nanoliter and subnanoliter volumes is important in chemical and biochemical droplet-based microfluidic systems. There are several techniques that have been established for the deposition/generation of small volumes including the use of surfaces with patterned differences in wettability. Many such methods require complex and time-consuming lithographic techniques. Here, we present a facile method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with patterned hydrophilic regions by laser micromachining...
March 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067894/unexpected-uvr-and-non-uvr-mutation-burden-in-some-acral-and-cutaneous-melanomas
#2
Robert V Rawson, Peter A Johansson, Nicholas K Hayward, Nicola Waddell, Ann-Marie Patch, Serigne Lo, John V Pearson, John F Thompson, Graham J Mann, Richard A Scolyer, James S Wilmott
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) mutagenesis causes nearly all cutaneous melanomas, however, since UVR signatures are largely absent in acral melanoma, as well as melanoma in sun-protected sites, the cause of these melanomas is unknown. Whole-genome sequencing data generated as part of the Australian Melanoma Genome Project was supplemented with a detailed histopathological assessment with the melanomas then classified as UVR or non-UVR related, based on their mutation signatures. The clinicopathological characteristics of melanomas with mutation signatures for their subtype were compared...
January 9, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048962/chemical-ecology-of-wave-swept-shores-the-primacy-of-contact-cues-in-predation-by-whelks
#3
Graham A Ferrier, Cheryl Ann Zimmer, Richard K Zimmer
Wave-swept shores are valuable for developing and testing key ecological principles. A synthesis of research is nonetheless missing a critical component: the chemosensory basis for behavioral interactions that determine population- and community-wide attributes. Chemical signaling environments on wave-swept shores, given their intense, turbulent mixing and complex topographies, would be difficult or impossible to simulate in a laboratory setting. For this reason, appropriately scaled field studies are needed to advance understanding of chemical stimuli and their biotic effects...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024649/management-strategy-for-patients-with-chronic-subclavian-vein-thrombosis
#4
REVIEW
Graham Keir, M Blair Marshall
We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics...
February 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024115/mutation-load-in-melanoma-is-affected-by-mc1r-genotype
#5
Peter A Johansson, Antonia L Pritchard, Ann-Marie Patch, James S Wilmott, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Richard A Scolyer, Graham J Mann, Nicholas K Hayward
Whole-genome sequencing of matched germline and tumour pairs in a well-characterized cohort of melanoma patients allowed investigation of associations between melanoma body site, age at melanoma onset and MC1R variant status with overall mutation burden and specific base pair changes observed in the corresponding melanoma. We observed statistically significant associations between mutation burden in melanoma and body site, age at onset and MC1R genotype, for both ultraviolet radiation (UVR) signature changes (C>T and CC>TT) and non-UVR base pair substitutions, as well as with overall variant load...
March 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896884/contact-allergy-to-preservatives-essca-results-with-the-baseline-series-2009-2012
#6
Ana M Giménez-Arnau, Gustavo Deza, Andrea Bauer, Graham A Johnston, Vera Mahler, Marie-Louise Schuttelaar, Javier Sanchez-Perez, Juan Francisco Silvestre, Mark Wilkinson, Wolfgang Uter
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis caused by biocides is common, and causes significant patient morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current frequency and pattern of patch test reactivity to biocide allergens included in the baselines series of most European countries. METHODS: Data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network between 2009 and 2012 from 12 European countries were analysed. RESULTS: Methylisothiazolinone 0...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856273/hypermutation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Jeremy L Humphris, Ann-Marie Patch, Katia Nones, Peter J Bailey, Amber L Johns, Skye McKay, David K Chang, David K Miller, Marina Pajic, Karin S Kassahn, Michael C J Quinn, Timothy J C Bruxner, Angelika N Christ, Ivon Harliwong, Senel Idrisoglu, Suzanne Manning, Craig Nourse, Ehsan Nourbakhsh, Andrew Stone, Peter J Wilson, Matthew Anderson, J Lynn Fink, Oliver Holmes, Stephen Kazakoff, Conrad Leonard, Felicity Newell, Nick Waddell, Scott Wood, Ronald S Mead, Qinying Xu, Jianmin Wu, Mark Pinese, Mark J Cowley, Marc D Jones, Adnan M Nagrial, Venessa T Chin, Lorraine A Chantrill, Amanda Mawson, Angela Chou, Christopher J Scarlett, Andreia V Pinho, Ilse Rooman, Marc Giry-Laterriere, Jaswinder S Samra, James G Kench, Neil D Merrett, Christopher W Toon, Krishna Epari, Nam Q Nguyen, Andrew Barbour, Nikolajs Zeps, Nigel B Jamieson, Colin J McKay, C Ross Carter, Euan J Dickson, Janet S Graham, Fraser Duthie, Karin Oien, Jane Hair, Jennifer P Morton, Owen J Sansom, Robert Grützmann, Ralph H Hruban, Anirban Maitra, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Richard D Schulick, Christopher L Wolfgang, Richard A Morgan, Rita T Lawlor, Borislav Rusev, Vincenzo Corbo, Roberto Salvia, Ivana Cataldo, Giampaolo Tortora, Margaret A Tempero, Oliver Hofmann, James R Eshleman, Christian Pilarsky, Aldo Scarpa, Elizabeth A Musgrove, Anthony J Gill, John V Pearson, Sean M Grimmond, Nicola Waddell, Andrew V Biankin
Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2...
January 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806000/roscoe-r-graham-an-enduring-legacy-in-the-21st-century
#8
Alexandra C Istl, Daryl K Gray
BACKGROUND: Modern advancements in surgery have led to a climate in which many classical techniques are becoming obsolete. However, the Graham patch technique for duodenal repair continues to be widely used as originally described in Dr Roscoe Reid Graham's 1937 article: an omental graft held in position over a duodenal perforation by three interrupted sutures. METHODS: Primary documents including original newspaper articles and wartime documents were retrieved from the University of Toronto Archives and Records...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787926/a-cross-continental-comparison-of-plant-and-beetle-responses-to-retention-of-forest-patches-during-timber-harvest
#9
Susan C Baker, Charles B Halpern, Timothy J Wardlaw, Christel Kern, Graham J Edgar, Russell J Thomson, Richard E Bigley, Jerry F Franklin, Kamal J K Gandhi, Lena Gustafsson, Samuel Johnson, Brian J Palik, Thomas A Spies, E Ashley Steel, Jan Weslien, Joachim Strengbom
Timber harvest can adversely affect forest biota. Recent research and application suggest that retention of mature forest elements (retention forestry), including unharvested patches (or aggregates) within larger harvested units, can benefit biodiversity compared to clearcutting. However, it is unclear whether these benefits can be generalized among the diverse taxa and biomes in which retention forestry is practiced. Lack of comparability in methods for sampling and analyzing responses to timber harvest and edge creation presents a challenge to synthesis...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784066/trpv2-channels-contribute-to-stretch-activated-cation-currents-and-myogenic-constriction-in-retinal-arterioles
#10
Mary K McGahon, José A Fernández, Durga P Dash, Jon McKee, David A Simpson, Alex V Zholos, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
Purpose: Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. Methods: Rat retinal arterioles were isolated for RT-PCR, Fura-2 Ca2+ microfluorimetry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pressure myography studies...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643975/effect-of-fish-oil-on-lateral-mobility-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-fp-receptors-and-spatial-distribution-of-lipid-microdomains-in-bovine-luteal-cell-plasma-membrane-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
M R Plewes, P D Burns, P E Graham, R M Hyslop, B G Barisas
Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells...
January 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520396/ephenidine-a-new-psychoactive-agent-with-ketamine-like-nmda-receptor-antagonist-properties
#12
Heather Kang, Pojeong Park, Zuner A Bortolotto, Simon D Brandt, Tristan Colestock, Jason Wallach, Graham L Collingridge, David Lodge
To avoid legislation based on chemical structure, research chemicals, frequently used for recreational purposes, are continually being synthesized. N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethanamine (ephenidine) is a diarylethylamine that has recently become popular with recreational users searching for dissociative hallucinogenic effects. In the present study, the pharmacological basis of its neural actions has been investigated, initially by assessing its profile in central nervous system receptor binding assays and subsequently in targeted electrophysiological studies...
January 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435841/gastric-perforation-secondary-to-metastasis-from-breast-cancer
#13
Chee Siong Wong, Ashutosh Gumber, Pasupathy Kiruparan, Alexander Blackmore
Gastric perforation secondary to metastasis from breast cancer occurs infrequently. We present the case of a 72-year-old postmenopausal female patient with a known history of lobular carcinoma of the breast who presented to a district general hospital with a clinical diagnosis of an acute abdomen. Further contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated free gas and fluid in the abdomen. She underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and onlay Graham's omentopexy patch due to 1×1 cm prepyloric gastric perforation...
July 18, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387191/unusual-side-effect-of-cannabis-use-acute-abdomen-due-to-duodenal-perforation
#14
Sevgi Buyukbese Sarsu
BACKGROUND: The chronic use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) which has become an increasingly prevalent problem can rarely cause gastric and duodenal ulcer because of their effects on gastric secretion and emptying. Since peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a rarely seen entity in patients who consult to the emergency service with complaints of abdominal pain, most of the physicians do not suspect of this clinical diagnosis. Perforation is a mortal complication of PUD, and early diagnosis and emergency surgery are life-saving procedures...
December 2016: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102657/functional-differentiation-of-cholecystokinin-containing-interneurons-destined-for-the-cerebral-cortex
#15
Daniela Calvigioni, Zoltán Máté, János Fuzik, Fatima Girach, Ming-Dong Zhang, Andrea Varro, Johannes Beiersdorf, Christian Schwindling, Yuchio Yanagawa, Graham J Dockray, Chris J McBain, Tomas Hökfelt, Gábor Szabó, Erik Keimpema, Tibor Harkany
Although extensively studied postnatally, the functional differentiation of cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons en route towards the cerebral cortex during fetal development is incompletely understood. Here, we used CCK(BAC/DsRed)mice encoding a CCK promoter-driven red fluorescent protein to analyze the temporal dynamics of DsRed expression, neuronal identity, and positioning through high-resolution developmental neuroanatomy. Additionally, we developed a dual reporter mouse line (CCK(BAC/DsRed)::GAD67(gfp/+)) to differentiate CCK-containing interneurons from DsRed(+)principal cells during prenatal development...
April 21, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062501/amp-activated-protein-kinase-inhibits-kv-1-5-channel-currents-of-pulmonary-arterial-myocytes-in-response-to-hypoxia-and-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation
#16
Javier Moral-Sanz, Amira D Mahmoud, Fiona A Ross, Jodene Eldstrom, David Fedida, D Grahame Hardie, A Mark Evans
KEY POINTS: Progression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is thought to be due, in part, to suppression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv ) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle by hypoxia, although the precise molecular mechanisms have been unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to couple inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism by hypoxia to acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and progression of pulmonary hypertension. Inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain activated AMPK and inhibited Kv 1...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054399/evidence-for-integrated-visual-face-and-body-representations-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobes
#17
Bronson B Harry, Katja Umla-Runge, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham, Paul E Downing
Research on visual face perception has revealed a region in the ventral anterior temporal lobes, often referred to as the anterior temporal face patch (ATFP), which responds strongly to images of faces. To date, the selectivity of the ATFP has been examined by contrasting responses to faces against a small selection of categories. Here, we assess the selectivity of the ATFP in humans with a broad range of visual control stimuli to provide a stronger test of face selectivity in this region. In Experiment 1, participants viewed images from 20 stimulus categories in an event-related fMRI design...
August 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001176/anatomical-and-functional-connections-between-the-locus-coeruleus-and-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius-in-neonatal-rats
#18
L T Lopes, L G A Patrone, K-Y Li, A N Imber, C D Graham, L H Gargaglioni, R W Putnam
This study was designed to investigate brain connections among chemosensitive areas in newborn rats. Rhodamine beads were injected unilaterally into the locus coeruleus (LC) or into the caudal part of the nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) in Sprague-Dawley rat pups (P7-P10). Rhodamine-labeled neurons were patched in brainstem slices to study their electrophysiological responses to hypercapnia and to determine if chemosensitive neurons are communicating between LC and cNTS regions. After 7-10 days, retrograde labeling was observed in numerous areas of the brainstem, including many chemosensitive regions, such as the contralateral LC, cNTS and medullary raphe...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26976602/phasic-suprathreshold-excitation-and-sustained-inhibition-underlie-neuronal-selectivity-for-short-duration-sounds
#19
Rishi K Alluri, Gary J Rose, Jessica L Hanson, Christopher J Leary, Gustavo A Vasquez-Opazo, Jalina A Graham, Jeremy Wilkerson
Sound duration is important in acoustic communication, including speech recognition in humans. Although duration-selective auditory neurons have been found, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To investigate these mechanisms we combined in vivo whole-cell patch recordings from midbrain neurons, extraction of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, and focal pharmacological manipulations. We show that selectivity for short-duration stimuli results from integration of short-latency, sustained inhibition with delayed, phasic excitation; active membrane properties appeared to amplify responses to effective stimuli...
March 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26974387/calcium-uncaging-with-visible-light
#20
Hitesh K Agarwal, Radoslav Janicek, San-Hui Chi, Joseph W Perry, Ernst Niggli, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
We have designed a nitroaromatic photochemical protecting group that absorbs visible light in the violet-blue range. The chromophore is a dinitro derivative of bisstyrylthiophene (or BIST) that absorbs light very effectively (ε440 = 66,000 M(-1) cm(-1) and two-photon cross section of 350 GM at 775 nm). We developed a "caged calcium" molecule by conjugation of BIST to a Ca(2+) chelator that upon laser flash photolysis rapidly releases Ca(2+) in <0.2 ms. Using the patch-clamp method the optical probe, loaded with Ca(2+), was delivered into acutely isolated mouse cardiac myocytes, where either one- and two-photon uncaging of Ca(2+) induced highly local or cell-wide physiological Ca(2+) signaling events...
March 23, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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