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Graham patch

M R Plewes, P D Burns, P E Graham, R M Hyslop, B G Barisas
Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells...
August 12, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Heather Kang, Pojeong Park, Zuner A Bortolotto, Simon D Brandt, Tristan Colestock, Jason Wallach, Graham L Collingridge, David Lodge
To avoid legislation based on chemical structure, research chemicals, frequently used for recreational purposes, are continually being synthesized. N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethanamine (ephenidine) is a diarylethylamine that has recently become popular with recreational users searching for dissociative hallucinogenic effects. In the present study, the pharmacological basis of its neural actions has been investigated, initially by assessing its profile in central nervous system receptor binding assays and subsequently in targeted electrophysiological studies...
August 9, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Chee Siong Wong, Ashutosh Gumber, Pasupathy Kiruparan, Alexander Blackmore
Gastric perforation secondary to metastasis from breast cancer occurs infrequently. We present the case of a 72-year-old postmenopausal female patient with a known history of lobular carcinoma of the breast who presented to a district general hospital with a clinical diagnosis of an acute abdomen. Further contrast-enhanced CT scan demonstrated free gas and fluid in the abdomen. She underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and onlay Graham's omentopexy patch due to 1×1 cm prepyloric gastric perforation...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Sevgi Buyukbese Sarsu
BACKGROUND: The chronic use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) which has become an increasingly prevalent problem can rarely cause gastric and duodenal ulcer because of their effects on gastric secretion and emptying. Since peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a rarely seen entity in patients who consult to the emergency service with complaints of abdominal pain, most of the physicians do not suspect of this clinical diagnosis. Perforation is a mortal complication of PUD, and early diagnosis and emergency surgery are life-saving procedures...
December 2016: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Daniela Calvigioni, Zoltán Máté, János Fuzik, Fatima Girach, Ming-Dong Zhang, Andrea Varro, Johannes Beiersdorf, Christian Schwindling, Yuchio Yanagawa, Graham J Dockray, Chris J McBain, Tomas Hökfelt, Gábor Szabó, Erik Keimpema, Tibor Harkany
Although extensively studied postnatally, the functional differentiation of cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons en route towards the cerebral cortex during fetal development is incompletely understood. Here, we used CCK(BAC/DsRed)mice encoding a CCK promoter-driven red fluorescent protein to analyze the temporal dynamics of DsRed expression, neuronal identity, and positioning through high-resolution developmental neuroanatomy. Additionally, we developed a dual reporter mouse line (CCK(BAC/DsRed)::GAD67(gfp/+)) to differentiate CCK-containing interneurons from DsRed(+)principal cells during prenatal development...
April 21, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Javier Moral-Sanz, Amira D Mahmoud, Fiona A Ross, Jodene Eldstrom, David Fedida, D Grahame Hardie, A Mark Evans
KEY POINTS: Progression of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is thought to be due, in part, to suppression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv ) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle by hypoxia, although the precise molecular mechanisms have been unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to couple inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism by hypoxia to acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and progression of pulmonary hypertension. Inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain activated AMPK and inhibited Kv 1...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Bronson B Harry, Katja Umla-Runge, Andrew D Lawrence, Kim S Graham, Paul E Downing
Research on visual face perception has revealed a region in the ventral anterior temporal lobes, often referred to as the anterior temporal face patch (ATFP), which responds strongly to images of faces. To date, the selectivity of the ATFP has been examined by contrasting responses to faces against a small selection of categories. Here, we assess the selectivity of the ATFP in humans with a broad range of visual control stimuli to provide a stronger test of face selectivity in this region. In Experiment 1, participants viewed images from 20 stimulus categories in an event-related fMRI design...
August 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
L T Lopes, L G A Patrone, K-Y Li, A N Imber, C D Graham, L H Gargaglioni, R W Putnam
This study was designed to investigate brain connections among chemosensitive areas in newborn rats. Rhodamine beads were injected unilaterally into the locus coeruleus (LC) or into the caudal part of the nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) in Sprague-Dawley rat pups (P7-P10). Rhodamine-labeled neurons were patched in brainstem slices to study their electrophysiological responses to hypercapnia and to determine if chemosensitive neurons are communicating between LC and cNTS regions. After 7-10 days, retrograde labeling was observed in numerous areas of the brainstem, including many chemosensitive regions, such as the contralateral LC, cNTS and medullary raphe...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
Rishi K Alluri, Gary J Rose, Jessica L Hanson, Christopher J Leary, Gustavo A Vasquez-Opazo, Jalina A Graham, Jeremy Wilkerson
Sound duration is important in acoustic communication, including speech recognition in humans. Although duration-selective auditory neurons have been found, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To investigate these mechanisms we combined in vivo whole-cell patch recordings from midbrain neurons, extraction of excitatory and inhibitory conductances, and focal pharmacological manipulations. We show that selectivity for short-duration stimuli results from integration of short-latency, sustained inhibition with delayed, phasic excitation; active membrane properties appeared to amplify responses to effective stimuli...
March 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hitesh K Agarwal, Radoslav Janicek, San-Hui Chi, Joseph W Perry, Ernst Niggli, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
We have designed a nitroaromatic photochemical protecting group that absorbs visible light in the violet-blue range. The chromophore is a dinitro derivative of bisstyrylthiophene (or BIST) that absorbs light very effectively (ε440 = 66,000 M(-1) cm(-1) and two-photon cross section of 350 GM at 775 nm). We developed a "caged calcium" molecule by conjugation of BIST to a Ca(2+) chelator that upon laser flash photolysis rapidly releases Ca(2+) in <0.2 ms. Using the patch-clamp method the optical probe, loaded with Ca(2+), was delivered into acutely isolated mouse cardiac myocytes, where either one- and two-photon uncaging of Ca(2+) induced highly local or cell-wide physiological Ca(2+) signaling events...
March 23, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Peter Bailey, David K Chang, Katia Nones, Amber L Johns, Ann-Marie Patch, Marie-Claude Gingras, David K Miller, Angelika N Christ, Tim J C Bruxner, Michael C Quinn, Craig Nourse, L Charles Murtaugh, Ivon Harliwong, Senel Idrisoglu, Suzanne Manning, Ehsan Nourbakhsh, Shivangi Wani, Lynn Fink, Oliver Holmes, Venessa Chin, Matthew J Anderson, Stephen Kazakoff, Conrad Leonard, Felicity Newell, Nick Waddell, Scott Wood, Qinying Xu, Peter J Wilson, Nicole Cloonan, Karin S Kassahn, Darrin Taylor, Kelly Quek, Alan Robertson, Lorena Pantano, Laura Mincarelli, Luis N Sanchez, Lisa Evers, Jianmin Wu, Mark Pinese, Mark J Cowley, Marc D Jones, Emily K Colvin, Adnan M Nagrial, Emily S Humphrey, Lorraine A Chantrill, Amanda Mawson, Jeremy Humphris, Angela Chou, Marina Pajic, Christopher J Scarlett, Andreia V Pinho, Marc Giry-Laterriere, Ilse Rooman, Jaswinder S Samra, James G Kench, Jessica A Lovell, Neil D Merrett, Christopher W Toon, Krishna Epari, Nam Q Nguyen, Andrew Barbour, Nikolajs Zeps, Kim Moran-Jones, Nigel B Jamieson, Janet S Graham, Fraser Duthie, Karin Oien, Jane Hair, Robert Grützmann, Anirban Maitra, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christopher L Wolfgang, Richard A Morgan, Rita T Lawlor, Vincenzo Corbo, Claudio Bassi, Borislav Rusev, Paola Capelli, Roberto Salvia, Giampaolo Tortora, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Gloria M Petersen, Donna M Munzy, William E Fisher, Saadia A Karim, James R Eshleman, Ralph H Hruban, Christian Pilarsky, Jennifer P Morton, Owen J Sansom, Aldo Scarpa, Elizabeth A Musgrove, Ulla-Maja Hagbo Bailey, Oliver Hofmann, Robert L Sutherland, David A Wheeler, Anthony J Gill, Richard A Gibbs, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Andrew V Biankin, Sean M Grimmond
Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis...
March 3, 2016: Nature
Graham R Hadley, Julie A Gayle, Juan Ripoll, Mark R Jones, Charles E Argoff, Rachel J Kaye, Alan D Kaye
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a chronic neuropathic pain condition that persists 3 months or more following an outbreak of shingles. Shingles, also known as acute herpes zoster, is associated with the reactivation of the dormant varicella zoster virus in an individual who has experienced chicken pox. PHN is associated with persistent and often refractory neuropathic pain. Patients may experience multiple types of pain including a constant deep, aching, or burning pain; a paroxysmal, lancinating pain; hyperalgesia (painful stimuli are more painful than expected); and allodynia (pain associated with typically non-painful stimuli)...
March 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Zeeshanuddin Ahmad, Apoorv Sharma, Minhajuddin Ahmed, Vikram Vatti
Trichobezoars are impactions of swallowed hairs in the stomach and occasionally in the intestine. They occur in emotionally disturbed, depressed, or mentally retarded patients who have trichotillomania and trichophagia. Trichobezoars are usually diagnosed on CT scan or upper GI endoscopy. They can give rise to complications like gastroduodenal ulceration, haemorrhage, perforation, peritonitis, or obstruction, with a high rate of mortality. The treatment is endoscopic, laparoscopic, or surgical removal and usually followed by psychiatric opinion...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
K E Farrell, M M Rank, S Keely, A M Brichta, B A Graham, R J Callister
Chronic abdominal pain is a common symptom of inflammatory bowel disease and often persists in the absence of gut inflammation. Although the mechanisms responsible for ongoing pain are unknown, clinical and preclinical evidence suggests lumbosacral spinal cord dorsal horn neurons contribute to these symptoms. At present, we know little about the intrinsic and synaptic properties of this population of neurons in either normal or inflammed conditions. Therefore, we developed an in vivo preparation to make patch-clamp recordings from superficial dorsal horn (SDH) neurons receiving colonic inputs in naïve male mice...
March 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Stephen M Fitzjohn, Mary J Palmer, Jolyon E R May, Anne Neeson, Stephen A C Morris, Graham L Collingridge
1 In the CA1 region of hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile (12- to 18-day-old) rats, activation of group I metabotropic l-glutamate (mGlu) receptors by the specific agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induces a form of long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission. 2 We have used a variety of electrophysiological techniques applied to CA1 neurones in hippocampal slices and from pyramidal cells in dissociated hippocampal cultures to investigate the Ca(2+) dependence and locus of expression of DHPG-induced LTD...
December 2001: Journal of Physiology
Elizabeth J Cooper, Graham A R Johnston, Frances A Edwards
1 The effects of the naturally occurring neurosteroid tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) on GABAA receptor-mediated miniature, spontaneous and evoked IPSCs was tested using patch-clamp techniques in slices of hippocampus and cerebellum from rats at two developmental stages (≈10 and ≈20 days postnatal). The cells studied were hippocampal granule cells and cerebellar Purkinje and granule cells. 2 Most miniature GABAergic currents (mIPSCs) decayed with two exponentials and neurosteroids caused a ≈4-fold increase in the decay time constant of the second exponential at the highest concentration used (2 μm)...
December 1999: Journal of Physiology
Peter L Ralph, Graham Coop
Species often encounter, and adapt to, many patches of similar environmental conditions across their range. Such adaptation can occur through convergent evolution if different alleles arise in different patches, or through the spread of shared alleles by migration acting to synchronize adaptation across the species. The tension between the two reflects the constraint imposed on evolution by the underlying genetic architecture versus how effectively selection and geographic isolation act to inhibit the geographic spread of locally adapted alleles...
November 2015: PLoS Genetics
Henry Markram, Eilif Muller, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Michael W Reimann, Marwan Abdellah, Carlos Aguado Sanchez, Anastasia Ailamaki, Lidia Alonso-Nanclares, Nicolas Antille, Selim Arsever, Guy Antoine Atenekeng Kahou, Thomas K Berger, Ahmet Bilgili, Nenad Buncic, Athanassia Chalimourda, Giuseppe Chindemi, Jean-Denis Courcol, Fabien Delalondre, Vincent Delattre, Shaul Druckmann, Raphael Dumusc, James Dynes, Stefan Eilemann, Eyal Gal, Michael Emiel Gevaert, Jean-Pierre Ghobril, Albert Gidon, Joe W Graham, Anirudh Gupta, Valentin Haenel, Etay Hay, Thomas Heinis, Juan B Hernando, Michael Hines, Lida Kanari, Daniel Keller, John Kenyon, Georges Khazen, Yihwa Kim, James G King, Zoltan Kisvarday, Pramod Kumbhar, Sébastien Lasserre, Jean-Vincent Le Bé, Bruno R C Magalhães, Angel Merchán-Pérez, Julie Meystre, Benjamin Roy Morrice, Jeffrey Muller, Alberto Muñoz-Céspedes, Shruti Muralidhar, Keerthan Muthurasa, Daniel Nachbaur, Taylor H Newton, Max Nolte, Aleksandr Ovcharenko, Juan Palacios, Luis Pastor, Rodrigo Perin, Rajnish Ranjan, Imad Riachi, José-Rodrigo Rodríguez, Juan Luis Riquelme, Christian Rössert, Konstantinos Sfyrakis, Ying Shi, Julian C Shillcock, Gilad Silberberg, Ricardo Silva, Farhan Tauheed, Martin Telefont, Maria Toledo-Rodriguez, Thomas Tränkler, Werner Van Geit, Jafet Villafranca Díaz, Richard Walker, Yun Wang, Stefano M Zaninetta, Javier DeFelipe, Sean L Hill, Idan Segev, Felix Schürmann
UNLABELLED: We present a first-draft digital reconstruction of the microcircuitry of somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The reconstruction uses cellular and synaptic organizing principles to algorithmically reconstruct detailed anatomy and physiology from sparse experimental data. An objective anatomical method defines a neocortical volume of 0.29 ± 0.01 mm(3) containing ~31,000 neurons, and patch-clamp studies identify 55 layer-specific morphological and 207 morpho-electrical neuron subtypes...
October 8, 2015: Cell
Amy C Ulappa, Rick G Kelsey, Graham G Frye, Janet L Rachlow, Lisa A Shipley, Laura Bond, Xinzhu Pu, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey
For herbivores, nutrient intake is limited by the relatively low nutritional quality of plants and high concentrations of potentially toxic defensive compounds (plant secondary metabolites, PSMs) produced by many plants. In response to phytochemical challenges, some herbivores selectively forage on plants with higher nutrient and lower PSM concentrations relative to other plants. Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are dietary specialists that feed on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and forage on specific plants more than others within a foraging patch...
2014: Journal of Mammalogy
Rudy J Judhan, Raquel Silhy, Kristen Statler, Mija Khan, Benjamin Dyer, Stephanie Thompson, Bryan Richmond
Acute care of children remains a challenge due to a shortage of pediatric surgeons, particularly in rural areas. In our institutional norm, all cases in patients age six and older are managed by dedicated general surgeons. The provision of care to these children by these surgeons alleviates the impact of such shortages. We conducted a five-year retrospective analysis of all acute care pediatric surgical cases performed in patients aged 6 to 17 years by a dedicated group of adult general surgeons in a rural tertiary care hospital...
September 2015: American Surgeon
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