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Ryan Zeh, Saad Sheikh, Leilei Xia, John Pierce, Andrew Newton, Jarrod Predina, Steve Cho, MacLean Nasrallah, Sunil Singhal, Jay Dorsey, John Y K Lee
INTRODUCTION: Fluorescence-guided surgery has emerged as a powerful tool to detect, localize and resect tumors in the operative setting. Our laboratory has pioneered a novel way to administer an FDA-approved near-infrared (NIR) contrast agent to help surgeons with this task. This technique, coined Second Window ICG, exploits the natural permeability of tumor vasculature and its poor clearance to deliver high doses of indocyanine green (ICG) to tumors. This technique differs substantially from established ICG video angiography techniques that visualize ICG within minutes of injection...
2017: PloS One
Takahiro Mezaki
The definition of dystonia has been renewed repeatedly but always within the context of overactive muscle contractions. In dystonia the muscles unnecessary for a motion fail to be adequately suppressed because of the loss of central motor control, resulting in inappropriate movements or abnormal postures ("overflow phenomenon"). This represents, however, only one side of the disrupted motor control. Some patients complain of the inability to activate muscles necessary for the intended task despite the lack of motor paresis, as best exemplified by the apraxia of eyelid opening...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Arjun R Sondhi, Marc Piper, Matthew J DiMagno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Gastroenterology
Thitipan Sotthisopha, Maria Francisca Elgueta, Artid Samerchua, Prangmalee Leurcharusmee, Worakamol Tiyaprasertkul, Aida Gordon, Roderick J Finlayson, De Q Tran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This dose-finding study aimed to determine the minimum effective volume in 90% of patients (MEV90) of lidocaine 1.5% with epinephrine 5 μg/mL for ultrasound-guided costoclavicular block. METHODS: Using an in-plane technique and a lateral-to-medial direction, the block needle was positioned in the middle of the 3 cords of the brachial plexus in the costoclavicular space. The entire volume of lidocaine was deposited in this location. Dose assignment was carried out using a biased-coin-design up-and-down sequential method, where the total volume of local anesthetic administered to each patient depended on the response of the previous one...
July 19, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Jean-Michel Guay, Antonino Calà Lesina, Guillaume Côté, Martin Charron, Daniel Poitras, Lora Ramunno, Pierre Berini, Arnaud Weck
Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (∼1...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Peiyuan Kang, Zhuo Chen, Steven O Nielsen, Kenneth Hoyt, Sheena D'Arcy, Jeremiah J Gassensmith, Zhenpeng Qin
Spatiotemporal control of protein structure and activity in biological systems has important and broad implications in biomedical sciences as evidenced by recent advances in optogenetic approaches. Here, this study demonstrates that nanosecond pulsed laser heating of gold nanoparticles (GNP) leads to an ultrahigh and ultrashort temperature increase, coined as "molecular hyperthermia", which causes selective unfolding and inactivation of proteins adjacent to the GNP. Protein inactivation is highly dependent on both laser pulse energy and GNP size, and has a well-defined impact zone in the nanometer scale...
July 11, 2017: Small
Tian Chen, Xiong Zhang, Xiangdong Zhang
Quantum walk (QW) provides a versatile platform for the realization of quantum algorithms. Due to the existence of the inevitable noises in the walk, the different quantum algorithms accommodating to different noises are demanded. Thus, the success of the algorithms based on the QW requires us to sense different noises in the walk. Until now, the way to distinguish different noises in the walk has been discussed rarely. Here, we propose an efficient way to sense the noises in the one and two dimensional QWs...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gerry Maggiora, Vijay Gokhale
There many possible types of drug-target interactions, because there are a surprising number of ways in which drugs and their targets can associate with one another.  These relationships are expressed as polypharmacology and polyspecificity.  Polypharmacology is the capability of a given drug to exhibit activity with respect to multiple drug targets, which are not necessarily in the same activity class. Adverse drug reactions ('side effects') are its principal manifestation, but polypharmacology is also playing a role in the repositioning of existing drugs for new therapeutic indications...
2017: F1000Research
Angelo V Marzano, Alessandro Borghi, Daniel Wallach, Massimo Cugno
Neutrophilic dermatoses are a group of conditions characterized by the accumulation of neutrophils in the skin and clinically presenting with polymorphic cutaneous lesions, including pustules, bullae, abscesses, papules, nodules, plaques and ulcers. In these disorders, the possible involvement of almost any organ system has lead to coin the term 'neutrophilic diseases'. Neutrophilic diseases have close clinicopathological similarities with the autoinflammatory diseases, which present with recurrent episodes of inflammation in the affected organs in the absence of infection, allergy and frank autoimmunity...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
M van den Bosch, Å Ode Sang
Increasing urbanisation, changing disease scenarios, and current predictions of climate change impacts require innovative strategies for providing healthy and sustainable cities, now and in the future. The recently coined concept, Nature-based solutions (NBS), is one such strategy referring to actions that are inspired by, supported by, or copied from nature, designed to address a range of environmental challenges. The objective with this article is to evaluate the evidence on public health benefits of exposure to natural environments and explore how this knowledge could be framed within the NBS concept...
July 4, 2017: Environmental Research
Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
The term "Anthropocene" was coined by Professor Paul Crutzen in 2000 to describe an unprecedented era in which anthropogenic activities are impacting planet Earth on a global scale. Greatly increased emissions into the atmosphere, reflecting the advent of the Industrial Revolution, have caused significant changes in both the lower and upper atmosphere. Atmospheric reactions of the anthropogenic emissions and of those with biogenic compounds have significant impacts on human health, visibility, climate and weather...
July 7, 2017: Faraday Discussions
E Karaman, A R Yazici, G Ozgunaltay, I Ustunkol, A Berber
OBJECTIVE: To compare the 24-month clinical performance of two different resin composites in class II slot restorations. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-seven patients having at least two approximal carious lesions were enrolled in the study. A total of 116 teeth (58 pairs) were restored with either a silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane) and its self-etch adhesive (Silorane Adhesive System, 3M ESPE) or a methacrylate-based packable resin composite (X-tra Fil) and its self-etch adhesive (Futurabond NR, VOCO GmbH) according to the toss of a coin...
July 2017: Operative Dentistry
Andrey Shirak, Uri Seroussi, Elisha Gootwine, Eyal Seroussi
Calculating peak-height ratios between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) alleles in sequencing chromatograms is a practical method for estimating their copy number proportions (CNPs). However, it is surprising that sequencing DNA from different directions might yield different results. We analyzed three adjacent SNPs within the ovine period circadian-clock 2 (PER2) gene that displayed such behavior. We compared Sanger and DNA-seq sequencing for this locus and applied high-resolution melt and MFOLD analyses to point to the DNA secondary structure that underlined this phenomenon...
July 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Nidhi Kuksal, Julia Chalker, Ryan J Mailloux
The molecular oxygen (O2) paradox was coined to describe its essential nature and toxicity. The latter characteristic of O2 is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can damage structures vital for cellular function. Mammals are equipped with antioxidant systems to fend off the potentially damaging effects of ROS. However, under certain circumstances antioxidant systems can become overwhelmed leading to oxidative stress and damage.Over the past few decades, it has become evident that ROS, specifically H2O2, are integral signaling molecules complicating the previous logos that oxyradicals were unfortunate by-products of oxygen metabolism that indiscriminately damage cell structures...
July 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
Vincent Tognetti, Laurent Joubert
In this paper, we discuss three ways for partitioning the total molecular energy into additive atomic contributions within the framework of Bader's atoms-in-molecules theory and in the particular context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The first one is derived from the virial theorem, while the two other schemes, coined "standard" and "model", are based on Pendás' interacting quantum atoms decomposition. They are then compared on a dataset of molecules of interest for direct applications in organic chemistry and biochemistry...
July 4, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Meredith M Regan, William T Barry
Trials for escalation and de-escalation of treatment aim to improve patient care, but from different sides of the same coin with respect to disease control and burdens of treatment. De-escalation of therapy is inherently a non-inferiority question. A design with random assignment to standard of care versus de-escalated therapy is typically implemented but ordinarily will require a large sample size. Some research questions of treatment de-escalation might be asked in select patient populations using single-arm designs...
June 30, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Markus Drexl, Eike Krause, Robert Gürkov
OBJECTIVES: Postmortem examination of temporal bones of Ménière's disease patients consistently show dilated endolymphatic spaces of the inner ear, for which the term endolymphatic hydrops has been coined. During the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging techniques for the inner ear appeared, advancing the diagnosis of Ménière's disease. They require, however, a field-strength of at least 3 T, are costly and not universally available. Alternative, noninvasive, cost-effective tests with high sensitivity and specifity for endolymphatic hydrops are desirable...
June 30, 2017: Ear and Hearing
Aneta Gandalovičová, Daniel Rosel, Michael Fernandes, Pavel Veselý, Petr Heneberg, Vladimír Čermák, Luboš Petruželka, Sunil Kumar, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Jan Brábek
In solid cancers, invasion and metastasis account for more than 90% of mortality. However, in the current armory of anticancer therapies, a specific category of anti-invasion and antimetastatic drugs is missing. Here, we coin the term 'migrastatics' for drugs interfering with all modes of cancer cell invasion and metastasis, to distinguish this class from conventional cytostatic drugs, which are mainly directed against cell proliferation. We define actin polymerization and contractility as target mechanisms for migrastatics, and review candidate migrastatic drugs...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
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