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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161622/on-denny-brown-s-spastic-dystonia-what-is-it-and-what-causes-it
#1
REVIEW
Jakob Lorentzen, Maud Pradines, Jean-Michel Gracies, Jens Bo Nielsen
In this review, we will work around two simple definitions of two different entities, which most often co-exist in patients with lesions to central motor pathways: Spasticity is "Enhanced excitability of velocity-dependent responses to phasic stretch at rest", which will not be the subject of this review, while Spastic dystonia is tonic, chronic, involuntary muscle contraction in the absence of any stretch or any voluntary command (Gracies, 2005). Spastic dystonia is a much less well understood entity that will be the subject this review...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156658/unified-promoter-opening-steps-in-eukaryotic-gene-expression
#2
EDITORIAL
Jérémy Sandoz, Frédéric Coin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155220/complement-components-as-promoters-of-immunological-tolerance-in-dendritic-cells
#3
REVIEW
Ana Luque, Inmaculada Serrano, Josep M Aran
Complement and dendritic cells (DCs) share many functional features that drive the outcome of immune-inflammatory processes. Both have a sentinel function, acting as danger sensors specialized for a rapid, comprehensive and selective action against potential threats without damaging the healthy host cells. But while complement has been considered as a "master alarm" system poised for direct pathogen killing, DCs are regarded as "master regulators" or orchestrators of a vast range of effector immune cells for an effective immune response against threatening insults...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154583/when-you-see-it-coming-stressor-anticipation-modulates-stress-effects-on-negative-affect
#4
Andreas B Neubauer, Joshua M Smyth, Martin J Sliwinski
Research on the effect of exposure to minor stressors in people's daily lives consistently reports negative effects on indicators of well-being, often coined stress reactivity. Recent advances in the intensity of data collection have brought about an increasing interest in within-day associations of stress exposure and indicators of well-being, including dynamic aspects of the stress response such as stress recovery. In the present work, we investigated the other end of the stress response: the anticipation of a stressor...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154494/interplay-between-environmentally-modulated-feedback-loops-hypoxia-and-circadian-rhythms-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#5
Reinhard Depping, Henrik Oster
Sensing of environmental parameters is critically important for cells of metazoan organisms. Members of the superfamily of bHLH-PAS transcription factors, involved in oxygen sensing and circadian rhythm generation, are important players in such molecular pathways. The interplay between both networks includes a so far unknown factor, connecting PER2 (circadian clocks) to hypoxia sensing (HIF-1 α) to result in a more adapted state of homeostasis at the right time.
November 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152933/ventilator-induced-lung-injury-does-it-occur-in-children
#6
Martin C Kneyber
Mechanical ventilation is one of the most practiced interventions in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Although unmistakable life-saving, it can also injury the lung, a process coined ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). To date, almost all of our knowledge VILI has been obtained from studies in adults or experimental studies mimicking the adult critical care situation. This leaves the question if VILI is of importance in the paediatric context. Paediatric clinical studies did not confirm an association between large tidal volume (Vt) and adverse outcome...
November 17, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152629/nanocrystalline-laox-nio-composite-as-high-performance-electrodes-for-supercapacitors
#7
Guo Du, Zifan Zeng, Bangqing Xiao, Dengzhi Wang, Yuan Yuan, Xiaohong Zhu, Jiliang Zhu
Nanocrystalline LaOx/NiO composite electrodes were synthesized via two types of facile cathodic electrodeposition methods onto nickel foam followed by thermal annealing without any binders. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigation revealed that LaOx nanocrystalline particles with an average diameter of 50 nm are uniformly distributed in the NiO layer or alternately deposited with the NiO layer onto the substrate. It is speculated that LaOx particles can participate in the faradaic reaction directly and offer more redox sites...
November 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151093/munchausen-syndrome-and-the-wide-spectrum-of-factitious-disorders
#8
Laurent Tatu, Selma Aybek, Julien Bogousslavsky
Since its initial description in 1851, Munchausen syndrome has been widely used interchangeably with factitious disorder. Nevertheless, this syndrome is only one form of factitious disorder that is both severe and chronic. The syndrome was named after Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797), a German nobleman who became famous as a narrator of false and exaggerated exploits. His name was progressively corrupted to Munchausen. Factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome remain a great diagnosis challenge for physicians...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150267/can-memory-exist-outside-of-brain-and-be-transferred-historical-review-issues-ways-forward
#9
Ghulam Abbas, Wajahat Mahmood, Faisal Khan
Learning and memory are among the executive functions attributed to intelligent forms of life. Unfortunately, there is a lack of clear understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms governing these functions. Most of the modern day scientists attribute these functions solely to brain. However, in the latter half of last century, a number of reports suggested existence of extra-cranial memory and potential of its transfer between animals. Some have linked this phenomenon to RNA while others believed that peptides were responsible...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150001/crispr-history-discovery-characterization-and-prosperity
#10
Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
CRISPR research is a very young research field since it was only 10years ago when the system was found to confer antiviral defense. Nevertheless, there has been an explosion of publications in CRISPR research in the past 5years. The research was started with the comparative genomics of microbial genomes early this century, which revealed the prevalence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) in bacteria and archaea. Series of hypotheses were made based on bioinformatics analyses and tested experimentally within a few years after the CRISPR acronym was coined...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149599/autophagosomal-content-profiling-reveals-an-lc3c-dependent-piecemeal-mitophagy-pathway
#11
François Le Guerroué, Franziska Eck, Jennifer Jung, Tatjana Starzetz, Michel Mittelbronn, Manuel Kaulich, Christian Behrends
Autophagy allows the degradation of cytosolic endogenous and exogenous material in the lysosome. Substrates are engulfed by double-membrane vesicles, coined autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes. Depending on the involvement of specific receptor proteins, autophagy occurs in a selective or nonselective manner. While this process is well understood at the level of bulky cargo such as mitochondria and bacteria, we know very little about individual proteins and protein complexes that are engulfed and degraded by autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144411/nucleic-acid-aptamers-emerging-applications-in-medical-imaging-nanotechnology-neurosciences-and-drug-delivery
#12
REVIEW
Pascal Röthlisberger, Cécile Gasse, Marcel Hollenstein
Recent progresses in organic chemistry and molecular biology have allowed the emergence of numerous new applications of nucleic acids that markedly deviate from their natural functions. Particularly, DNA and RNA molecules-coined aptamers-can be brought to bind to specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. While aptamers are mainly applied as biosensors, diagnostic agents, tools in proteomics and biotechnology, and as targeted therapeutics, these chemical antibodies slowly begin to be used in other fields...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140996/childhood-tuberculosis-is-associated-with-decreased-abundance-of-t-cell-gene-transcripts-and-impaired-t-cell-function
#13
Cheryl Hemingway, Maurice Berk, Suzanne T Anderson, Victoria J Wright, Shea Hamilton, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Myrsini Kaforou, Greg M Goldgof, Katy Hickman, Beate Kampmann, Johan Schoeman, Brian Eley, David Beatty, Sandra Pienaar, Mark P Nicol, Michael J Griffiths, Simon J Waddell, Sandra M Newton, Lachlan J Coin, David A Relman, Giovanni Montana, Michael Levin
The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB) annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM). Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB), and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and PTB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138704/caudal-regression-and-encephalocele-rare-manifestations-of-expanded-goldenhar-complex
#14
Gabriella D'Angelo, Lucia Marseglia, Salvatore Aversa, Sara Manti, Caterina Cuppari, Mariaconcetta Cutrupi, Carmelo Salpietro, Eloisa Gitto
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term "expanded Goldenhar complex" has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137304/monocarboxylate-transporter-1-mct1-a-tool-to-stratify-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml-patients-and-a-vehicle-to-kill-cancer-cells
#15
Filipa Lopes-Coelho, Carolina Nunes, Sofia Gouveia-Fernandes, Rita Rosas, Fernanda Silva, Paula Gameiro, Tânia Carvalho, Maria Gomes da Silva, José Cabeçadas, Sérgio Dias, Luís G Gonçalves, Jacinta Serpa
Dysregulation of glucose/lactate dynamics plays a role in cancer progression, and MCTs are key elements in metabolic remodeling. VEGF is a relevant growth factor in the maintenance of bone marrow microenvironment and it is also important in hematological diseases. Our aim was to investigate the role of VEGF in the metabolic adaptation of Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by evaluating the metabolic profiles and cell features according to the AML lineage and testing lactate as a metabolic coin. Our in vitro results showed that AML promyelocytic (HL60) and monocytic (THP1) (but not erythroid- HEL) lineages are well adapted to VEGF and lactate rich environment...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137180/metabolomic-modularity-analysis-mma-to-quantify-human-liver-perfusion-dynamics
#16
Gautham Vivek Sridharan, Bote Bruinsma, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Anandh Swaminathan, Nima Saeidi, Martin L Yarmush, Korkut Uygun
Large-scale -omics data are now ubiquitously utilized to capture and interpret global responses to perturbations in biological systems, such as the impact of disease states on cells, tissues, and whole organs. Metabolomics data, in particular, are difficult to interpret for providing physiological insight because predefined biochemical pathways used for analysis are inherently biased and fail to capture more complex network interactions that span multiple canonical pathways. In this study, we introduce a nov-el approach coined Metabolomic Modularity Analysis (MMA) as a graph-based algorithm to systematically identify metabolic modules of reactions enriched with metabolites flagged to be statistically significant...
November 13, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131943/drift-tube-ion-mobility-how-to-reconstruct-collision-cross-section-distributions-from-arrival-time-distributions
#17
Adrien Marchand, Sandrine Livet, Frédéric Rosu, Valérie Gabelica
Ion mobility spectrometry allows one to determine ion collision cross sections, which are related to ion size and shape. Collision cross sections (CCS) are usually discussed based on the peak center, yet the width of each peak contains further information on the distribution of collision cross sections of each conformational ensemble. Here, we analyze how to convert arrival time distributions (ATD) to CCS distributions (CCSD). With a calibration curve taking into account the CCS dependence of the time spent outside the mobility region, one can reconstruct CCS distributions with correct peak center values...
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130367/development-and-evaluation-of-the-dignity-talk-question-framework-for-palliative-patients-and-their-families-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Qiaohong Guo, Harvey Max Chochinov, Susan McClement, Genevieve Thompson, Tom Hack
BACKGROUND: Effective patient-family communication can reduce patients' psychosocial distress and relieve family members' current suffering and their subsequent grief. However, terminally ill patients and their family members often experience great difficulty in communicating their true feelings, concerns, and needs to each other. AIM: To develop a novel means of facilitating meaningful conversations for palliative patients and family members, coined Dignity Talk, explore anticipated benefits and challenges of using Dignity Talk, and solicit suggestions for protocol improvement...
October 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130348/tryptophan-containing-non-cationizable-opioid-peptides-a-new-chemotype-with-unusual-structure-and-in-vivo-activity
#19
Rossella De Marco, Luca Gentilucci
Recently, a new family of opioid peptides containing tryptophan came to the spotlight for the absence of the fundamental protonable tyramine 'message' pharmacophore. Structure-activity relationship investigations led to diverse compounds, characterized by different selectivity profiles and agonist or antagonist effects. Substitution at the indole of Trp clearly impacted peripheral/central antinociceptivity. These peculiarities prompted to gather all the compounds in a new class, and to coin the definition 'Tryptophan-Containing Non-Cationizable Opioid Peptides', in short 'TryCoNCOPs'...
November 13, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129136/palliative-medicine-becoming-a-subspecialty-of-the-royal-college-of-physicians-and-surgeons-of-canada
#20
Jana Pilkey, James Downar, Deborah Dudgeon, Leonie Herx, Doreen Oneschuk, Cori Schroder, Valerie Schulz
The discipline of palliative medicine in Canada started in 1975 with the coining of the term "palliative care." Shortly thereafter, the provision of clinical palliative medicine services started, although the education of the discipline lagged behind. In 1993, the Canadian Society of Palliative Care Physicians (CSPCP) started to explore the option of creating an accredited training program in palliative medicine. This article outlines the process by which, over the course of 20 years, palliative medicine training in Canada went from a mission statement of the CSPCP, to a 1 year of added competence jointly accredited by both the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College) and the College of Family Physicians of Canada, to a 2-year subspecialty of the Royal College with access from multiple entry routes and a formalized accrediting examination...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Palliative Care
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