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Abdulla Watad, Shmuel Tiosano, Dana Yahav, Doron Comaneshter, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Arnon D Cohen, Howard Amital
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic disease, characterized by attacks of fever, arthritis, serositis and pain. Behçet's disease (BD) is an inflammatory disorder with a genetic basis, characterized by oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, pustular erythematous cutaneous lesions, arthritis, central nervous system involvement and possible vascular manifestations such as venous thrombosis, arteritis and aneurysms. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association and actual differentiation between these two entities in a large-scale population-based study...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Claudia Kohl
Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jean-Pierre Routy, Bertrand Routy, Gina M Graziani, Vikram Mehraj
The term "immune privilege" was originally coined to describe the suppression of inflammatory responses within organs protected by anatomic barriers, ie, the eyes, brain, placenta, and testes. However, cellular and metabolic processes, which orchestrate immune responses, also control inflammation within these sites. Our current understanding of tolerogenic mechanisms has extended the definition of immune privilege to include hair follicles, the colon, and cancer. By catabolizing tryptophan, cells expressing the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase produce kynurenine metabolites, which orchestrate local and systemic responses to control inflammation, thus maintaining immune privilege...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Magda Langiewicz, Andrea Schlegel, Enrica Saponara, Michael Linecker, Pieter Borger, Rolf Graf, Bostjan Humar, Pierre A Clavien
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Occlusion of one liver section by portal vein ligation (PVL) induces compensatory liver regeneration in the remaining part. PVL-induced liver growth is being exploited for the surgical removal of large/multiple liver tumors. A novel approach coined ALPPS (Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Staged hepatectomy) combines PVL with parenchymal transection and massively accelerates compensatory growth, enabling much faster and more extensive tumor removal...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Julia Engelhorn, Franziska Turck
Genome-wide analyses of chromatin factor-binding sites or histone modification localization generate lists of up to several thousand potential target genes. For many model organisms, large annotation databases are available to help with the characterization and classification of genomic datasets. The term meta-analysis has been coined for this type of multi-database comparison. In this chapter, we describe a workflow to perform a transcriptional and functional analysis of genome-wide target genes. Sources of transcription data and clustering tools to subdivide genes according to their expression pattern are described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bruno Cessac, Arnaud Le Ny, Eva Löcherbach
We initiate a mathematical analysis of hidden effects induced by binning spike trains of neurons. Assuming that the original spike train has been generated by a discrete Markov process, we show that binning generates a stochastic process that is no longer Markov but is instead a variable-length Markov chain (VLMC) with unbounded memory. We also show that the law of the binned raster is a Gibbs measure in the DLR (Dobrushin-Lanford-Ruelle) sense coined in mathematical statistical mechanics. This allows the derivation of several important consequences on statistical properties of binned spike trains...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Robert P Ellis, Mauricio A Urbina, Rod W Wilson
Exponentially rising CO2 (currently ~400 μatm) is driving climate change and causing acidification of both marine and freshwater environments. Physiologists have long known that CO2 directly affects acid-base and ion regulation, respiratory function and aerobic performance in aquatic animals. More recently, many studies have demonstrated that elevated CO2 projected for end of this century (e.g. 800-1000 μatm) can also impact physiology, and have substantial effects on behaviours linked to sensory stimuli (smell, hearing and vision) both having negative implications for fitness and survival...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Lena Jeanson, Lutz Wiegrebe, Robert Gürkov, Eike Krause, Markus Drexl
The presentation of intense, low-frequency (LF) sound to the human ear can cause very slow, sinusoidal oscillations of cochlear sensitivity after LF sound offset, coined the "Bounce" phenomenon. Changes in level and frequency of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are a sensitive measure of the Bounce. Here, we investigated the effect of LF sound level and frequency on the Bounce. Specifically, the level of SOAEs was tracked for minutes before and after a 90-s LF sound exposure. Trials were carried out with several LF sound levels (93 to 108 dB SPL corresponding to 47 to 75 phons at a fixed frequency of 30 Hz) and different LF sound frequencies (30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 Hz at a fixed loudness level of 80 phons)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
D B Kadam, Sonali Salvi, Ajay Chandanwale
The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Marcelo Epsztein Kanczuk, Nicholas Martin Barrett, Cristian Arzola, Kristi Downey, Xiang Y Ye, Jose C A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Most studies that have compared programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) with continuous epidural infusion regimens have included patient-controlled epidural analgesia and/or manual bolus as rescue analgesia for breakthrough pain. Consequently, the optimal time interval between PIEB is yet to be determined. We designed a study to establish the optimal time interval between PIEB of 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.0625% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL to produce effective analgesia in 90% of women during first stage of labor without breakthrough pain...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Caroline M Swarbrick, Open Doors, Educate, Katie Davis, John Keady
The involvement of people living with dementia in research has traditionally been located in the realms of 'subject' or 'participant'. However, there has been an increase in demand for greater transparency by academic bidding teams (particularly within the UK) in demonstrating how people with a lived experience have been and will be involved in the research process. Located within the Economic and Social Research Council/National Institute for Health Research (ESRC/NIHR)-funded Neighbourhoods and Dementia Study (2014-2019), led by The University of Manchester (UK), this paper outlines the development of the CO-researcher INvolvement and Engagement in Dementia (COINED) Model, which was co-produced alongside three independent groups of people living with dementia: Open Doors, the Scottish Dementia Working Group and EDUCATE...
October 16, 2016: Dementia
Jeonghun Kim, Christine Young, Jaewoo Lee, Min-Sik Park, Mohammed Shahabuddin, Yusuke Yamauchi, Jung Ho Kim
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) grown on nanoporous carbon (NPC), which yields coexisting amorphous and graphitic nanoarchitectures, have been prepared on a large scale from zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) by introducing bimetallic ions (Co(2+) and Zn(2+)). Interestingly, the hybrid Co/Zn-ZIF-derived NPC showed rich graphitic CNTs on the surface. This NPC was utilized for a coin-type supercapacitor cell with an aqueous electrolyte, which showed enhanced retention at high current density and good stability over 10 000 cycles...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yves J R Menezo, Erica Silvestris, Brian Dale, Kay Elder
The negative effect of oxidative stress on the human reproductive process is no longer a matter for debate. Oxidative stress affects female and male gametes and the developmental capacity of embryos. Its effect can continue through late stages of pregnancy. Metabolic disorders and psychiatric problems can also be caued by DNA methylation and epigenetic errors. Age has a negative effect on oxidative stress and DNA methylation, and recent observations suggest that older men are at risk of transmitting epigenetic disorders to their offspring...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
John V Petrocelli, Asher L Rubin, Ryan L Stevens
Experiential and associative learning are essential to optimal decision making. However, research shows that, even when exposed to repeated trials, people often fail to learn probabilities and cause/effect covariations. Consistent with the counterfactual inflation hypothesis, it is proposed that counterfactuals can interfere with memory of repeated exposures and therefore inhibit learning. Five experimental studies tested counterfactual thinking as a potential mechanism underlying this learning deficit using a simple, biased coin flipping paradigm...
October 13, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Dhananjaya Sharma, Shuji Isaji
Focused pathological attention to tumor invasion of the retroperitoneal resection margin after pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of head of the pancreas led to the knowledge of strong tendency of cancer cells to infiltrate into the retropancreatic tissue and to spread along the peripancreatic neural plexuses as the cause of local recurrence. The term 'mesopancreas' was coined to describe perineural lymphatic layer located dorsally to the pancreas and it was suggested that its complete resection will minimize loco-regional recurrence and improve outcome...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences
James E Haber
Double-strand breaks (DSBs) pose a severe challenge to genome integrity; consequently, cells have developed efficient mechanisms to repair DSBs through several pathways of homologous recombination and other nonhomologous end-joining processes. Much of our understanding of these pathways has come from the analysis of site-specific DSBs created by the HO endonuclease in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I was fortunate to get in on the ground floor of analyzing the fate of synchronously induced DSBs through the study of what I coined "in vivo biochemistry...
October 3, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
A M Mahon, C MacGilchrist, C McIntosh, T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, coined the 'Black Death of the Twenty-First Century', is associated with complications, including foot ulceration with potential loss of limb. There is a need for development of new wound therapies through completion of robust clinical trials. AIMS: To profile demographics and wound characteristics of an Irish cohort with diabetes, forecast eligibility for entry to a clinical trial of advanced wound therapeutics, and adjust criteria to optimize eligibility for enrolment...
October 11, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Chih-Chieh Yu, Wanglong Qiu, Caroline S Juang, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Balazs Halmos, Gloria H Su
Mutant allele specific imbalance (MASI) was initially coined to describe copy number alterations associated with the mutant allele of an oncogene. The copy number gain (CNG) specific to the mutant allele can be readily observed in electropherograms. With the development of genome-wide analyses at base-pair resolution with copy number counts, we can now further differentiate MASI into those with CNG, with copy neutral alteration (also termed acquired uniparental disomy; UPD), or with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to the loss of the wild-type (WT) allele...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Letters
Dominique C Hill
What are the hesitations, dangers, and potentialities to inviting students to peruse my body? What possibilities arise from centering and leading with the body in the teaching/learning process? What risks and possibilities does this enactment pose to a Black lesbian educator? This auto/ethnography journeys through and reflects upon my experience enacting what I have coined "embodied vulnerability" as a pedagogical practice. Within this essay, I explore the interrelationship of race, gender, and embodiment (or, the performance of self)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Yang Yuan, H Enis Karahan, Cansu Yıldırım, Li Wei, Özgür Birer, Shengli Zhai, Raymond Lau, Yuan Chen
The chirality-selective synthesis of relatively large (diameter > 1 nm) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is of great interest for a variety of practical applications, but only a few catalysts are available so far. Previous studies suggested that S (compounds) can enhance the chirality-selectivity of Co catalysts in SWCNT synthesis, however, the mechanism behind is not fully understood, and no tailorable methodology has yet been developed. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to achieve the chirality-selective synthesis of SWCNTs by the sulfidation-based poisoning of silica-supported Co catalysts using a mixture of H2S and H2...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
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