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Alexander Golberg, Alexander Liberzon, Edward Vitkin, Zohar Yakhini
Displacing fossil fuels and their derivatives with renewables, and increasing sustainable food production are among the major challenges facing the world in the coming decades. A possible, sustainable direction for addressing this challenge is the production of biomass and the conversion of this biomass to the required products through a complex system coined biorefinery. Terrestrial biomass and microalgae are possible sources; however, concerns over net energy balance, potable water use, environmental hazards, and uncertainty in the processing technologies raise questions regarding their actual potential to meet the anticipated food, feed, and energy challenges in a sustainable way...
March 15, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Callie L Blackford Winders, William L Vaughn, Kate E Birdwhistell, Ian G Holsworth, Samuel P Franklin
OBJECTIVES:  This study aimed to compare the completeness of femoral head and neck removal via a craniolateral approach or a ventral approach when femoral head and neck excision (FHNE) is performed by a novice veterinarian. METHODS:  FHNE was performed on both femurs of 10 canine cadavers with each femur randomized by a coin toss to FHNE via the craniolateral or ventral approach. Computed tomography (CT) of the femurs was performed prior to and following FHNE...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Jonas Reinholz, Christopher Diesler, Susanne Schöttler, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Sandra Ritz, Katharina Landfester, Volker Mailänder
The transport of nanocarriers through barriers like the gut in a living organism involves the transcytosis of these nanocarriers through the cell layer dividing two compartments. Understanding how this process works is not only essential to further developing strategies for a more effective nanocarrier transport system but also for providing fundamental insights into the barrier function as a means of protection against micro- and nanoplastics in the food chain. We therefore set out to investigate the different uptake mechanisms, intracellular trafficking and the routes for exocytosis for small polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs ca...
March 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Aina Venkatasamy, Quentin Minault, Benoit Romain, Francis Veillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Thomas L Griffiths, Dylan Daniels, Joseph L Austerweil, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs...
March 7, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Maryam Soltani, Kurt Lindeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Guillermo Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, Yen-Ping Hsueh
Nematode-trapping fungi develop complex trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The dynamics of these organisms is especially important given the pathogenicity of nematodes and, consequently, the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, both the nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi can be easily grown in laboratories, making them a unique manipulatable predator-prey system to study their coevolution. Several different aspects of these fungi have been studied, such as their genetics and the different factors triggering trap formation...
March 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Brigid M Gillespie, Emma Harbeck, Joanne Lavin, Therese Gardiner, Teresa K Withers, Andrea P Marshall
BACKGROUND: The surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) was introduced in 2008 to improve teamwork and reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with surgery. Although mandated in many health care institutions around the world, challenges in implementation of the SSC continue. To use Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to help understand how/why implementation of a complex intervention coined Pass The Baton (PTB) could help explain what facets of the Surgical Safety Checklist use led to its' integration in practice, while others were not...
March 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Dimitri M L Van Ryckeghem, Silke Rost, Ama Kissi, Claus Vögele, Geert Crombez
Pain has the capacity to interfere with daily tasks. Although task interference by pain is largely unintentional, it can be controlled to a certain extent. Such top-down control over pain has been thought to be reduced in fibromyalgia patients. In this study, we investigated task interference and distraction efficacy in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and a matched healthy control group. Forty-nine fibromyalgia patients and 49 heathy volunteers performed as quickly as possible (a) a visual localization task in the presence of non-painful vibrating or painful electric somatic stimuli, and (b) a somatosensory localization task (using non-painful or painful stimuli)...
March 6, 2018: Pain
Wei Liu, Lin-Ping Zhang, Mei Xu, Hong-Ze Zeng, Qi-Shan Zeng, Hong-Lin Chen, Qin Liu, Shou-Jiang Tang, Bing Hu
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Ampullary impaction of an entrapped stone-basket complex is not an infrequent yet challenging event during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of "post-cut" for the management of such scenarios. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with impacted biliary stone with an entrapped basket during ERCP at West China Hospital, Chengdu, China, from October 2004 to August 2014 were included in this retrospective study...
March 5, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
A David Milner, Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi
It is argued here that apperceptive object agnosia (generally now known as visual form agnosia) is in reality not a kind of agnosia, but rather a form of "imperception" (to use the term coined by Hughlings Jackson). We further argue that its proximate cause is a bilateral loss (or functional loss) of the visual form processing systems embodied in the human lateral occipital cortex (area LO). According to the dual-system model of cortical visual processing elaborated by Milner and Goodale (2006), area LO constitutes a crucial component of the ventral stream, and indeed is essential for providing the figural qualities inherent in our normal visual perception of the world...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jishnu Rajendran, Colin Benjamin
Parrondo's paradox is ubiquitous in games, ratchets and random walks. The apparent paradox, devised by J. M. R. Parrondo, that two losing games A and B can produce a winning outcome has been adapted in many physical and biological systems to explain their working. However, proposals on demonstrating Parrondo's paradox using quantum walks failed for a large number of steps. In this work, we show that instead of a single coin if we consider a two-coin initial state which may or may not be entangled, we can observe a genuine Parrondo's paradox with quantum walks...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Taliha Öner, Oktay Korun, Ahmet Çelebi
We present a case of a rare association of infective endocarditis and a coin lesion in the lung caused by Candida albicans. The lesion disappeared after 6 weeks of treatment with 5 mg/kg/day amphotericin B.
April 2018: Cardiology in the Young
John Grundy, Kon Mouzakis, Rajesh Vasa, Andrew Cain, Maheswaree Curumsing, Mohamed Abdelrazek, Niroshine Fernando
By the 2050, it is estimated that the proportion of people over the age of 80 will have risen from 3.9% to 9.1% of population of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. A large proportion of these people will need significant help to manage various chronic illnesses, including dementia, heart disease, diabetes, limited physical movement and many others. Current approaches typically focus on acute episodes of illness and are not well designed to provide adequately for daily living care support...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Olivier Micheau
Tumor necrosis-factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand, also known as TRAIL or APO2L (Apo-2 ligand), is a cytokine of the TNF superfamily acknowledged for its ability to trigger selective apoptosis in tumor cells while being relatively safe towards normal cells. Its binding to its cognate agonist receptors, namely death receptor 4 (DR4) and/or DR5, can induce the formation of a membrane-bound macromolecular complex, coined DISC (death-signaling inducing complex), necessary and sufficient to engage the apoptotic machinery...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
G Divisato, F S di Carlo, N Petrillo, T Esposito, F Gianfrancesco
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a skeletal disorder whose molecular basis are not fully elucidated. However, 10% of patients show a familial PDB and 35% of them carry mutations in the SQSTM1 gene. We recently reported a founder mutation (p.Pro937Arg) in the ZNF687 gene, underlying PDB complicated by Giant Cell Tumor (GCT/PDB) and rarely occurring in PDB patients without neoplastic degeneration. Since 80% of Italian GCT/PDB patients derive from Avellino, we hypothesized that ZNF687 mutation rate was higher in this region than elsewhere...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Genetics
C Randall Harrell, Valentin Djonov, Crissy Fellabaum, Vladislav Volarevic
The standard sterilization method for most medical devices over the past 40 years involves gamma irradiation. During sterilization, gamma rays efficiently eliminate microorganisms from the medical devices and tissue allografts, but also significantly change molecular structure of irradiated products, particularly fragile biologics such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Accordingly, gamma radiation significantly alters biomechanical properties of bone, tendon, tracheal, skin, amnion tissue grafts and micronized amniotic membrane injectable products...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Kailash Prasad, Manish Mishra
Adverse effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the tissues are through nonreceptor- and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In the receptor-mediated mechanism, interaction of AGEs with its cell-bound receptor of AGE (RAGE) increases generation of oxygen radicals, activates nuclear factor-kappa B, and increases expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the cellular damage. The deleterious effects of AGE and AGE-RAGE interaction are coined as "AGE-RAGE stress." The body is equipped with defense mechanisms to counteract the adverse effects of AGE and RAGE through endogenous enzymatic (glyoxalase 1, glyoxalase 2) and AGE receptor-mediated (AGER1, AGER2) degradation of AGE, and through elevation of soluble receptor of AGE (sRAGE)...
March 2018: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Xiaolu Xu, Wilhelm J Walter, Qiong Liu, Isabel Machens, Peter Nick
Higher plants possess a large number of kinesins, but lack the minus-end directed dynein motors. However, the kinesin class XIV has strongly expanded, and minus-end directed motors from this class may have taken over functions of cytoplasmic dyneins. In this study, we address the functional aspects of a novel rice homologue of the Arabidopsis class-XIV kinesins ATK1 and ATK5. Since a loss-of-function rice mutant of this kinesin is not viable, the function was studied in tobacco BY-2 as heterologous system. OsDLK-GFP stably expressed in BY-2 cells decorates cortical microtubules, but also can shift into the nucleus of interphase cells...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emilio Bagan, John Calsamiglia, János A Bergou, Mark Hillery
We give operational meaning to wave-particle duality in terms of discrimination games. Duality arises as a constraint on the probability of winning these games. The games are played with the aid of an n-port interferometer, and involve 3 parties, Alice and Bob, who cooperate, and the House, who supervises the game. In one game called ways they attempt to determine the path of a particle in the interferometer. In another, called phases, they attempt to determine which set of known phases have been applied to the different paths...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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